The earliest scientific journals were founded in the seventeenth century. While most early journals used peer review
, peer review did not become common practice in medical journals until after World War II
The scholarly publishing process (including peer review) did not arise by scientific means, and still suffers from problems with reliability (consistency and dependability),
such as a lack of uniform standards, and validity (well-founded, efficacious).
Attempts to reform the academic publishing practice began to gain traction in the late twentieth century.
The field of journalology was formally established in 1989.