en.m.wikipedia.org
Kanuri language
Kanuri (/
kəˈnuːri
/[2]) is a dialect continuum spoken by some four million people, as of 1987, in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, as well as small minorities in southern Libya and by a diaspora in Sudan.
Kanuri
Kànùrí
Native toNigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon , Sudan, Libya
RegionLake Chad
EthnicityKanuri (Yerwa Kanuri etc.), Kanembu
Native speakers
15,512,000 (1998-2021)[1]
Nilo-Saharan?
Western Saharan
Kanuri
Language codes
ISO 639-1kr
ISO 639-2kau
ISO 639-3kau – inclusive code
Individual codes:
knc – Central Kanuri
kby – Manga Kanuri
krt – Tumari Kanuri
bms – Bilma Kanuri
kbl – Kanembu
Glottologkanu1279
Linguasphere02-AAA-a (+Kanembu 02-AAA-b)

Map of the majority usage of the five major languages of the Kanuri language group.
  • BMS Kanuri, Bilma
  • KNC Kanuri, Central
  • KBY Kanuri, Manga
  • KRT Kanuri, Tumari
  • KBL Kanembu
Background
At the turn of the 21st century, its two main dialects, Manga Kanuri and Yerwa Kanuri (also called Beriberi, which its speakers consider to be pejorative), were spoken by 9,700,000 people in Central Africa.[3] It belongs to the Western Saharan subphylum of Nilo-Saharan. Kanuri is the language associated with the Kanem and Bornu empires which dominated the Lake Chad region for a thousand years.
The basic word order of Kanuri sentences is subject–object–verb. It is typologically unusual in simultaneously having postpositions and post-nominal modifiers – for example, "Bintu's pot" would be expressed as nje Bintu-be, "pot Bintu-of".
Kanuri has three tones: high, low, and falling. It has an extensive system of consonantal lenition; for example, sa- "they" + -buma "have eaten" → za-wuna "they have eaten".
Traditionally a local lingua franca, its usage has declined in recent decades. Most first-language speakers speak Hausa or Arabic as a second language.
Geographic distribution
Kanuri is spoken mainly in lowlands of the Chad Basin, with speakers in Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan and Libya.
Varieties
Ethnologue divides Kanuri into the following languages, while many linguists (e.g. Cyffer 1998) regard them as dialects of a single language. The first three are spoken by ethnic Kanuri and thought by them as dialects of their language.
The variety attested in 17th century Qur'anic glosses is known as Old Kanembu. In the context of religious recitation and commentaries, a heavily archaizing descendant of this is still used, called Tarjumo.
Phonology
Consonants
Bilabial
Labio-
dental
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
PalatalVelarGlottal
Plosive(p) bt dk ɡʔ
Affricatet͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative(ɸ β)fs zʃ(ɣ)h
Nasalmn(ŋ)
Laterall(ɭ)
Trillr
Approximantwj
Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Closei(ɨ)u
Close-mideo
Midə
Open-midʌ
Opena
[ɨ] is heard as an allophone of /ə/.
Written Kanuri
Kanuri has been written using the Ajami Arabic script, mainly in religious or court contexts, for at least four hundred years.[6] More recently, it is also sometimes written in a modified Latin script. The Gospel of John published in 1965 was produced in Roman and Arabic script.
Alphabet
A standardized romanized orthography (known as the Standard Kanuri Orthography in Nigeria) was developed by the Kanuri Research Unit and the Kanuri Language Board. Its elaboration, based on the dialect of Maiduguri, was carried out by the Orthography Committee of the Kanuri Language Board, under the Chairmanship of Abba Sadiq, Waziri of Borno. It was officially approved by the Kanuri Language Board in Maiduguri, Nigeria, in 1975.[7]
Letters used : a b c d e ǝ f g h i j k l m n ny o p r ɍ s sh t u w y z.[8]
Pronouns
 SingularPlural
First personwú, úàndí
Second personnàndí, nàyí
Third persontàndí, tàyí
[9]
See also
Kanuri word list (Wiktionary)
Sources
References
  1. ^ Kanuri at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Central Kanuri at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Manga Kanuri at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Tumari Kanuri at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Bilma Kanuri at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Kanembu at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  2. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  3. ^ "Kanuri language". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  4. ^ Hutchison, John P. (1981). The Kanuri Language: A Reference Grammar. .: University of Wisconsin.
  5. ^ Cyffer, Norbert (1998). A sketch of Kanuri. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  6. ^ kanuri.net Archived 2006-11-08 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Dictionary of the Kanuri language. Norbert Cyffer, John P. Hutchison, 1990. ISBN 90-6765-412-4
  8. ^ According to alphabet kanuri — arrété 213-99 de la République du Niger Archived 2009-06-27 at the Wayback Machine (Chantal Enguehard – Université de Nantes) the letter schwa used in Kanuri is encoded in Unicode with U+01DD instead of U+0259, and its uppercase is Ǝ U+018E instead of Ə U+018F.
  9. ^ "Microsoft Word - Manga dictionary Unicode.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2021-03-08.
Sources
External links
Last edited on 14 March 2021, at 22:41
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit