In 1982, McCain was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served two terms. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1986, succeeding Arizona native, conservative icon, and the 1964 Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater
upon Goldwater's retirement as senator from Arizona for 30 years, and McCain easily won reelection five times. While generally adhering to conservative
principles, McCain also had a reputation as a "maverick" for his willingness to break from his party on certain issues. His stances on LGBT rights
, gun regulations
, and campaign finance reform
were more moderate than those of the party's base. McCain was investigated and largely exonerated in a political influence scandal of the 1980s as one of the Keating Five
; he then made regulating the financing of political campaigns
one of his signature concerns, which eventually resulted in passage of the McCain–Feingold Act
in 2002. He was also known for his work in the 1990s to restore diplomatic relations
. McCain chaired the Senate Commerce Committee
from 1997 to 2001 and 2003 to 2005, where he opposed pork barrel
spending and earmarks
. He belonged to the bipartisan "Gang of 14
", which played a key role in alleviating a crisis over judicial nominations.
Early life and military career (1936–1981)
Early life and education
Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy
, where he was a friend and informal leader for many of his classmates
and sometimes stood up for targets of bullying
He also fought as a lightweight boxer
McCain did well in academic subjects that interested him, such as literature and history, but studied only enough to pass subjects that gave him difficulty, such as mathematics.
He came into conflict with higher-ranking personnel and did not always obey the rules, which contributed to a low class rank
(894 of 899), despite a high IQ
McCain graduated in 1958.
Naval training, first marriage, and Vietnam War assignment
Lieutenant McCain (front right) with his squadron and T-2 Buckeye
On July 3, 1965, McCain was 28 when he married Carol Shepp
, who had worked as a runway model and secretary.
McCain adopted her two young children, Douglas and Andrew.
He and Carol then had a daughter whom they named Sidney.
McCain requested a combat assignment,
and was assigned to the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal
flying A-4 Skyhawks
. His combat duty
began when he was 30 years old in mid-1967, when Forrestal
was assigned to a bombing campaign, Operation Rolling Thunder
, during the Vietnam War
Stationed in the Gulf of Tonkin
, McCain and his fellow pilots became frustrated by micromanagement from Washington, and he later wrote, "In all candor, we thought our civilian commanders were complete idiots who didn't have the least notion of what it took to win the war."
Prisoner of war
McCain was taken prisoner of war
on October 26, 1967. He was flying his 23rd bombing mission over North Vietnam
when his A-4E Skyhawk
was shot down by a missile over Hanoi
McCain fractured both arms and a leg when he ejected from the aircraft,
and nearly drowned after he parachuted into Trúc Bạch Lake
. Some North Vietnamese pulled him ashore, then others crushed his shoulder with a rifle butt and bayoneted him.
McCain was then transported to Hanoi's main Hỏa Lò Prison
, nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton".
Although McCain was seriously wounded and injured, his captors refused to treat him. They beat and interrogated
him to get information, and he was given medical care only when the North Vietnamese discovered that his father was an admiral.
His status as a prisoner of war
(POW) made the front pages of major American newspapers.
McCain spent six weeks in the hospital, where he received marginal care. He had lost 50 pounds (23 kg), he was in a chest cast, and his gray hair had turned white.
McCain was sent to a different camp on the outskirts of Hanoi.
In December 1967, McCain was placed in a cell with two other Americans, who did not expect him to live more than a week.
In March 1968, McCain was placed into solitary confinement
, where he remained for two years.
In mid-1968, his father John S. McCain Jr. was named commander of all U.S. forces in the Vietnam theater, and the North Vietnamese offered McCain early release
because they wanted to appear merciful for propaganda purposes,
and also to show other POWs that elite prisoners were willing to be treated preferentially.
McCain refused repatriation unless every man taken in before him was also released. Such early release was prohibited by the POWs' interpretation of the military Code of Conduct
, which states in Article III: “I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.”
To prevent the enemy from using prisoners for propaganda, officers were to agree to be released in the order in which they were captured.
Beginning in August 1968, McCain was subjected to a program of severe torture.
He was bound and beaten every two hours; this punishment occurred at the same time that he was suffering from heat exhaustion and dysentery
Further injuries brought McCain to “the point of suicide,” but his preparations were interrupted by guards. Eventually, McCain made an anti-U.S. propaganda "confession."
He had always felt that his statement was dishonorable, but as he later wrote, "I had learned what we all learned over there: every man has his breaking point. I had reached mine."
Many U.S. POWs were tortured and maltreated in order to extract "confessions" and propaganda statements;
virtually all of them eventually yielded something to their captors.
McCain received two to three beatings weekly because of his continued refusal to sign additional statements.
McCain refused to meet various anti-war groups seeking peace in Hanoi, wanting to give neither them nor the North Vietnamese a propaganda victory.
From late 1969, treatment of McCain and many of the other POWs became more tolerable,
while McCain continued to resist the camp authorities.
McCain and other prisoners cheered the U.S. "Christmas Bombing" campaign
of December 1972, viewing it as a forceful measure to push North Vietnam to terms.
McCain was a prisoner of war in North Vietnam for five and a half years, until his release on March 14, 1973, along with 108 other prisoners of war.
His wartime injuries left him permanently incapable of raising his arms above his head.
After the war, McCain, accompanied by his family and his second wife Cindy
, returned to the site on a few occasions in efforts of trying to come to terms with what had happened to him there during his capture.
Commanding officer, liaison to Senate, and second marriage
McCain was reunited with his family when he returned
to the United States. His wife Carol
had been severely injured by an automobile accident in December 1969. She was then four inches shorter, in a wheelchair or on crutches, and substantially heavier than when he had last seen her. As a returned POW, he became a celebrity of sorts.
Lieutenant Commander McCain being interviewed after his return from Vietnam, April 1973
Lieutenant Commander McCain greeting President Nixon, May 1973
McCain underwent treatment for his injuries that included months of physical therapy
He attended the National War College
at Fort McNair
in Washington, D.C. during 1973–1974.
He was rehabilitated by late 1974, and his flight status was reinstated. In 1976, he became Commanding Officer
of a training squadron that was stationed in Florida.
He improved the unit's flight readiness and safety records,
and won the squadron its first-ever Meritorious Unit Commendation
During this period in Florida, he had extramarital affairs, and his marriage began to falter, about which he later stated: "The blame was entirely mine".
In April 1979,
McCain met Cindy Lou Hensley
, a teacher from Phoenix, Arizona
, whose father
had founded a large beer distributorship
They began dating, and he urged his wife, Carol, to grant him a divorce, which she did in February 1980; the uncontested divorce took effect in April 1980.
The settlement included two houses, and financial support for her ongoing medical treatments due to her 1969 car accident; they remained on good terms.
McCain and Hensley were married on May 17, 1980, with Senators William Cohen
and Gary Hart
attending as groomsmen
McCain's children did not attend, and several years passed before they reconciled.
John and Cindy McCain entered into a prenuptial agreement
that kept most of her family's assets under her name; they kept their finances apart, and filed separate income tax returns
The residence of John and Cindy McCain in Phoenix, Arizona.
McCain decided to leave the Navy. It was doubtful whether he would ever be promoted to the rank of full admiral
, as he had poor annual physicals and had not been given a major sea command.
His chances of being promoted to rear admiral
were better, but he declined that prospect, as he had already made plans to run for Congress and said he could "do more good there."
House and Senate elections and career (1982–2000)
McCain set his sights on becoming a representative
because he was interested in current events, was ready for a new challenge, and had developed political ambitions during his time as Senate liaison.
Living in Phoenix
, he went to work for Hensley & Co.
, his new father-in-law Jim Hensley
's large Anheuser-Busch
As vice president of public relations at the distributorship, he gained political support among the local business community, meeting powerful figures such as banker Charles Keating Jr.
, real estate developer Fife Symington III
(later Governor of Arizona) and newspaper publisher Darrow "Duke" Tully
In 1982, McCain ran as a Republican for an open seat in Arizona's 1st congressional district
, which was being vacated by 30-year incumbent Republican John Jacob Rhodes
A newcomer to the state, McCain was hit with charges of being a carpetbagger
McCain responded to a voter making that charge with what a Phoenix Gazette
columnist later described as "the most devastating response to a potentially troublesome political issue I've ever heard":
Listen, pal. I spent 22 years in the Navy. My father was in the Navy. My grandfather was in the Navy. We in the military service tend to move a lot. We have to live in all parts of the country, all parts of the world. I wish I could have had the luxury, like you, of growing up and living and spending my entire life in a nice place like the First District of Arizona, but I was doing other things. As a matter of fact, when I think about it now, the place I lived longest in my life was Hanoi.
McCain won a highly contested primary election with the assistance of local political endorsements, his Washington
connections, and money that his wife lent to his campaign.
He then easily won the general election in the heavily Republican district.
In 1983, McCain was elected to lead the incoming group of Republican representatives,
and was assigned to the House Committee on Interior Affairs
. Also that year, he opposed creation of a federal Martin Luther King Jr. Day
, but admitted in 2008: "I was wrong and eventually realized that, in time to give full support [in 1990] for a state holiday in Arizona."
At this point, McCain's politics were mainly in line with those of President Ronald Reagan
; this included support for Reaganomics
, and he was active on Indian Affairs bills.
He supported most aspects of the foreign policy of the Reagan administration
, including its hardline stance against the Soviet Union
and policy towards Central American conflicts
, such as backing the Contras
McCain opposed keeping U.S. Marines deployed in Lebanon
, citing unattainable objectives, and subsequently criticized President Reagan for pulling out the troops too late; in the interim, the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing
McCain won re-election to the House easily in 1984,
and gained a spot on the House Foreign Affairs Committee
In 1985, he made his first return trip to Vietnam,
and also traveled to Chile
where he met with its military junta
ruler, General Augusto Pinochet
In 1984, McCain and Cindy had their first child, daughter Meghan
, followed two years later by son John IV and in 1988 by son James.
In 1991, Cindy brought an abandoned three-month-old girl needing medical treatment to the U.S. from a Bangladeshi
orphanage run by Mother Teresa
The McCains decided to adopt her and she was named Bridget.
First two terms in the U.S. Senate
McCain became embroiled in a scandal
during the 1980s, as one of five United States senators comprising the so-called Keating Five
Between 1982 and 1987, McCain had received $112,000 in lawful
political contributions from Charles Keating Jr.
and his associates at Lincoln Savings and Loan Association
, along with trips on Keating's jets
that McCain belatedly repaid, in 1989.
