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Judeo-Arabic dialects
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The Judeo-Arabic dialects (Arabic: عربية يهوديةʿArabiyya Yahūdiyya; Hebrew: ערבית יהודית‎‎ ‘Aravít Y'hudít) are a continuum of specifically Jewishvarieties of Arabic formerly spoken by the Arab Jewish communities of the Middle East and North Africa. The term Judeo-Arabic can also refer to Classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages.
Judeo-Arabic

A page from the Cairo Geniza, part of which is written in the Judeo-Arabic language
Native speakers
(ca. 540,000 cited 1992–1995)[1]
Afro-Asiatic
Judeo-Arabic
Early forms
Old Arabic
Hebrew alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-2jrb
ISO 639-3jrb – inclusive code
Individual codes:
yhd – Judeo-Iraqi Arabic
aju – Judeo-Moroccan Arabic
yud – Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic
ajt – Judeo-Tunisian Arabic
jye – Judeo-Yemeni Arabic
GlottologNone
This article contains Hebrew text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hebrew letters.
Many significant Jewish works, including a number of religious writings by Saadia Gaon, Maimonides and Judah Halevi, were originally written in Judeo-Arabic, as this was the primary vernacular language of their authors.
Characteristics
The Arabic spoken by Jewish communities in the Arab world differed slightly from the Arabic of their non-Jewish neighbours. These differences were partly due to the incorporation of some words from Hebrew and other languages and partly geographical, in a way that may reflect a history of migration. For example, the Judeo-Arabic of Egypt, including in the Cairo community, resembled the dialect of Alexandria rather than that of Cairo (Blau). Similarly, Baghdad Jewish Arabic is reminiscent of the dialect of Mosul.[2] Many Jews in Arab countries were bilingual in Judeo-Arabic and the local dialect of the Muslim majority.
Like other Jewish languages and dialects, Judeo-Arabic languages contain borrowings from Hebrew and Aramaic. This feature is less marked in translations of the Bible, as the authors clearly took the view that the business of a translator is to translate.[3]
Dialects
History
Further information: History of the Jews under Muslim rule
Jews in Arabic, Muslim majority countries wrote—sometimes in their dialects, sometimes in a more classical style—in a mildly adapted Hebrew alphabet rather than using the Arabic script, often including consonant dots from the Arabic alphabet to accommodate phonemes that did not exist in the Hebrew alphabet.
Some of the most important books of medieval Jewish thought were originally written in medieval Judeo-Arabic, as well as certain halakhic works and biblical commentaries. Later they were translated into medieval Hebrew so that they could be read by contemporaries elsewhere in the Jewish world, and by others who were literate in Hebrew. These include:
Most communities also had a traditional translation of the Bible into Judeo-Arabic, known as a sharḥ ("explanation"): for more detail, see Bible translations into Arabic. The term sharḥ sometimes came to mean "Judeo-Arabic" in the same way that "Targum" was sometimes used to mean the Aramaic language.
Present day
In the years following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the end of the Algerian War, and Moroccan and Tunisian independence, most Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews in Arab countries left, mainly for mainland France and for Israel. Their distinct Arabic dialects in turn did not thrive in either country, and most of their descendants now speak French or Modern Hebrew almost exclusively; thus resulting in the entire continuum of Judeo-Arabic dialects being considered endangered languages.[citation needed] This stands in stark contrast with the historical status of Judeo-Arabic: in the early Middle Ages, speakers of Judeo-Arabic far outnumbered the speakers of Yiddish.[citation needed] There remain small populations of speakers in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, Yemen, Israel and the United States.
Orthography
Judeo-
Arabic
ArabicSemitic nameTransliteration
אاʾAlephā and sometimes ʾI
בبBetb
גׄجGimelǧ, an English j sound
ג or עׄغGhaynġ, a guttural gh sound
דدDaletd
דׄذḎāl, an English th as in "that"
הهHeh
וوWaww and sometimes ū
זزZayinz
חحHeth
טطTeth
טׄظẒāʾ, a retracted form of the th sound as in "that"
יيYodhy or ī
כ, ךكKaphk
כׄ, ךׄ or חׄخḪāʾ, a kh sound like "Bach"
לلLamedhl
מمMemm
נنNunn
סسSamekhs
עعʿAyinʿa, ʿ and sometimes ʿi
פ, ף or פׄ, ףׄفPef
צ, ץصṢade, a hard s sound
צׄ, ץׄضḌād, a retracted d sound
קقQophq
רرReshr
שشShinš, an English sh sound
תتTawt
תׄ or ת֒ثṮāʾ, an English th as in "thank"
See also
Endnotes
  1. ^ Judeo-Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Judeo-Iraqi Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Judeo-Moroccan Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Judeo-Tunisian Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Judeo-Yemeni Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ For example, "I said" is qeltu in the speech of Baghdadi Jews and Christians, as well as in Mosul and Syria, as against Muslim Baghdadi gilit (Haim Blanc, Communal Dialects in Baghdad). This however may reflect not southward migration from Mosul on the part of the Jews, but rather the influence of Gulf Arabic on the dialect of the Muslims.
  3. ^ Avishur, Studies in Judaeo-Arabic Translations of the Bible.
Bibliography
External links
Last edited on 3 April 2021, at 22:34
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