"John Dulles" redirects here. For his grandfather, the American Presbyterian minister and author, see John Welsh Dulles
. For for his son, the American scholar of Brazilian history, see John W. F. Dulles
Born in Washington, D.C.
, Dulles joined the New York City
law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell
after graduating from George Washington University Law School
. His grandfather, John W. Foster
, and his uncle, Robert Lansing
, both served as United States Secretary of State
, while his brother, Allen Dulles
, served as the Director of Central Intelligence
from 1953 to 1961. John Foster Dulles served on the War Industries Board
during World War I
and he was a U.S. legal counsel at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference
. He became a member of the League of Free Nations Association
, which supported American membership in the League of Nations
. Dulles also helped design the Dawes Plan
, which sought to stabilize Europe by reducing German
Born in Washington, D.C., he was one of five children and the eldest son born to Presbyterian
minister Allen Macy Dulles and his wife, Edith (née Foster). His paternal grandfather, John Welsh Dulles
, had been a Presbyterian missionary in India. His maternal grandfather, John W. Foster
had been Secretary of State under Benjamin Harrison, doted on Dulles and his brother Allen
, who would later become the director of the Central Intelligence Agency
. The brothers attended public schools in Watertown, New York
and spent summers with their maternal grandfather in nearby Henderson Harbor
In 1917, Dulles's uncle, Robert Lansing
, the then-Secretary of State, recruited him to travel to Nicaragua
, Costa Rica
Dulles advised Washington to support Costa Rica
's dictator, Federico Tinoco
, on the grounds that he was anti-German, and also encouraged Nicaragua
's dictator, Emiliano Chamorro
, to issue a proclamation suspending diplomatic relations with Germany.
In Panama, Dulles offered waiver of the tax imposed by the United States on the annual Canal fee, in exchange for a Panamanian declaration of war on Germany.
Versailles Peace Conference
As a partner in Sullivan & Cromwell, Dulles expanded upon his late grandfather Foster's expertise, specializing in international finance. He played a major role in designing the Dawes Plan
, which reduced German reparations payments and temporarily resolved the reparations issue by having American firms lend money to German states and private companies. Under that compromise, the money was invested and the profits sent as reparations to Britain and France, which used the funds to repay their own war loans from the U.S. In the 1920s Dulles was involved in setting up a billion dollars' worth of these loans.
Caricature of John Foster Dulles on a 1938 visit to Shanghai
After the Wall Street Crash of 1929
, Dulles's previous practice brokering and documenting international loans ended. After 1931 Germany stopped making some of its scheduled payments. In 1934 Germany unilaterally stopped payments on private debts of the sort that Dulles was handling. In 1935, with the Nazis in power, Sullivan & Cromwell's junior partners forced Dulles to cut all business ties with Germany. Dulles was then prominent in the religious peace movement and an isolationist, but the junior partners were led by his brother Allen, so he reluctantly acceded to their wishes.
Dulles, a deeply religious man, attended numerous international conferences of churchmen during the 1920s and 1930s. In 1924, he was the defense counsel in the church trial of Reverend Harry Emerson Fosdick
, who had been charged with heresy by opponents in his denomination (the event which sparked the continuing Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy
in the international Christian Churches over the literal interpretation of Scripture versus the newly developed "Historical-Critical" method including recent scientific and archeological discoveries). The case was settled when Fosdick, a liberal Baptist, resigned his pulpit in the Presbyterian Church congregation, which he had never joined.
Advisor to Thomas Dewey
Dulles strongly opposed the American atomic attacks on Japan
. In the immediate aftermath of the bombings, he drafted a public statement that called for international control of nuclear energy under United Nations auspices. He wrote:
If we, as a professedly Christian nation, feel morally free to use atomic energy in that way, men elsewhere will accept that verdict. Atomic weapons will be looked upon as a normal part of the arsenal of war and the stage will be set for the sudden and final destruction of mankind.
Dulles never lost his anxiety about the destructive power of nuclear weapons, but his views on international control and on employing the threat of atomic attack changed in the face of the Berlin blockade, the Soviet detonation of an atomic bomb, and the advent of the Korean War. They convinced him that the communist bloc was pursuing expansionist policies.
In the late 1940s, as a general conceptual framework for contending with world communism, Dulles developed the policy known as rollback
to serve as the Republican Party's alternative to the Democrats' containment
model. It proposed taking the offensive to push communism back, rather than to contain it within its areas of control and influence.
U.S. Secretary of State
When Dwight Eisenhower
became president in January 1953, Dulles was appointed and confirmed as his Secretary of State
. His tenure as Secretary was marked by conflict with communist
governments worldwide, especially the Soviet Union
; Dulles strongly opposed communism, calling it "Godless terrorism."
Dulles's preferred strategy was containment
through military build-up and the formation of alliances (dubbed "pactomania
Dulles was a pioneer of the strategies of massive retaliation
. In an article written for Life
magazine, Dulles defined his policy of brinkmanship: "The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art."