In 1987, McCain was one of the five senators whom Keating contacted in order to prevent the government's seizure of Lincoln, and McCain met twice with federal regulators to discuss the government's investigation of Lincoln.
In 1999, McCain said: "The appearance of it was wrong. It's a wrong appearance when a group of senators appear in a meeting with a group of regulators, because it conveys the impression of undue and improper influence. And it was the wrong thing to do."
In the end, McCain was cleared by the Senate Ethics Committee
of acting improperly or violating any law or Senate rule, but was mildly rebuked for exercising "poor judgment".
In his 1992 re-election bid, the Keating Five affair was not a major issue,
and he won handily, gaining 56 percent of the vote to defeat Democratic community and civil rights
activist Claire Sargent and independent former governor, Evan Mecham
McCain developed a reputation for independence
during the 1990s.
He took pride in challenging party leadership and establishment forces, becoming difficult to categorize politically.
As a member of the 1991–1993 Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs
, chaired by fellow Vietnam War veteran and Democrat, John Kerry
, McCain investigated the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue
, to determine the fate of U.S. service personnel listed as missing in action
during the Vietnam War.
The committee's unanimous report stated there was "no compelling evidence that proves that any American remains alive in captivity in Southeast Asia."
Helped by McCain's efforts, in 1995 the U.S. normalized diplomatic relations with Vietnam.
McCain was vilified by some POW/MIA activists who, despite the committee's unanimous report, believed large numbers of Americans were still held against their will in Southeast Asia.
From January 1993 until his death, McCain was Chairman of the International Republican Institute
, an organization partly funded by the U.S. government that supports the emergence of political democracy worldwide.
Campaign Finance Reform
McCain attacked what he saw as the corrupting influence of large political contributions—from corporations, labor unions, other organizations, and wealthy individuals—and he made this his signature issue.
Starting in 1994, he worked with Democratic Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold
on campaign finance reform
; their McCain–Feingold bill attempted to put limits on "soft money
The efforts of McCain and Feingold were opposed by some of the moneyed interests targeted, by incumbents in both parties, by those who felt spending limits impinged on free political speech and might be unconstitutional as well, and by those who wanted to counterbalance the power of what they saw as media bias
Despite sympathetic coverage in the media, initial versions of the McCain–Feingold Act
and never came to a vote.
In 1997, McCain became chairman of the powerful Senate Commerce Committee; he was criticized for accepting funds from corporations and businesses under the committee's purview, but in response said the small contributions he received were not part of the big-money nature of the campaign finance problem.
McCain took on the tobacco industry
in 1998, proposing legislation that would increase cigarette taxes in order to fund anti-smoking campaigns, discourage teenage smokers, increase money for health research studies, and help states pay for smoking-related health care costs.
Supported by the Clinton administration
but opposed by the industry and most Republicans, the bill failed to gain cloture
Start of third term in the U.S. Senate
In August 1999, McCain's memoir Faith of My Fathers
, co-authored with Mark Salter
, was published;
a reviewer observed that its appearance "seems to have been timed to the unfolding Presidential campaign."
The most successful of his writings, it received positive reviews,
became a bestseller,
and was later made into a TV film
The book traces McCain's family background and childhood, covers his time at Annapolis and his service before and during the Vietnam War, concluding with his release from captivity in 1973. According to one reviewer, it describes "the kind of challenges that most of us can barely imagine. It's a fascinating history of a remarkable military family."
2000 presidential campaign
McCain announced his candidacy for president on September 27, 1999, in Nashua, New Hampshire
, saying he was staging "a fight to take our government back from the power brokers and special interests, and return it to the people and the noble cause of freedom it was created to serve".
The frontrunner for the Republican nomination was Texas Governor George W. Bush
, who had the political and financial support of most of the party establishment, whereas McCain was supported by many moderate Republicans and some conservative Republicans.
McCain focused on the New Hampshire primary
, where his message appealed to independents.
He traveled on a campaign bus
called the Straight Talk Express.
He held many town hall meetings
, answering every question voters asked, in a successful example of "retail politics", and he used free media to compensate for his lack of funds.
One reporter later recounted that, "McCain talked all day long with reporters on his Straight Talk Express bus; he talked so much that sometimes he said things that he shouldn't have, and that's why the media loved him."
On February 1, 2000, he won New Hampshire's primary with 49 percent of the vote to Bush's 30 percent. The Bush campaign and the Republican establishment feared that a McCain victory in the crucial South Carolina primary
might give his campaign unstoppable momentum.
The Arizona Republic
wrote that the McCain–Bush primary contest in South Carolina "has entered national political lore as a low-water mark in presidential campaigns", while The New York Times
called it "a painful symbol of the brutality of American politics".
A variety of interest groups, which McCain had challenged in the past, ran negative ads.
Bush borrowed McCain's earlier language of reform,
and declined to dissociate himself from a veterans activist who accused McCain (in Bush's presence) of having "abandoned the veterans" on POW/MIA and Agent Orange
McCain ran ads accusing Bush of lying and comparing the governor to Bill Clinton
, which Bush said was "about as low a blow as you can give in a Republican primary".
An anonymous smear campaign began against McCain, delivered by push polls
, faxes, e-mails, flyers, and audience plants
The smears claimed that McCain had fathered a black child out of wedlock (the McCains' dark-skinned daughter was adopted from Bangladesh), that his wife Cindy was a drug addict, that he was a homosexual, and that he was a "Manchurian Candidate
" who was either a traitor or mentally unstable from his North Vietnam POW days.
The Bush campaign strongly denied any involvement with the attacks.
McCain lost South Carolina on February 19, with 42 percent of the vote to Bush's 53 percent,
in part because Bush mobilized the state's evangelical voters
and outspent McCain.
The win allowed Bush to regain lost momentum.
McCain said of the rumor spreaders, "I believe that there is a special place in hell for people like those."
According to one acquaintance, the South Carolina experience left him in a "very dark place".
McCain's campaign never completely recovered from his South Carolina defeat, although he did rebound partially by winning in Arizona
a few days later.
He made a speech in Virginia Beach
that criticized Christian leaders, including Pat Robertson
and Jerry Falwell
, as divisive conservatives,
declaring "... we embrace the fine members of the religious conservative community. But that does not mean that we will pander to their self-appointed leaders."
McCain lost the Virginia
primary on February 29,
and on March 7 lost nine of the thirteen primaries on Super Tuesday
With little hope of overcoming Bush's delegate lead, McCain withdrew from the race on March 9, 2000.
He endorsed Bush two months later,
and made occasional appearances with the Texas governor during the general election campaign.
Senate career (2000–2008)
Remainder of third Senate term
McCain began 2001 by breaking with the new George W. Bush administration
on a number of matters, including HMO
reform, climate change, and gun control legislation; McCain–Feingold
was opposed by Bush as well.
In May 2001, McCain was one of only two Senate Republicans to vote against the Bush tax cuts
Besides the differences with Bush on ideological grounds, there was considerable antagonism between the two remaining from the previous year's campaign.
Later, when a Republican senator, Jim Jeffords
, became an Independent, thereby throwing control of the Senate to the Democrats, McCain defended Jeffords against "self-appointed enforcers of party loyalty".
Indeed, there was speculation at the time, and in years since, about McCain himself leaving the Republican Party, but McCain had always adamantly denied that he ever considered doing so.
Beginning in 2001, McCain used political capital
gained from his presidential run, as well as improved legislative skills and relationships with other members, to become one of the Senate's most influential members.
In March 2002, McCain–Feingold, officially known as the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
of 2002, passed in both Houses of Congress and was signed into law by President Bush.
Seven years in the making, it was McCain's greatest legislative achievement.
McCain's Senate website from 2003 to 2006 illustrated his concern about pork barrel
Meanwhile, in discussions over proposed U.S. action against Iraq
, McCain was a strong supporter of the Bush administration's position.
He stated that Iraq was "a clear and present danger to the United States of America", and voted accordingly for the Iraq War Resolution
in October 2002.
He predicted that U.S. forces would be treated as liberators by a large number of the Iraqi people.
In May 2003, McCain voted against the second round of Bush tax cuts, saying it was unwise at a time of war.
By November 2003, after a trip to Iraq, he was publicly questioning Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld
, saying that more U.S. troops were needed; the following year, McCain announced that he had lost confidence in Rumsfeld.
In October 2003, McCain and Lieberman co-sponsored the Climate Stewardship Act
that would have introduced a cap and trade
system aimed at returning greenhouse gas
emissions to 2000 levels; the bill was defeated with 55 votes to 43 in the Senate.
They reintroduced modified versions of the Act two additional times, for the final time in January 2007 with the co-sponsorship of Barack Obama
, among others.
In the 2004 U.S. presidential election campaign
, McCain was once again frequently mentioned for the vice-presidential slot, only this time as part of the Democratic ticket under nominee John Kerry
McCain said that Kerry had never formally offered him the position and that he would not have accepted it if he had.
At the 2004 Republican National Convention
, McCain supported Bush for re-election, praising Bush's management of the War on Terror
since the September 11 attacks
At the same time, he defended Kerry's Vietnam War record. By August 2004, McCain had the best favorable-to-unfavorable rating (55 percent to 19 percent) of any national politician;
he campaigned for Bush much more than he had four years previously, though the two remained situational allies rather than friends.
McCain was also up for re-election as senator, in 2004. He defeated little-known Democratic schoolteacher Stuart Starky with his biggest margin of victory, garnering 77 percent of the vote.
Start of fourth Senate term
In May 2005, McCain led the so-called Gang of 14
in the Senate, which established a compromise that preserved the ability of senators to filibuster
judicial nominees, but only in "extraordinary circumstances".
The compromise took the steam out of the filibuster movement, but some Republicans remained disappointed that the compromise did not eliminate filibusters of judicial nominees in all circumstances.
McCain subsequently cast Supreme Court
confirmation votes in favor of John Roberts
and Samuel Alito
, calling them "two of the finest justices ever appointed to the United States Supreme Court."
McCain speaks on the Senate floor against earmarking
, February 2007.
Breaking from his 2001 and 2003 votes, McCain supported the Bush tax cut extension
in May 2006, saying not to do so would amount to a tax increase.
Working with Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy
, McCain was a strong proponent of comprehensive immigration reform, which would involve legalization, guest worker programs, and border enforcement components. The Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act
was never voted on in 2005, while the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006
passed the Senate in May 2006 but failed in the House.
