The Kapudan Pasha
: قپودان پاشا
, modern Turkish
: Kaptan Paşa
), was the Grand Admiral
of the navy
of the Ottoman Empire
. He was also known as the Kapudan-ı Derya
(Ottoman Turkish: قپودان دریا
, modern: Kaptan-ı Derya
, "Captain of the Sea"). Typically, he was based at Galata
during the winter and charged with annual sailings during the summer months.
The title of Kapudan Pasha
itself is only attested from 1567 onwards; earlier designations for the supreme commander of the fleet include Derya Bey
of the sea") and Re'is Kapudan
The official residence of the Kapudan Pasha was in the Divankhane
in the Imperial Arsenal
in the Golden Horn, but he was often away as his governorship of the Eyalet of the Archipelago entailed visiting its various provinces in person every year.
The post was one of great power and prestige within the Ottoman hierarchy: Evliya Çelebi
reports that it had an annual income of 885,000 silver akçe
. Additional income, to the amount of 300,000 kuruş
in the 18th/19th centuries, came from leasing a number of Aegean islands to tax farmers
The heyday of the post was in the 16th century, when a succession of capable holders brought Ottoman naval power to its height, and for a time ensured its supremacy in the Mediterranean.
Although in theory the post could only be filled by a serving admiral (Kapudan-i Hümayun
), a chief of the Imperial Arsenal (Tersane Kethüdasi
) or, at the very least, by the sanjak-bey
, from the turn of the 17th century the appointment of court favourites and/or persons lacking in military or naval experience marked the beginning of Ottoman naval decline.
As a part of the Tanzimat reforms
, the Eyalet of the Archipelago was reduced in rank and granted to the wali
of Rhodes in 1848. The Kapudan Pashas retained their rank but were thereafter solely military servicemen.
A total of 161 captains served until 13 March 1867 when the post was abolished
and replaced by ministers (Bahriye Nazırı
) of the Ottoman Naval Ministry
. After 1877, these were replaced by the Fleet Commanders
- ^ a b c d Shaw, Stanford J. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol. 1, pp. 131 ff. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge), 1976. Accessed 12 Sept 2011.
- ^ a b c d e Ozbaran, S. (1978). "Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a". In van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. & Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IV: Iran–Kha. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 571–572. OCLC 758278456.
- ^ Langensiepen, B. & Güleryüz, Ahmet. The Ottoman Steam Navy, 1828–1923, p. 197. Naval Institute Press (Annapolis), 1995. ISBN 1-55750-659-0.
Bostan, İdris (2021). "Kapudan Paşa"
. In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE
. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830
Last edited on 19 April 2021, at 17:38
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