Dulles's hard line alienated many leaders of nonaligned countries when on June 9, 1955, he argued in a speech that "neutrality has increasingly become obsolete and, except under very exceptional circumstances, it is an immoral and shortsighted conception."
Throughout the 1950s, Dulles was in frequent conflict with non-aligned statesmen who he deemed were too sympathetic to communism, including India's V.K. Krishna Menon
In the 1950s, Dulles worked to reduce French influence in Vietnam and asked the United States to attempt to co-operate with the French in the aid of strengthening Diem's army. Over time, Dulles concluded that he had to "ease France out of Vietnam."
In 1954, at the height of the Battle of Dien Bien Phu
, Dulles helped plan and promote Operation Vulture
, a proposed B-29
aerial assault on the communist Viet Minh
siege positions to relieve the beleagured French Army. President Eisenhower made American participation reliant on British support, but Foreign Secretary Sir Anthony Eden
was opposed it and so Vulture
was canceled over Dulles's objections.
With Dien Bien Phu's fall to the communists, Dulles fell out with Eden. At the 1954 Geneva Conference
, which concerned the breakup of French Indochina
, he forbade any contact with the Chinese delegation and refused to shake hands with Zhou Enlai
, the lead Chinese negotiator. He subsequently left to avoid direct association with the negotiations.
Asia and the Pacific
As Secretary of State, Dulles still carried out the "containment" policy of neutralizing the Taiwan Strait
during the Korean War
, which had been established by Truman in the Treaty of Peace with Japan
of 1951. Dulles also supervised the completion of the Japanese Peace Treaty in which full independence was restored to Japan under American terms.
In 1950, Dulles helped initiate the ANZUS
Treaty for mutual protection with Australia
and New Zealand
. In 1954, Dulles architected the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
, providing for collective action against aggression. The treaty was signed by representatives of Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines
, Thailand, and the United States.
In 1958, Dulles authorized the Secretary of the Air Force to state publicly that the United States was prepared to use nuclear weapons in a conflict with China over the islands of Quemoy and Matsu.
The same year, Dulles participated in the instigation of a military coup by the Guatemalan army
through the CIA by claiming that the democratically elected Guatemalan PresidentJacobo Árbenz
's government and the Guatemalan Revolution
were veering toward communism. Dulles had represented the United Fruit Company
as a lawyer, and his brother, CIA Director
Allen Dulles, was on the company's board of directors.
Thomas Dudley Cabot, former CEO of United Fruit, held positions of director of International Security Affairs in the State Department. John Moore Cabot, a brother of Thomas Dudley Cabot, was secretary of Inter-American Affairs during much of the coup planning in 1953 and 1954.
In November 1956, Dulles strongly opposed the Anglo-French invasion of the Suez Canal
zone in response to the Suez Crisis
. During the most crucial days, he was hospitalized after surgery and did not participate in Washington's decisionmaking. He had by 1958 had become an outspoken opponent of Egyptian PresidentGamal Abdel Nasser
and prevented him from receiving arms from the United States. That policy allowed the Soviet Union
to gain influence in Egypt by forcing Nasser to turn to the Soviets for weapons.
Dulles developed colon cancer
, for which he was first operated on in November 1956 when it had caused a bowel perforation
He experienced abdominal pain at the end of 1958 and was hospitalized with a diagnosis of diverticulitis
. In January 1959, Dulles returned to work, but with more pain and declining health underwent abdominal surgery in February at Walter Reed Army Medical Center
when the cancer's recurrence became evident. After recuperating in Florida, Dulles returned to Washington for work and radiation therapy. With further declining health and evidence of bone metastasis
, he resigned from office on April 15, 1959.
The Washington Dulles International Airport
in Dulles, Virginia
and John Foster Dulles High
, Middle, and Elementary Schools in Sugar Land, Texas
(including the street (Dulles Avenue) where the school campuses are located), were named in his honor, as is John Foster Dulles Elementary School in Cincinnati, Ohio
, and a school in Chicago, Illinois
New York named the Dulles State Office Building in Watertown, New York
in his honor. In 1960 the U.S. Post Office Department issued a commemorative stamp
honoring Dulles. At Princeton University, Dulles's alma mater, a section of Firestone Library
is dedicated to Dulles, named the John Foster Dulles Library of Diplomatic History, which houses, among many American diplomatic documents and books, the personal documents of John Foster Dulles. The library was built in 1962.
This quote is sometimes misattributed to Dulles: "The United States of America does not have friends; it has interests." The words were spoken by President Charles de Gaulle
, and the misquotation may be attributed to Dulles's visit to Mexico in 1958, where anti-American protesters carried signs bearing de Gaulle's quote.
Entertainer Carol Burnett
rose to prominence in the 1950s singing a novelty song, "I Made a Fool of Myself Over John Foster Dulles".
When asked about the song on Meet the Press
, Dulles responded with good humor: "I never discuss matters of the heart in public."