In June 2007, President Bush, McCain, and others made the strongest push yet for such a bill, the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007
, but it aroused intense grassroots opposition among talk radio listeners and others, some of whom furiously characterized the proposal as an "amnesty" program,
and the bill twice failed to gain cloture in the Senate.
Owing to his time as a POW, McCain was recognized for his sensitivity to the detention and interrogation of detainees in the War on Terror
. An opponent of the Bush administration's use of torture and detention without trial at Guantánamo Bay
, saying: "some of these guys are terrible, terrible killers and the worst kind of scum of humanity. But, one, they deserve to have some adjudication of their cases ... even Adolf Eichmann
got a trial".
In October 2005, McCain introduced the McCain Detainee Amendment
to the Defense Appropriations bill for 2005, and the Senate voted 90–9 to support the amendment.
It prohibits inhumane treatment of prisoners, including prisoners at Guantánamo, by confining military interrogations to the techniques in the U.S. Army Field Manual on Interrogation
. Although Bush had threatened to veto the bill if McCain's amendment was included,
the President announced in December 2005 that he accepted McCain's terms and would "make it clear to the world that this government does not torture and that we adhere to the international convention of torture, whether it be here at home or abroad".
This stance, among others, led to McCain being named by Time
magazine in 2006 as one of America's 10 Best Senators.
McCain voted in February 2008 against a bill containing a ban on waterboarding
which provision was later narrowly passed and vetoed by Bush. However, the bill in question contained other provisions to which McCain objected, and his spokesman stated: "This wasn't a vote on waterboarding. This was a vote on applying the standards of the [Army] field manual to CIA personnel."
Meanwhile, McCain continued questioning the progress of the war in Iraq. In September 2005, he remarked upon Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Richard Myers
' optimistic outlook on the war's progress: "Things have not gone as well as we had planned or expected, nor as we were told by you, General Myers."
In August 2006, he criticized the administration for continually understating the effectiveness of the insurgency: "We [have] not told the American people how tough and difficult this could be."
From the beginning, McCain strongly supported the Iraq troop surge of 2007
The strategy's opponents labeled it "McCain's plan"
and University of Virginia
political science professor Larry Sabato
said, "McCain owns Iraq just as much as Bush does now."
The surge and the war were unpopular during most of the year, even within the Republican Party,
as McCain's presidential campaign was underway; faced with the consequences, McCain frequently responded, "I would much rather lose a campaign than a war."
In March 2008, McCain credited the surge strategy with reducing violence in Iraq, as he made his eighth trip to that country since the war began.
2008 presidential campaign
McCain formally announced his intention to run for President of the United States on April 25, 2007, in Portsmouth, New Hampshire
He stated that: "I'm not running for president to be somebody, but to do something; to do the hard but necessary things, not the easy and needless things."
McCain's oft-cited strengths as a presidential candidate for 2008 included national name recognition, sponsorship of major lobbying and campaign finance reform initiatives, his ability to reach across the aisle, his well-known military service and experience as a POW, his experience from the 2000 presidential campaign, and an expectation that he would capture Bush's top fundraisers.
During the 2006 election cycle, McCain had attended 346 events
and helped raise more than $10.5 million on behalf of Republican candidates. McCain also became more willing to ask business and industry for campaign contributions, while maintaining that such contributions would not affect any official decisions he would make.
Despite being considered the front-runner for the nomination by pundits as 2007 began,
McCain was in second place behind former Mayor of New York City Rudy Giuliani
in national Republican polls
as the year progressed.
The Arizona senator subsequently resumed his familiar position as a political underdog
riding the Straight Talk Express and taking advantage of free media such as debates and sponsored events.
By December 2007, the Republican race was unsettled, with none of the top-tier candidates dominating the race and all of them possessing major vulnerabilities with different elements of the Republican base electorate.
McCain was showing a resurgence, in particular with renewed strength in New Hampshire—the scene of his 2000 triumph—and was bolstered further by the endorsements of The Boston Globe
, the New Hampshire Union Leader
, and almost two dozen other state newspapers,
as well as from Senator Lieberman (now an Independent Democrat
McCain decided not to campaign significantly in the January 3, 2008, Iowa caucuses
, which saw a win by former Governor of Arkansas Mike Huckabee
On February 5, McCain won both the majority of states and delegates
in the Super TuesdayRepublican primaries
, giving him a commanding lead toward the Republican nomination. Romney departed from the race on February 7.
McCain's wins in the March 4 primaries clinched a majority of the delegates, and he became the presumptive Republican nominee.
McCain was born in the Panama Canal Zone. Had he been elected, he would have become the first president who was born outside the contiguous forty-eight states. This raised a potential legal issue, since the United States Constitution
requires the president to be a natural-born citizen
of the United States. A bipartisan legal review,
and a unanimous but non-binding Senate resolution,
both concluded that he was a natural-born citizen. If inaugurated in 2009 at the age of 72 years and 144 days, he would have been the oldest person to become president
McCain addressed concerns about his age and past health issues, stating in 2005 that his health was "excellent".
He had been treated for melanoma
and an operation in 2000 for that condition left a noticeable mark on the left side of his face.
McCain's prognosis appeared favorable, according to independent experts, especially because he had already survived without a recurrence for more than seven years.
In May 2008, McCain's campaign briefly let the press review his medical records, and he was described as appearing cancer-free, having a strong heart, and in general being in good health.
Throughout the summer of 2008, Obama typically led McCain in national polls by single-digit margins,
and also led in several key swing states.
McCain reprised his familiar underdog role, which was due at least in part to the overall challenges Republicans faced in the election year.
McCain accepted public financing
for the general election campaign, and the restrictions that go with it, while criticizing his Democratic opponent for becoming the first major party candidate to opt out of such financing for the general election since the system was implemented in 1976.
The Republican's broad campaign theme focused on his experience and ability to lead, compared to Obama's.
On August 29, 2008, McCain revealed Alaska Governor Sarah Palin
as his surprise choice for a running mate.
McCain was only the second U.S. major-party presidential nominee (after Walter Mondale
, who chose Geraldine Ferraro
) to select a woman as his running mate and the first Republican to do so. On September 3, 2008, McCain and Palin became the Republican Party's presidential and vice presidential nominees at the 2008 Republican National Convention
in Saint Paul, Minnesota
. McCain surged ahead of Obama in national polls following the convention, as the Palin pick energized core Republican voters who had previously been wary of him.
However, by the campaign's own later admission, the rollout of Palin to the national media went poorly,
and voter reactions to Palin grew increasingly negative, especially among independents and other voters concerned about her qualifications.
McCain's decision to choose Sarah Palin as his running mate was criticized; New York Times
journalist David Brooks
said that "he took a disease that was running through the Republican party – anti-intellectualism, disrespect for facts – and he put it right at the centre of the party".
Laura McGann in Vox
says that McCain gave the "reality TV politics" and Tea Party movement
more political legitimacy, as well as solidifying "the Republican Party's comfort with a candidate who would say absurdities ... unleashing a political style and a values system that animated the Tea Party movement and laid the groundwork for a Trump presidency."
Although McCain later expressed regret for not choosing the independent Senator Joe Lieberman
(who had previously been Al Gore
's running mate in 2000, while still elected as a Democrat) as his VP candidate instead, he consistently defended Palin's performances at his events.
On September 24, McCain said he was temporarily suspending his campaign activities, called on Obama to join him, and proposed delaying the first of the general election debates with Obama
, in order to work on the proposed U.S. financial system bailout
before Congress, which was targeted at addressing the subprime mortgage crisis
and the financial crisis of 2007–2008
McCain's intervention helped to give dissatisfied House Republicans an opportunity to propose changes to the plan that was otherwise close to agreement.
After Obama declined McCain's suspension suggestion, McCain went ahead with the debate on September 26.
On October 1, McCain voted in favor of a revised $700 billion rescue plan.
Another debate was held on October 7; like the first one, polls afterward suggested that Obama had won it.
A final presidential debate occurred on October 15.
Down the stretch, McCain was outspent by Obama by a four-to-one margin.
During and after the final debate, McCain compared Obama's proposed policies to socialism and often invoked "Joe the Plumber
" as a symbol of American small business dreams that would be thwarted by an Obama presidency.
He barred using the Jeremiah Wright controversy
in ads against Obama,
but the campaign did frequently criticize Obama regarding his purported relationship with Bill Ayers
His rallies became increasingly vitriolic,
with attendees denigrating Obama and displaying a growing anti-Muslim and anti-African-American sentiment.
During a campaign rally in Minnesota, Gayle Quinnell, a McCain supporter, told him she did not trust Obama because "he's an Arab".
McCain replied, "No ma'am. He's a decent family man, citizen, that I just happen to have disagreements with on fundamental issues."
McCain's response was considered one of the finer moments of the campaign and was still being viewed several years later as a marker for civility in American politics, particularly in light of the anti-Muslim and anti-immigrant animus of the Donald Trump presidency.
Meghan McCain said that she cannot "go a day without someone bringing up (that) moment," and noted that at the time "there were a lot of people really trying to get my dad to go (against Obama) with ... you're a Muslim, you're not an American aspect of that," but that her father had refused. "I can remember thinking that it was a morally amazing and beautiful moment, but that maybe there would be people in the Republican Party that would be quite angry," she said.
Results of the presidential election
The election took place on November 4, and Barack Obama was declared the projected winner at about 11:00 pm Eastern Standard Time; McCain delivered his concession speech in Phoenix, Arizona about twenty minutes later.
In it, he noted the historic and special significance of Obama being elected the nation's first African American president.
In the end, McCain won 173 electoral votes
to Obama's 365;
McCain failed to win most of the battleground states
and lost some traditionally Republican ones.
McCain gained 46 percent of the nationwide popular vote, compared to Obama's 53 percent.
Senate career after 2008
Remainder of fourth Senate term
Following his defeat, McCain returned to the Senate
amid varying views about what role he might play there.
In mid-November 2008 he met with President-elect Obama, and the two discussed issues they had commonality on.
Around the same time, McCain indicated that he intended to run for re-election to his Senate seat in 2010
As the inauguration neared, Obama consulted with McCain on a variety of matters, to an extent rarely seen between a president-elect and his defeated rival,
and President Obama's inauguration speech contained an allusion to McCain's theme of finding a purpose greater than oneself.
U.S. President Barack Obama
and McCain at a press conference in March 2009
Nevertheless, McCain emerged as a leader of the Republican opposition to the Obama economic stimulus package of 2009
, saying it incorporated federal policy changes that had nothing to do with near-term job creation and would expand the growing federal budget deficit.
McCain also voted against Obama's Supreme Court nomination of Sonia Sotomayor
—saying that while undeniably qualified, "I do not believe that she shares my belief in judicial restraint"
—and by August 2009 was siding more often with his Republican Party on closely divided votes than ever before in his senatorial career.
McCain reasserted that the War in Afghanistan
and criticized Obama for a slow process in deciding whether to send additional U.S. troops there.
McCain also harshly criticized Obama for scrapping construction of the U.S. missile defense complex in Poland
, declined to enter negotiations over climate change legislation similar to what he had proposed in the past, and strongly opposed the Obama health care plan
McCain led a successful filibuster
of a measure that would allow repeal of the military's "Don't ask, don't tell
" policy towards gays.
Factors involved in McCain's new direction included Senate staffers leaving, a renewed concern over national debt levels and the scope of federal government, a possible Republican primary challenge from conservatives in 2010, and McCain's campaign edge being slow to wear off.
As one longtime McCain advisor said, "A lot of people, including me, thought he might be the Republican building bridges to the Obama Administration. But he's been more like the guy blowing up the bridges."
McCain in his Senate office, November 2010
In early 2010, a primary challenge from radio talk show host and former U.S. Congressman J. D. Hayworth
materialized in the 2010 U.S. Senate election in Arizona
and drew support from some but not all elements of the Tea Party movement
With Hayworth using the campaign slogan "The Consistent Conservative", McCain said—despite his own past use of the term on a number of occasions
—"I never considered myself a maverick. I consider myself a person who serves the people of Arizona to the best of his abilities."
The primary challenge coincided with McCain reversing or muting his stance on some issues such as the bank bailouts, closing of the Guantánamo Bay detention camp
, campaign finance restrictions, and gays in the military.
When the health care plan, now called the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
, passed Congress and became law in March 2010, McCain strongly opposed the landmark legislation not only on its merits but also on the way it had been handled in Congress. As a consequence, he warned that congressional Republicans would not work with Democrats on anything else: "There will be no cooperation for the rest of the year. They have poisoned the well in what they've done and how they've done it."
McCain became a vocal defender of Arizona SB 1070
, the April 2010 tough anti-illegal immigration state law that aroused national controversy, saying that the state had been forced to take action given the federal government's inability to control the border.
In the August 24 primary, McCain beat Hayworth by a 56 to 32 percent margin.
McCain proceeded to easily defeat Democratic Tucson
city councilman Rodney Glassman in the general election.
Fifth Senate term
While control of the House of Representatives went over to the Republicans in the 112th Congress
, the Senate stayed Democratic and McCain continued to be the ranking member of the Senate Armed Services Committee
. As the Arab Spring
took center stage, McCain urged that the embattled Egyptian president, Hosni Mubarak
, step down and thought the U.S. should push for democratic reforms in the region despite the associated risks of religious extremists gaining power.
McCain was an especially vocal supporter of the 2011 military intervention in Libya
. In April of that year he visited the Anti-Gaddafi forces
and National Transitional Council
, the highest-ranking American to do so, and said that the rebel forces were "my heroes".
In June, he joined with Senator Kerry in offering a resolution that would have authorized the military intervention
, and said: "The administration's disregard for the elected representatives of the American people on this matter has been troubling and counterproductive."
In August, McCain voted for the Budget Control Act of 2011
that resolved the U.S. debt ceiling crisis
In November, McCain and Senator Carl Levin
were leaders in efforts to codify in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012
that terrorism suspects, no matter where captured, could be detained by the U.S. military and its tribunal system
; following objections by civil libertarians, some Democrats, and the White House, McCain and Levin agreed to language making it clear that the bill would not pertain to U.S. citizens.
In the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries
, McCain endorsed former 2008 rival Mitt Romney
and campaigned for him, but compared the contest to a Greek tragedy
due to its drawn-out nature with massive super PAC
-funded attack ads damaging all the contenders.
He labeled the Supreme Court's 2010 Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
decision as "uninformed, arrogant, naïve", and, decrying its effects and the future scandals he thought it would bring, said it would become considered the court's "worst decision ... in the 21st century".
McCain took the lead in opposing the defense spending sequestrations brought on by the Budget Control Act of 2011 and gained attention for defending State Department aide Huma Abedin
against charges brought by a few House Republicans that she had ties to the Muslim Brotherhood
McCain continued to be one of the most frequently appearing guests on the Sunday morning news talk shows.
He became one of the most vocal critics of the Obama administration's handling of the September 11, 2012, attack on the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi
, saying it was a "debacle" that featured either "a massive cover-up or incompetence that is not acceptable" and that it was worse than the Watergate scandal
As an outgrowth of this strong opposition, he and a few other senators were successful in blocking the planned nomination of Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice
to succeed Hillary Rodham Clinton as U.S. Secretary of State; McCain's friend and colleague John Kerry was nominated instead.
Regarding the Syrian civil war
that had begun in 2011, McCain repeatedly argued for the U.S. intervening militarily in the conflict on the side of the anti-government forces. He staged a visit to rebel forces inside Syria in May 2013, the first senator to do so, and called for arming the Free Syrian Army
with heavy weapons and for the establishment of a no-fly zone
over the country. Following reports that two of the people he posed for pictures with had been responsible for the kidnapping of eleven Lebanese Shiite pilgrims the year before, McCain disputed one of the identifications and said he had not met directly with the other.
Following the 2013 Ghouta chemical weapons attack
, McCain argued again for strong American military action against the government of the Syrian president, Bashar al-Assad
, and in September 2013 cast a Foreign Relations committee vote in favor of Obama's request to Congress that it authorize a military response.
McCain took the lead in criticizing a growing non-interventionist movement within the Republican Party, exemplified by his March 2013 comment that Senators Rand Paul
and Ted Cruz
and Representative Justin Amash
were "wacko birds".
During 2013, McCain was a member of a bi-partisan group of senators, the "Gang of Eight
", which announced principles for another try at comprehensive immigration reform.
The resulting Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013
passed the Senate by a 68–32 margin, but faced an uncertain future in the House.
In July 2013, McCain was at the forefront of an agreement among senators to drop filibusters against Obama administration executive nominees without Democrats resorting to the "nuclear option
" that would disallow such filibusters altogether.
However, the option would be imposed later in the year anyway, to the senator's displeasure.
These developments and some other negotiations showed that McCain now had improved relations with the Obama administration, including the president himself, as well as with Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid
, and that he had become the leader of a power center in the Senate for cutting deals in an otherwise bitterly partisan environment.
They also led some observers to conclude that the "maverick" McCain had returned.
McCain was publicly skeptical about the Republican strategy that precipitated the U.S. federal government shutdown of 2013
and U.S. debt-ceiling crisis of 2013
in order to defund or delay the Affordable Care Act; in October 2013 he voted in favor of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014
, which resolved them and said, "Republicans have to understand we have lost this battle, as I predicted weeks ago, that we would not be able to win because we were demanding something that was not achievable."
Similarly, he was one of nine Republican senators who voted for the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013
at the end of the year.
By early 2014, McCain's apostasies were enough that the Arizona Republican Party
formally censured him for having what they saw as a liberal record that had been "disastrous and harmful".
McCain remained stridently opposed to many aspects of Obama's foreign policy, however, and in June 2014, following major gains by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant
in the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive
, decried what he saw as a U.S. failure to protect its past gains in Iraq and called on the president's entire national security team to resign. McCain said, "Could all this have been avoided? ... The answer is absolutely yes. If I sound angry it's because I am angry."
McCain addresses anti-government protesters in Kyiv
, pledging his support for their cause, December 15, 2013.
McCain was a supporter of the Euromaidan
protests against Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych
and his government, and appeared in Independence Square
in December 2013.
Following the overthrow of Yanukovych and subsequent 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
, McCain became a vocal supporter of providing arms to Ukrainian military forces, saying the sanctions imposed against Russia
were not enough.
In 2014, McCain led the opposition to the appointments of Colleen Bell
, Noah Mamet
, and George Tsunis
to the ambassadorships in Hungary, Argentina, and Norway, respectively, arguing they were unqualified appointees being rewarded for their political fundraising.
Unlike many Republicans, McCain supported the release and contents of the Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture
in December 2014, saying "The truth is sometimes a hard pill to swallow. It sometimes causes us difficulties at home and abroad. It is sometimes used by our enemies in attempts to hurt us. But the American people are entitled to it, nonetheless."
He added that the CIA's practices following the September 11 attacks had "stained our national honor" while doing "much harm and little practical good" and that "Our enemies act without conscience. We must not."
He opposed the Obama administration's December 2014 decision to normalize relations with Cuba
President Tsai Ing-wen
meets with McCain, who is the leader of the U.S. Senate delegation, June 2016
McCain accused President Obama of being "directly responsible" for the Orlando nightclub shooting
"because when he pulled everybody out of Iraq, al-Qaeda went to Syria, became ISIS, and ISIS is what it is today thanks to Barack Obama's failures."
McCain campaigning with former Governor Romney
in Mesa, Arizona
, during his 2016 re-election campaign
During the 2016 Republican primaries
, McCain said he would support the Republican nominee even if it was Donald Trump
, but following Mitt Romney's 2016 anti-Trump speech
, McCain endorsed the sentiments expressed in that speech, saying he had serious concerns about Trump's "uninformed and indeed dangerous statements on national security issues".
Relations between the two had been fraught since early in Trump's 2016 presidential campaign
, when McCain referred to a room full of Trump supporters as "crazies", and the real estate mogul then said of McCain: "He insulted me, and he insulted everyone in that room ... He is a war hero because he was captured. I like people who weren't captured ... perhaps he was a war hero, but right now he's said a lot of very bad things about a lot of people."
McCain also vocally opposed a federal loan guarantee for a development project Trump was contemplating on the West Side of Manhattan in 1996.
Following Trump becoming the presumptive nominee of the party on May 3, McCain said that Republican voters had spoken and he would support Trump.
McCain himself faced a primary challenge from Kelli Ward
, a fervent Trump supporter, and then was expected to face a potentially strong challenge from Democratic Congresswoman Ann Kirkpatrick
in the general election.