- ^ Ferrell, Robert H. (1963). The American Secretaries of State and Their Diplomacy: John Foster Dulles Cooper Square Publishers, New York, NY, p. 4
- ^ Goold-Adams, Richard (1962). The Time of Power: A Reappraisal of John Foster Dulles Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, p. 24
- ^ "Freshman Debate". Daily Princetonian. May 19, 1905. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- ^ "About the Cottage Club". University Cottage Club. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
- ^ "DULLES, JOHN FOSTER: Papers, 1950-1961" (PDF). DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER LIBRARY. Retrieved February 28, 2021.
- ^ Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy, The Life of Allen Dulles (1994), pp. 91–93, 119–22
- ^ Ronald W. Pruessen, John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power (1982), pp. 115, 123
- ^ Isaac Alteras, Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.-Israeli Relations, 1953–1960 (University Press of Florida, 1993), ISBN 0-8130-1205-8, pp. 53–55
- ^ John Lewis Gaddis (1999). Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy Since 1945. Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780198294689.
- ^ Neal Rosendorf, "John Foster Dulles' Nuclear Schizophrenia," in John Lewis Gaddis et al., Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy since 1945 (Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 64–69
- ^ Detlef Junker, Philipp Gassert, and Wilfried Mausbach, eds., The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945–1968: A Handbook, Vol. 1: 1945–1968 (Cambridge University Press, 2004)[page needed]
- ^ Gary B. Nash, et al., The American People, Concise Edition Creating a Nation and a Society, Combined Volume (6th Edition). New York: Longman, 2007, p. 829
- ^ Stephen E. Ambrose (2010). Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy Since 1938, Ninth Revised Edition. Penguin. p. 109. ISBN 9781101501290.
- ^ Ian Shapiro (2009). Containment: Rebuilding a Strategy against Global Terror. Princeton University Press. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-1400827565.
- ^ The C.I.A. in Iran
- ^ Immerman, Richard H. (1999). John Foster Dulles: Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources. p. 98. ISBN 9780842026017.
- ^ Kowert, Paul (2002), Groupthink or deadlock: when do leaders learn from their advisors? (illustrated ed.), SUNY Press, pp. 67–68, ISBN 978-0-7914-5249-3
- ^ Tucker, Spencer (1999), Vietnam (illustrated ed.), Routledge, p. 76, ISBN 978-1-85728-922-0
- ^ Logevall, Fredrik (2012). Embers of War: The Fall of an Empire and the Making of America's Vietnam. random House. pp. 555–58. ISBN 978-0-679-64519-1.
- ^ Immerman, Richard H. John Foster Dulles Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy (Biographies in American Foreign Policy). New York: SR Books, 1998. p, 37
- ^ Rhodes, Richard (1995). Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (First ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 569–70. ISBN 0-684-80400-X.
- ^ Cohen, Rich (2012). The Fish that Ate the Whale. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. p. 186.
- ^ Dube, Arindrajit, Kaplan, Ethan, and Suresh Naidu (2011), Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126 (3) pp. 1375–1409, Coups, Corporations, and Classified Information
- ^ Cole Christian Kingseed (1995). Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis of 1956. LSU Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780807140857.
- ^ Pomeroy, Bill. "Honorable Theodore Medad POMEROY". rootsmagic.com. American Pomeroy Historic Genealogical Association. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
- ^ "90-year-old Still Active at University"Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Texan
- ^ a b Lerner BH (November 20, 2006). When Illness Goes Public: Celebrity Patients and How We Look at Medicine. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006. p. 81ff. ISBN 978-0-8018-8462-7.
- ^ UPI< Year in Review, http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1959/Death-of-John-Foster-Dulles/12295509433704-3/
- ^ "Burial Detail: Dulles, John F. (Section 21, Grave S-31)". ANC Explorer. Arlington National Cemetery. (Official website).
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
- ^ "Dulles Library of Diplomatic History". etcweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- ^ "Dulles in Rio". New York Times. August 10, 1958.
- ^ TIME.com: Man of the Year, Jan. 3, 1955, p. 1
- ^ Adir, Karin (1988). The Great Clowns of American Television. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 51–2. ISBN 9780786413034.
- ^ Boyle, Katherine."Carol Burnett awarded the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor at the Kennedy Center" Washington Post, October 21, 2013
- "John Foster Dulles." Dictionary of American Biography (1980) online
- Hoopes, Townsend. "God and John Foster Dulles." Foreign Policy 13 (1973): 154–77. JSTOR 1147773
- Hoopes Townsend, Devil and John Foster Dulles (1973) ISBN 0-316-37235-8. a scholarly biography
- Immerman, Richard H. John Foster Dulles: Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy (1998) ISBN 0-8420-2601-0
- Kinzer, Stephen. The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War (2013), Times Books, ISBN 0-805-09497-0
- Marks, Frederick. Power and Peace: The Diplomacy of John Foster Dulles (1995) ISBN 0-275-95232-0
- Pruessen, Ronald W. John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power (1982), The Free Press ISBN 0-02-925460-4
- Stang, Alan. The actor; the true story of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State, 1953–1959 Western Islands (1968) OCLC 434600
- Wilsey, John D. God's Cold Warrior: The Life and Faith of John Foster Dulles (2021) ISBN 978-0-8028-7572-3
Last edited on 15 April 2021, at 05:58
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