The senator privately expressed worry over the effect that Trump's unpopularity among Hispanic voters might have on his own chances but also was concerned with more conservative pro-Trump voters; he thus kept his endorsement of Trump in place but tried to speak of him as little as possible given their disagreements.
However McCain defeated Ward in the primary by a double-digit percentage point margin and gained a similar lead over Kirkpatrick in general election polls, and when the Donald Trump Access Hollywood controversy
broke, he felt secure enough to on October 8 withdraw his endorsement of Trump.
McCain stated that Trump's "demeaning comments about women and his boasts about sexual assaults" made it "impossible to continue to offer even conditional support" and added that he would not vote for Hillary Clinton, but would instead "write in
the name of some good conservative Republican who is qualified to be president."
McCain, at 80 years of age, went on to defeat Kirkpatrick, securing a sixth term as United States Senator from Arizona.
On December 31, 2016, in Tbilisi
, McCain stated that the United States
should strengthen its sanctions against Russia.
One year later, on December 23, 2017, the State Department
announced that the United States would provide Ukraine with "enhanced defensive capabilities".
Sixth and final Senate term
The National March on the NRA
in August 2018. The NRA
spent $7.74 million to support John McCain.
Repeal and replacement of Obamacare (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) was a centerpiece of McCain's 2016 re-election campaign,
and in July 2017, he said, "Have no doubt: Congress must replace Obamacare, which has hit Arizonans with some of the highest premium increases in the nation and left 14 of Arizona's 15 counties with only one provider option on the exchanges this year." He added that he supports affordable and quality health care, but objected that the pending Senate bill did not do enough to shield the Medicaid
system in Arizona.
In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize
laureate Liu Xiaobo
, who died of organ failure while in government custody, McCain said that "this is only the latest example of Communist China's assault on human rights, democracy, and freedom."
In October 2017, McCain praised President Trump's decision to decertify Iran's compliance with the Iran nuclear deal (JCPOA) while not yet withdrawing the U.S. from the agreement, saying that the Obama-era policy failed "to meet the multifaceted threat Iran poses. The goals President Trump presented in his speech today are a welcomed long overdue change."
Brain tumor diagnosis and surgery
McCain returns to the Senate for the first time following his cancer diagnosis and delivers remarks on July 25, 2017, after casting a crucial vote on the American Health Care Act
President Donald Trump
publicly wished Senator McCain well,
as did many others, including former President Obama.
On July 19, McCain's senatorial office issued a statement that he "appreciates the outpouring of support he has received over the last few days. He is in good spirits as he continues to recover at home with his family in Arizona. He is grateful to the doctors and staff at Mayo Clinic for their outstanding care, and is confident that any future treatment will be effective." On July 24, McCain announced via Twitter that he would return to the United States Senate the following day.
Return to the Senate
McCain votes no on repealing the Affordable Care Act by giving a thumbs down.
McCain returned to the Senate on July 25, less than two weeks after brain surgery. He cast a deciding vote allowing the Senate to begin consideration of bills to replace the Affordable Care Act. Along with that vote, he delivered a speech criticizing the party-line voting
process used by the Republicans, as well as by the Democrats in passing the Affordable Care Act to begin with, and McCain also urged a "return to regular order" utilizing the usual committee hearings and deliberations.
On July 28, he cast the decisive vote against the Republicans' final proposal that month, the so-called "skinny repeal" option, which failed 49–51.
McCain supported the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
McCain did not vote in the Senate after December 2017, remaining instead in Arizona to undergo cancer treatment. On April 15, 2018, he underwent surgery for an infection relating to diverticulitis
and the following day was reported to be in stable condition.
Death and funeral
Memorial Service for Arizona Senator John S. McCain
On August 24, 2018, five days before his 82nd birthday, McCain's family announced that he would no longer receive treatment for his cancer.
He died the following day at 4:28 p.m. MST
), with his wife and family beside him, at his home in Cornville, Arizona
McCain lay in state
in the Arizona State Capitol
on August 29, which would have been his 82nd birthday. This was followed by a service at North Phoenix Baptist Church on August 30. His remains were then moved to Washington, D.C. to lie in state in the rotunda
of the United States Capitol
on August 31, which was followed by a service at the Washington National Cathedral
on September 1. He was a "lifelong Episcopalian
" who attended, but did not join, a Southern Baptist
church for at least 17 years; memorial services were scheduled in both denominations.
Prior to his death, McCain requested that former Presidents George W. Bush
and Barack Obama
deliver eulogies at his funeral, and asked that both President Donald Trump
and former Alaska Governor
and 2008 vice presidential nominee Sarah Palin
not attend any of the services.
McCain himself planned the funeral arrangements and selected his pallbearers for the service in Washington; the pallbearers included former Vice President Joe Biden
, former Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold
, former Secretary of Defense William Cohen
, actor Warren Beatty
, and Russian dissident Vladimir Vladimirovich Kara-Murza
Many American political figures paid tribute at the funeral. Those who attended included former United States Presidents Obama, Bush, Clinton, Carter; First Ladies Michelle, Laura, Hillary, Rosalyn; and former Vice Presidents Biden, Cheney, Gore, and Quayle. Former President George H.W. Bush
(who died 3 months and 5 days after McCain) was too ill to attend the service, and President Trump was not invited. Many figures from political life, both current and former and from both political parties, attended. Figures included John F. Kelly
, Jim Mattis
, Bob Dole
, Madeleine Albright
, John Kerry
, Mitch McConnell
, Paul Ryan
, Nancy Pelosi
, Chuck Schumer
, Mitt Romney
, Lindsey Graham
, Jeff Flake
, Elizabeth Warren
, and Jon Huntsman
. President Trump's daughter and son-in-law Ivanka Trump
and Jared Kushner
attended to the displeasure of Meghan McCain
Journalists Carl Bernstein
, Tom Brokaw
, and Charlie Rose
, as well as actors Warren Beatty
and Annette Bening
and comedians Jay Leno
and Joy Behar
also attended the funeral.
Arizona Governor Doug Ducey
was empowered to appoint McCain's interim replacement until a special election
is held in 2020 to determine who is to serve out the remainder of McCain's term, which ends in January 2023 and thus appointed the then former Arizona U.S. Senator Jon Kyl
to fill the vacancy.
Under Arizona law, the appointed replacement must be of the same party as McCain, a Republican.
Newspaper speculation about potential appointees has included McCain's widow Cindy
, former Senator Jon Kyl
, and former Representatives Matt Salmon
and John Shadegg
Ducey said that he would not make a formal appointment until after McCain's final funeral and burial; on September 4, two days after McCain was buried, Ducey appointed Kyl to fill McCain's seat.
McCain received many tributes and condolences, including from Congressional colleagues, all living former presidents – Jimmy Carter
, George H. W. Bush
, Bill Clinton
, George W. Bush
, Barack Obama
– and future president Joe Biden
, as well as Vice President Mike Pence
and President Richard Nixon
's daughters Tricia Nixon Cox
and Julie Nixon Eisenhower
French President Emmanuel Macron
, Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen
, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko
and Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman
, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison
, who had just taken office the previous day, and former Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull
, British Prime Minister Theresa May
and former Prime Minister David Cameron
, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
and former Prime Minister Stephen Harper
, German Chancellor Angela Merkel
and foreign minister Heiko Maas
, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi
, Afghanistan chief executive Abdullah Abdullah
, Pakistani foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi
, the 14th Dalai Lama
, and former Vietnamese ambassador to Washington Nguyễn Quốc Cường
also sent condolences.
McCain's daughter Meghan mourning while he lies in state at the Arizona State Capitol
Colonel Trần Trọng Duyệt, who ran the Hỏa Lò Prison
when McCain was held there, remarked, "At that time I liked him personally for his toughness and strong stance. Later on, when he became a US Senator, he and Senator John Kerry greatly contributed to promote Vietnam-US relations
so I was very fond of him. When I learnt about his death early this morning, I feel very sad. I would like to send condolences to his family."
In a TV interview, Senator Lindsey Graham
said McCain's last words to him were "I love you, I have not been cheated."
His daughter, Meghan McCain
, shared her grief, stating that she was present at the moment he died.
Reaction by Donald Trump
The American flag flies at half-staff at the White House for Senator John McCain – video from Voice of America
reportedly rejected the White House's plans to release a statement praising McCain's life, and he initially said nothing about McCain himself in a tweet that extended condolences to McCain's family.
In addition, the flag at the White House, which had been lowered to half-staff
the day of McCain's death (August 25), was raised back to full-staff at 12:01 a.m. on August 27.
Trump reportedly felt that media coverage of McCain's death was excessive given that McCain was never president.
In contrast with the White House's initial decision, many governors, both Democratic and Republican, had ordered flags in their states to fly at half-staff until McCain's interment, and Senate leaders Mitch McConnell
and Chuck Schumer
requested support from the Defense Department
so that flags would be flown at half-staff on all government buildings.
Following public backlash from the American Legion
, Trump relented and ordered the White House flag back to half-staff later in the day on August 27. Trump belatedly issued a statement praising McCain's service to the country, and he signed a proclamation ordering flags to be flown at half-staff until McCain's interment at the Naval Academy Cemetery.
In March 2019—seven months after McCain's death—Trump issued a series of public statements that criticized McCain at least four times in five days.
Trump also claimed that he approved McCain's funeral but was not thanked for it. However, the Washington National Cathedral responded that no governmental or presidential approval was needed for McCain's funeral because he was not a former president. McCain's lying in state was approved by the Senate, while Trump did approve the transport for McCain's body.
Trump also described himself as having "got the job done" on the Veterans Choice Act
while claiming McCain failed on the same issue. However, McCain was actually one of the two main authors of the bill, which President Barack Obama signed into law in 2014. Trump had signed the VA MISSION Act of 2018 (S. 2372
), an expansion of that law worked on by McCain that includes McCain's name in its full title. Trump also claimed that McCain graduated "last in his class", though McCain was actually fifth from last.
Various advocacy groups
have given McCain scores or grades as to how well his votes align with the positions of each group.
CrowdPac, which rates politicians based on donations made and received, gave Senator McCain a score of 4.3C with 10C being the most conservative and 10L being the most liberal.
The non-partisan National Journal
rates a Senator's votes by what percentage of the Senate voted more liberally than him or her, and what percentage more conservatively, in three policy areas: economic, social, and foreign. For 2005–2006 (as reported in the 2008 Almanac of American Politics
), McCain's average ratings were as follows: economic policy: 59 percent conservative and 41 percent liberal; social policy: 54 percent conservative and 38 percent liberal; and foreign policy: 56 percent conservative and 43 percent liberal.
In 2012, the National Journal
gave McCain a composite score of 73 percent conservative and 27 percent liberal,
while in 2013 he received a composite score of 60 percent conservative and 40 percent liberal.
Columnists such as Robert Robb and Matthew Continetti
used a formulation devised by William F. Buckley Jr.
to describe McCain as "conservative" but not "a conservative", meaning that while McCain usually tended towards conservative positions, he was not "anchored by the philosophical tenets of modern American conservatism".
Following his 2008 presidential election loss, McCain began adopting more orthodox conservative views; the magazine National Journal
rated McCain along with seven of his colleagues as the "most conservative" Senators for 2010
and he achieved his first 100 percent rating from the American Conservative Union for that year.
During Barack Obama's presidency, McCain was one of the top five Republicans most likely to vote with Obama's position on significant votes; McCain voted with Obama's position on such votes more than half the time in 2013 and was "censured by the Arizona Republican party for a so-called 'liberal' voting record".
From the late 1990s until 2008, McCain was a board member of Project Vote Smart
which was set up by Richard Kimball
, his 1986 Senate opponent.
The project provides non-partisan information about the political positions of McCain
and other candidates for political office. Additionally, McCain used his Senate website to describe his political positions.
In his 2008 speech to the CPAC
McCain stated that he believed in"small government; fiscal discipline; low taxes; a strong defense, judges who enforce, and not make, our laws; the social values that are the true source of our strength; and, generally, the steadfast defense of our rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, which I have defended my entire career as God-given to the born and unborn."
In his 2018 memoir The Restless Wave, McCain described his views as such: "Last but not least, I was [at the time of entering Congress] a Republican, a Reagan Republican. Still am. Not a Tea Party Republican. Not a Breitbart Republican. Not a talk radio or Fox News Republican. Not an isolationist, protectionist, immigrant-bashing, scapegoating, get-nothing-useful-done Republican. Not, as I am often dismissed by self-declared 'real' conservatives, a RINO, Republican in Name Only. I'm a Reagan Republican, a proponent of lower taxes, less government, free markets, free trade, defense readiness, and democratic internationalism."
Cultural and political image
McCain and his wife Cindy watch in 2011 as their son Jimmy pins aviator wings on their son Ensign John Sidney McCain IV.
Public opinion of John McCain
McCain's personal character was a dominant feature of his public image.
This image includes the military service of both himself and his family,
the circumstances and tensions surrounding the end of his first marriage and beginning of second,
his maverick political persona,
his admitted problem of occasional ill-considered remarks,
and his close ties to his children from both his marriages.
McCain's political appeal was more nonpartisan and less ideological compared to many other national politicians.
His stature and reputation stemmed partly from his service in the Vietnam War.
He also carried physical vestiges of his war wounds, as well as his melanoma surgery.
When campaigning, he quipped: "I am older than dirt and have more scars than Frankenstein."
Writers often extolled McCain for his courage not just in war but in politics, and wrote sympathetically about him.
McCain's shift of political stances and attitudes during and especially after the 2008 presidential campaign, including his self-repudiation of the maverick label, left many writers expressing sadness and wondering what had happened to the McCain they thought they had known.
By 2013, some aspects of the older McCain had returned, and his image became that of a kaleidoscope of contradictory tendencies, including as a Republican In Name Only
or a "traitor" to his party 
and, as one writer listed, "the maverick, the former maverick, the curmudgeon, the bridge builder, the war hero bent on transcending the call of self-interest to serve a cause greater than himself, the sore loser, old bull, last lion, loose cannon, happy warrior, elder statesman, lion in winter."
In his own estimation, McCain was straightforward and direct, but impatient.
His other traits included a penchant for lucky charms,
a fondness for hiking,
and a sense of humor that sometimes backfired spectacularly, as when he made a joke in 1998 about the Clintons that was widely deemed not fit to print in newspapers: "Do you know why Chelsea Clinton
is so ugly? – Because Janet Reno
is her father."
McCain subsequently apologized profusely,
and the Clinton White House accepted his apology.
McCain did not shy away from addressing his shortcomings, and he apologized for them.
He was known for sometimes being prickly
with Senate colleagues, but his relations with his own Senate staff were more cordial, and inspired loyalty towards him.
He formed a strong bond with two senators, Joe Lieberman
and Lindsey Graham
, over hawkish foreign policy and overseas travel, and they became dubbed the "Three Amigos".
McCain acknowledged having said intemperate things in years past,
though he also said that many stories have been exaggerated.
comparison suggested that McCain was not the first presidential candidate to have a temper,
and cultural critic Julia Keller
argued that voters want leaders who are passionate, engaged, fiery, and feisty.
McCain employed both profanity
and shouting on occasion, although such incidents became less frequent over the years.
Lieberman made this observation: "It is not the kind of anger that is a loss of control. He is a very controlled person."
Senator Thad Cochran
, who knew McCain for decades and had battled him over earmarks
expressed concern about a McCain presidency: "He is erratic. He is hotheaded. He loses his temper and he worries me."
Yet Cochran supported McCain for president when it was clear he would win the nomination.
The Chicago Tribune
editorial board called McCain a patriot, who although sometimes wrong was fearless, and that he deserves to be thought of among the few US senators in history, whose names are more recognizable than some presidents.
All McCain's family members were on good terms with him,
and he defended them against some of the negative consequences of his high-profile political lifestyle.
His family's military tradition extends to the latest generation: son John Sidney IV ("Jack") graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 2009, becoming the fourth generation John S. McCain to do so, and is a helicopter pilot; son James served two tours with the Marines
in the Iraq War
; and son Doug flew jets in the navy.
His daughter Meghan
became a blogging
presence in the debate about the future of the Republican Party following the 2008 elections, and showed some of his maverick tendencies.
In 2017 Meghan joined the cast of the popular ABC talk show The View
as a co-host.
Senator McCain himself also appeared as a guest on the program.
Awards and honors
In 1997, Time
magazine named McCain as one of the "25 Most Influential People in America".
In 1999, McCain shared the Profile in Courage Award
with Senator Russ Feingold
for their work towards campaign finance reform.
The following year, the same pair shared the Paul H. Douglas Award for Ethics in Government.
In 2005, The Eisenhower Institute
awarded McCain the Eisenhower Leadership Prize.
The prize recognizes individuals whose lifetime accomplishments reflect Dwight D. Eisenhower
's legacy of integrity and leadership. In 2006, the Bruce F. Vento Public Service Award was bestowed upon McCain by the National Park Trust.
The same year, McCain was awarded the Henry M. Jackson Distinguished Service Award by the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs
, in honor of Senator Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson
In 2007, the World Leadership Forum
presented McCain with the Policymaker of the Year Award; it is given internationally to someone who has "created, inspired or strongly influenced important policy or legislation".
In 2010, President Mikheil Saakashvili
awarded McCain the Order of National Hero
, an award never previously given to a non-Georgian
In 2015, the Kyiv Patriarchate
awarded McCain its own version of the Order of St. Vladimir
In 2016, Allegheny College
awarded McCain, along with Vice President Joe Biden
, its Prize for Civility in Public Life.
In August 2016, Petro Poroshenko
, the President of Ukraine
, awarded McCain with the highest award for foreigners, the Order of Liberty
In 2017, Hashim Thaçi
, the President of Kosovo
, awarded McCain the "Urdhër i Lirisë" (Order of Freedom) medal for his contribution to the freedom and independence of Kosovo, and its partnership with the U.S.
McCain also received the Liberty Medal
from the National Constitution Center
In the spring of 2018 McCain was decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun
from the Japanese Emperor for 'strengthening bilateral relations and promoting friendship between Japan and the United States'.
McCain received several honorary degrees
from colleges and universities in the United States and internationally. These include ones from Colgate University
2000), The Citadel
2002), Wake Forest University
May 20, 2002),
the University of Southern California
May 2004), Northwestern University
June 17, 2005), Liberty University
(2006), The New School
and the Royal Military College of Canada
June 27, 2013).
He was also made an Honorary Patron of the University Philosophical Society
at Trinity College Dublin
On July 11, 2018, USS John S. McCain
, originally named in honor of the Senator's father and grandfather, was rededicated in the Senator's name also.
- Faith of My Fathers by John McCain, Mark Salter (Random House, August 1999) ISBN 0-375-50191-6 (later made into the 2005 television film Faith of My Fathers)
- Worth the Fighting For by John McCain, Mark Salter (Random House, September 2002) ISBN 0-375-50542-3
- Why Courage Matters: The Way to a Braver Life by John McCain, Mark Salter (Random House, April 2004) ISBN 1-4000-6030-3
- Character Is Destiny: Inspiring Stories Every Young Person Should Know and Every Adult Should Remember by John McCain, Mark Salter (Random House, October 2005) ISBN 1-4000-6412-0
- Hard Call: Great Decisions and the Extraordinary People Who Made Them by John McCain, Mark Salter (Hachette, August 2007) ISBN 0-446-58040-6
- Thirteen Soldiers: A Personal History of Americans at War by John McCain, Mark Salter (Simon & Schuster, November 2014) ISBN 1-4767-5965-0
- The Restless Wave: Good Times, Just Causes, Great Fights, and Other Appreciations by John McCain, Mark Salter (Simon & Schuster, May 2018) ISBN 978-1501178009
Articles and forewords
- "How the POW's Fought Back", by John S. McCain III, Lieut. Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S. News & World Report, May 14, 1973 (reprinted for web under different title in 2008). Reprinted in Reporting Vietnam, Part Two: American Journalism 1969–1975 (The Library of America, 1998) ISBN 1-883011-59-0
- "The Code of Conduct and the Vietnam Prisoners of War", by John S. McCain, Commander USN, National War College, April 8, 1974 (actual paper)
- Foreword by John McCain to A Code to Keep: The True Story of America's Longest-Held Civilian POW in Vietnam by Ernest C. Brace (St. Martin's Press, 1988) ISBN 0-7090-3560-8
- Speeches of John McCain, 1988–2000
- Foreword by John McCain to Glory Denied: The Saga of Jim Thompson, America's Longest-held Prisoner by Tom Philpott (W. W. Norton, 2001) ISBN 0-393-02012-6
- Foreword by John McCain to The Best and the Brightest by David Halberstam (Random House, 2001 edition) ISBN 1-58836-098-9
- Foreword by John S. McCain to Unfinished Business: Afghanistan, the Middle East and Beyond – Defusing the Dangers That Threaten America's Security by Harlan Ullman (Citadel Press, June 2002) ISBN 0-8065-2431-6
- Foreword by John McCain and Max Cleland to Odysseus in America: Combat Trauma and the Trials of Homecoming by Jonathan Shay (Scribner, November 2002) ISBN 0-7432-1156-1
- Foreword by John McCain to Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can't Stand Up to the Facts by the Editors of Popular Mechanics (Hearst, August 2006) ISBN 1-58816-635-X
- Introduction by John McCain to Pearl Harbor, the Day of Infamy, an Illustrated History by Dan van der Vat (Black Walnut Books, 2007) ISBN 1-897330-28-6
- "An Enduring Peace Built on Freedom: Securing America's Future" by John McCainForeign Affairs, November/December 2007
- ^ Stevenson, Peter W. "Analysis | The iconic thumbs-down vote that summed up John McCain's career". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
- ^ a b Timberg, Robert (1999). "The Punk". John McCain, An American Odyssey. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-86794-6. Retrieved August 4, 2015 – via The New York Times.
- ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (2007). The Two-Ocean War: A Short History of the United States Navy in the Second World War. Naval Institute Press. p. 119.
- ^ Roberts, Gary (April 1, 2008). "On the Ancestry, Royal Descent, and English and American Notable Kin of Senator John Sidney McCain IV". New England Historic Genealogical Society. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved May 19, 2008.
- ^ Burritt, Mary (October 16, 2016). "Rockingham County Historian Bob Carter Combines Discretion, Scholarship." News & Record (Greensboro.com). Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- ^ a b c Nowicki, Dan and Muller, Bill. "John McCain Report: At the Naval Academy", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Retrieved November 10, 2007; "How the biography was put together", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Retrieved June 18, 2008. ("McCain's grades [at the Naval Academy] were good in the subjects he enjoyed, such as literature and history. Gamboa said McCain would rather read a history book than do his math homework. He did just enough to pass the classes he didn't find stimulating. 'He stood low in his class,' Gamboa said. 'But that was by choice, not design.'")
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 19.
- ^ a b Woodward, Calvin. "McCain's WMD Is A Mouth That Won't Quit". Associated Press. USA Today (November 4, 2007). Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 22.
- ^ McCain was christened and raised Episcopalian. See Nichols, Hans. "McCain Keeps His Faith to Himself, at Church and in Campaign"[dead link], Bloomberg (April 25, 2008). He then identified as a Baptist, although he had not been baptized as an adult, and was not an official member of the church he attended. See Warner, Greg. "McCain's faith: Pastor describes senator as devout, but low-key", Associated Baptist Press (April 8, 2008). Retrieved September 6, 2008. Also see Hornick, Ed. "McCain and Obama cite moral failures"Archived August 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, CNN (August 16, 2008): "McCain, who was raised an Episcopalian and now identifies himself as Baptist, rarely discusses his faith." Retrieved August 16, 2008. Also see Reston, Maeve and Mehta, Seema. "Barack Obama and John McCain to Meet at Saddleback Church", Los Angeles Times, (August 16, 2008). Archived from the original on September 12, 2008: "McCain [is] an Episcopalian who attends a Baptist church in Phoenix ..." Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 28.
- ^ "Episcopal fetes a favorite son". Alexandria Times. June 12, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
- ^ Smith, Bruce (September 17, 2007). "McCain Says He's Been Baptist for Years". The Washington Post. Associated Press. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- ^ a b c Timberg, Robert (September 11, 1996). Nightingale's Song. Simon and Schuster. pp. 31–35. ISBN 978-0-684-82673-8.
- ^ Bailey, Holly (May 14, 2007). "John McCain: 'I Learned How to Take Hard Blows'". Newsweek. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- ^ McCain, Faith of My Fathers, p. 134.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, 207. McCain scored 128 and then 133 on IQ tests.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 32.
- ^ McCain, Faith of My Fathers, p. 156.
- ^ a b Feinberg, Barbara. John McCain: Serving His Country, p. 18 (Millbrook Press 2000). ISBN 0-7613-1974-3.
- ^ a b c Timberg, American Odyssey, pp. 66–68.
- ^ a b c Vartabedian, Ralph and Serrano, Richard A. "Mishaps mark John McCain's record as naval aviator", Los Angeles Times (October 6, 2008). Retrieved October 6, 2008.
- ^ a b c "John McCain", Iowa Caucuses '08, The Des Moines Register. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- ^ a b Alexander, Man of the People, p. 92
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 33
- ^ a b c d e f Steinhauer, Jennifer. "Bridging four Decades, a Large, Close-Knit Brood", The New York Times (December 27, 2007). Retrieved December 27, 2007.
- ^ McCain, Faith of My Fathers, pp. 167–68.
- ^ McCain, Faith of My Fathers, pp. 172–73.
- ^ a b McCain, Faith of My Fathers, pp. 185–86.
- ^ Karaagac, John. John McCain: An Essay in Military and Political History, pp. 81–82 (Lexington Books 2000). ISBN 0-7391-0171-4.
- ^ Weinraub, Bernard. "Start of Tragedy: Pilot Hears a Blast As He Checks Plane", The New York Times (July 31, 1967). Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, pp. 72–74.
- ^ McCain, Faith of My Fathers, pp. 177–79.
- ^ US Navy Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships – Forrestal Archived March 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. States either Aircraft No. 405 piloted by LCDR Fred D. White or No. 416 piloted by LCDR John McCain was struck by the Zuni.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, 75.
- ^ a b c Kuhnhenn, Jim. "Navy releases McCain's military record". Associated Press. Boston Globe (May 7, 2008). Retrieved May 25, 2008.
- ^ a b c d e f Nowicki, Dan & Muller, Bill. "John McCain Report: Prisoner of War", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- ^ a b Hubbell, P.O.W., p. 363
- ^ Dobbs, Michael. "In Ordeal as Captive, Character Was Shaped", The Washington Post (October 5, 2008)
- ^ Hubbell, P.O.W., p. 364
- ^ Apple Jr., R. W. "Adm. McCain's son, Forrestal Survivor, Is Missing in Raid", The New York Times (October 28, 1967). Retrieved November 11, 2007.
- ^ "Admiral's Son Captured in Hanoi Raid", Associated Press. The Washington Post (October 28, 1967). Retrieved February 9, 2008 (fee required for full text).
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, p. 83
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, 54.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, p. 89
- ^ a b Hubbell, P.O.W., pp. 450–51
- ^ Rochester and Kiley, Honor Bound, p. 363
- ^ "Executive Orders". National Archives. August 15, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
- ^ a b Hubbell, P.O.W., pp. 452–54
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, pp. 95, 118
- ^ a b McCain, John. "How the POW's Fought Back" Archived October 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, U.S. News & World Report (May 14, 1973), reposted in 2008 under title "John McCain, Prisoner of War: A First-Person Account". Retrieved January 29, 2008. Reprinted in Reporting Vietnam, Part Two: American Journalism 1969–1975, pp. 434–63 (The Library of America 1998). ISBN 1-883011-59-0.
- ^ Hubbell, P.O.W., pp. 288–306.
- ^ Hubbell, P.O.W., pp. 548–49
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 60
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 64
- ^ Rochester and Kiley, Honor Bound, pp. 489–91
- ^ Rochester and Kiley, Honor Bound, pp. 510, 537
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, pp. 106–07
- ^ Sterba, James. "P.O.W. Commander Among 108 Freed", The New York Times (March 15, 1973). Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- ^ a b c Purdum, Todd. "Prisoner of Conscience"Archived January 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Vanity Fair, February 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2008.
- ^ "McCain, in Vietnam, Finds the Past isn't Really the Past". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
- ^ a b c Nowicki, Dan; Muller, Bill (March 1, 2007). "Back in the U.S.A.". John McCain Report. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e Kristof, Nicholas (February 27, 2000). "P.O.W. to Power Broker, A Chapter Most Telling". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2007.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, 81.
- ^ a b Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons Archived March 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Volume 1, Naval Historical Center. Retrieved May 19, 2008.
- ^ Vartabedian, Ralph. "McCain has long relied on his grit", Los Angeles Times (April 14, 2008). Retrieved September 2, 2008.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, pp. 123–24
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Nowicki, Dan and Muller, Bill. "John McCain Report: Arizona, the early years", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Regarding his first marriage, McCain said that he "had not shown the same determination to rebuild (his) personal life" as he had shown in his military career, and that "marriages can be hard to recover after great time and distance have separated a husband and wife. We are different people when we reunite ... But my marriage's collapse was attributable to my own selfishness and immaturity more than it was to Vietnam, and I cannot escape blame by pointing a finger at the war. The blame was entirely mine." Retrieved November 21, 2007.
- ^ a b c d Frantz, Douglas, "The 2000 Campaign: The Arizona Ties; A Beer Baron and a Powerful Publisher Put McCain on a Political Path", The New York Times, A14 (February 21, 2000). Retrieved November 29, 2006. Frantz, Douglas (February 21, 2000). "The 2000 Campaign: The Arizona Ties; A Beer Baron and a Powerful Publisher Put McCain on a Political Path". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, pp. 132–34
- ^ a b "McCain Releases His Tax Returns"Archived April 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press for CBS News (April 18, 2008). Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, p. 135
- ^ Kirkpatrick, David. "Senate's Power and Allure Drew McCain From Military ", The New York Times (May 29, 2008). Retrieved May 29, 2008.
- ^ Leahy, Michael. "Seeing White House From a Cell in Hanoi", The Washington Post (October 13, 2008). Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 93
- ^ Vartabedian, Ralph. "John McCain gets tax-free disability pension", Los Angeles Times (April 22, 2008).
- ^ Gilbertson, Dawn. "McCain, his wealth tied to wife's family beer business", The Arizona Republic (January 23, 2007). Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, p. 139
- ^ Thornton, Mary. "Arizona 1st District John McCain", The Washington Post (December 16, 1982). Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, pp. 143–44.
- ^ "McCain, Clinton Head to Memphis for MLK Anniversary", Washington Wire (blog), The Wall Street Journal (April 3, 2008). Retrieved April 17, 2008.
- ^ "McCain Remarks on Dr. King and Civil Rights", The Washington Post (April 4, 2008): "We can be slow as well to give greatness its due, a mistake I made myself long ago when I voted against a federal holiday in memory of Dr. King. I was wrong and eventually realized that, in time to give full support for a state holiday in Arizona." Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- ^ a b Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 98–99, 104
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 100
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 100–01
- ^ Tapper, Jake. "McCain returns to the past"Archived December 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Salon (April 27, 2000). Retrieved November 21, 2007.
- ^ Reinhard, Beth. "Blog: McCain met with Pinochet" Archived October 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Naked Politics, Miami Herald (October 24, 2008). Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- ^ Dinges, John (October 24, 2008). "La desconocida cita entre John McCain y Pinochet" (in Spanish). Centro de Investigación e Información Periodística. Archived from the original on October 27, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
- ^ "Revelan inédita cita entre McCain y Pinochet en 1985". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). October 25, 2008. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- ^ "John McCain", The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2008.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 147
- ^ a b Strong, Morgan. "Senator John McCain talks about the challenges of fatherhood" Archived December 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Dadmag.com (June 4, 2000). Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e f Nowicki, Dan and Muller, Bill. "John McCain Report: The Senate calls", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Retrieved November 23, 2007.
- ^ "TO PASS S 557, CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT, A BILL ... -- Senate Vote #432 -- Jan 28, 1988". GovTrack.us.
- ^ "TO ADOPT, OVER THE PRESIDENT'S VETO OF S 557, CIVIL ... -- Senate Vote #487 -- Mar 22, 1988". GovTrack.us.
- ^ Barone, Michael; Ujifusa, Grant; Cohen, Richard E. The Almanac of American Politics, 2000, p. 112 (National Journal 1999). ISBN 0-8129-3194-7.
- ^ Becker, Jo; Van Natta, Don. "For McCain and Team, a Host of Ties to Gambling", The New York Times (September 27, 2008). Retrieved September 29, 2008.
- ^ Johnson, Tadd. "Regulatory Issues and Impacts of Gaming in Indian Country", Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies: Proceedings of the 1998 National Public Policy Education Conference, pp. 140–44 (September 1998)
- ^ a b c Sweeney, James. "New rules on Indian gaming face longer odds" Archived September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The San Diego Union-Tribune (September 11, 2006). Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- ^ Mason, W. Dale. Indian Gaming: Tribal Sovereignty and American Politics, pp. 60–64 (University of Oklahoma Press 2000). ISBN 0-8061-3260-4
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 112
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 115–20
- ^ a b c Abramson, Jill; Mitchell, Alison. "Senate Inquiry In Keating Case Tested McCain", The New York Times (November 21, 1999). Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- ^ a b "Excerpts of Statement By Senate Ethics Panel", The New York Times (February 28, 1991). Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- ^ Rasky, Susan. "To Senator McCain, the Savings and Loan Affair Is Now a Personal Demon", The New York Times (December 22, 1989). Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- ^ a b Nowicki, Dan and Muller, Bill. "John McCain Report: The Keating Five", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Retrieval date November 23, 2007.
- ^ "Sen. John McCain, Former Senator for Arizona". govtrack.us.
- ^ a b Nowicki, Dan and Muller, Bill. "John McCain Report: Overcoming scandal, moving on", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Retrieved November 23, 2007.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 150–51
- ^ a b Balz, Dan (July 5, 1998). "McCain Weighs Options Amid Setbacks". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 152–54
- ^ Report of the Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, U.S. Senate (January 13, 1993). Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- ^ a b Walsh, James. "Good Morning, Vietnam", Time (July 24, 1995). Retrieved January 5, 2008.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 170–71
- ^ Farrell, John. "At the center of power, seeking the summit", Boston Globe (June 21, 2003). Retrieved January 5, 2008.
- ^ McIntire, Mike. "Democracy Group Gives Donors Access to McCain", The New York Times (July 28, 2008). Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- ^ Eilperin, Juliet. "McCain Sees Roberts, Alito as Examples" Archived May 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The Trail; A Daily Diary of Campaign 2008, via washingtonpost.com (May 6, 2008). Retrieved July 26, 2008.
- ^ a b Curry, Tom. "McCain takes grim message to South Carolina", NBC News (April 26, 2007). Retrieved December 27, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nowicki, Dan and Muller, Bill. "John McCain Report: McCain becomes the 'maverick'", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, p. 190
- ^ a b c d Maisel, Louis and Buckley, Kara. Parties and Elections in America: The Electoral Process, pp. 163–66 (Rowman & Littlefield 2004). ISBN 0-7425-2670-4
- ^ Barone, Michael; Cohen, Richard E. The Almanac of American Politics, 2006, pp. 93–98 (National Journal 2005). ISBN 0-89234-112-2.
- ^ McCain, Worth the Fighting For, p. 327
- ^ Jackson, David. "McCain: Life shaped judgment on use of force", USA Today (March 25, 2008).
- ^ Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998)
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 176–80
- ^ a b "Bio: Sen. John McCain" Archived April 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Fox News (January 23, 2003). Retrieved August 11, 2008.
- ^ a b Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 184–87
- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, pp. 194–95
- ^ McDonald, Greg (March 24, 1999). "NATO trains sights on Serb targets: Senate OKs use of force in Balkans". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- ^ a b "U.S. Senators John McCain and Russell Feingold Share 10th John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award". John F. Kennedy Library Foundation. May 24, 1999. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. Retrieved December 27, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Nowicki, Dan and Muller, Bill. "John McCain Report: The 'maverick' runs", The Arizona Republic (March 1, 2007). Retrieved December 27, 2007
- ^ Bernstein, Richard. "Books of the Times; Standing Humbly Before a Noble Family Tradition", The New York Times (October 1, 1999). Retrieved August 11, 2008.
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 194–95
- ^ "Faith of My Fathers (1999)" (IE only), Books and Authors. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
- ^ Ressner, Jeffrey; Vogel, Kenneth P. (July 3, 2008). "McCain's TV biopic, reconsidered". The Politico. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- ^ Knickerbocker, Brad. "From a Vietnam Prison to the United States Senate", The Christian Science Monitor (September 16, 1999). Retrieved May 27, 2008.
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- ^ Bruni, Frank. "Quayle, Outspent by Bush, Will Quit Race, Aide Says", The New York Times (September 27, 2000). Retrieved December 27, 2007
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 188–89
- ^ Harpaz, Beth. The Girls in the Van: Covering Hillary, p. 86 (St. Martin's Press 2001). ISBN 0-312-30271-1
- ^ Corn, David. "The McCain Insurgency", The Nation (February 10, 2000). Retrieved January 1, 2008
- ^ Data for table is from "Favorability: People in the News: John McCain", The Gallup Organization, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010
- ^ a b c d e Steinhauer, Jennifer. "Confronting Ghosts of 2000 in South Carolina", The New York Times (October 19, 2007). Retrieved January 7, 2008
- ^ "Dirty Politics 2008", NOW, PBS (January 4, 2008). Retrieved January 6, 2008
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 254–55, 262–63
- ^ Mitchell, Alison. "Bush and McCain Exchange Sharp Words Over Fund-Raising", The New York Times (February 10, 2000). Retrieved January 7, 2008
- ^ a b Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 250–51
- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, pp. 263–66
- ^ Gooding, Richard. "The Trashing of John McCain", Vanity Fair (November 2004). Retrieved July 21, 2015
- ^ a b Knowlton, Brian. "McCain Licks Wounds After South Carolina Rejects His Candidacy", International Herald Tribune (February 21, 2000). Retrieved January 1, 2008
- ^ Barone, Michael and Cohen, Richard. The Almanac of American Politics, 2008, p. 96 (National Journal 2008). ISBN 0-89234-117-3
- ^ Mitchell, Alison. "McCain Catches Mud, Then Parades It", The New York Times (February 16, 2000). Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- ^ McCaleb, Ian Christopher. "McCain recovers from South Carolina disappointment, wins in Arizona, Michigan", CNN (February 22, 2000). Retrieved December 30, 2007
- ^ "Excerpt From McCain's Speech on Religious Conservatives", The New York Times (February 29, 2000). Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- ^ Rothernberg, Stuart. "Stuart Rothernberg: Bush Roars Back; McCain's Hopes Dim", CNN (March 1, 2000). Retrieved December 30, 2007.
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- ^ Marks, Peter. "A Ringing Endorsement for Bush", The New York Times (May 14, 2000). Retrieved March 1, 2008.
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- ^ a b c Holan, Angie. "McCain switched on tax cuts", Politifact, St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved December 27, 2007.
- ^ a b Carney, James. "Frenemies: The McCain-Bush Dance", Time (July 16, 2008). Retrieved August 11, 2008.
- ^ Drew, Citizen McCain, 5.
- ^ Edsall, Thomas and Milbank, Dana. "McCain Is Considering Leaving GOP: Arizona Senator Might Launch a Third-Party Challenge to Bush in 2004", The Washington Post (June 2, 2001). Retrieved May 10, 2008. Archived March 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Cusack, Bob. "Democrats say McCain nearly abandoned GOP", The Hill (March 28, 2007). Retrieved January 17, 2008.
- ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. "After 2000 Run, McCain Learned to Work Levers of Power", The New York Times (July 21, 2008). Retrieved August 11, 2008.
- ^ McCain, John. "No Substitute for Victory: War is hell. Let's get on with it", The Wall Street Journal (October 26, 2001). Retrieved January 17, 2008.
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- ^ Alexander, Man of the People, p. 168
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- ^ "Newsmaker: Sen. McCain", PBS, NewsHour (November 6, 2003). Retrieved January 17, 2008.
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- ^ a b Halbfinger, David. "McCain Is Said To Tell Kerry He Won't Join", The New York Times (June 12, 2004). Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- ^ a b Balz, Dan and VandeHei, Jim. "McCain's Resistance Doesn't Stop Talk of Kerry Dream Ticket", The Washington Post (June 12, 2004). Retrieved January 18, 2008.
- ^ "Kerry wants to boost child-care credit", Associated Press. NBC News (June 16, 2004). Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- ^ a b Loughlin, Sean. "McCain praises Bush as 'tested'", CNN (August 30, 2004). Retrieved November 14, 2007.
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- ^ a b Chart is built from ratings for 1983 to 2017 found at the ratings sections of the websites of the American Conservative Union and Americans for Democratic Action.
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- ^ Timberg, American Odyssey, 194.
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- ^ Drew, Citizen McCain, pp. 21–22.
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