officially known as Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,
is a research university in the city of Leuven
. It conducts teaching, research, and services in computer science, engineering, natural sciences, humanities, medicine, law, business, and social sciences.
In addition to its main campus in Leuven, it has satellite campuses
, and in Belgium's capital Brussels
KU Leuven is the largest university in Belgium and the Low Countries
. In 2017–18, more than 58,000 students were enrolled. Its primary language of instruction is Dutch, although several programs are taught in English, particularly graduate degrees.
Although Catholic in heritage, KU Leuven operates independently from the Church.
KU Leuven is open to students from different faiths or life-stances.
Previous universities in Leuven
The city of Leuven has been the seat of three different universities.
The old University of Leuven (or Studium Generale Lovaniense
), founded in 1425 by the civil authorities of Brabant duke John IV of Brabant, as well as the municipal administration of the city of Leuven,
despite the initial opposition of the chapter of Sint-Pieter,
was formally integrated into the French Republic when the Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I, ceded the South Netherlands to France by the Treaty of Campo Formio
signed on 17 October 1797. A law dating to 1793, which mandated that all universities in France be closed, came into effect.
The old University of Leuven was abolished by decree of the Département of the Dyle
on October 25, 1797.
The Catholic University
The Catholic University of Leuven
was founded in 1834 in Mechelen
by the bishops of Belgium, after an official Papal Brief
of Pope Gregory XVI
. This new Catholic university stayed only briefly in Mechelen, as the bishops already moved the university headquarters to Leuven
on 1 December 1835, where it took the name Catholic University of Leuven. This occurred after the closure of the State university of Leuven
in 1835, where many professors of the old University of Leuven have taught. KU Leuven is generally (but controversially) identified as a continuation of the older institution; controversy lays in the fact that the continuation is mainly of a sociocultural and ecclesiastical nature, but cannot be maintained from a purely juridical perspective
as the old University was suppressed under French rule.C
In its statutes, KU Leuven officially declares to be the continuation of the Studium Generale Lovaniense
established in 1425,
and it sets out to celebrate its 600th anniversary in 2025.
In 1968, tensions between the Flemish-speaking and French-speaking communities led to the splitting
of the bilingual Catholic University of Leuven into two "sister" universities, with the Flemish-language university becoming a fully functioning independent institution in Leuven in 1970, and the Université catholique de Louvain
departing to a newly built greenfield campus site in the French-speaking part of Belgium. KU Leuven's first rector after the split was Pieter De Somer
In 1972, the KUL set up a separate entity Leuven Research & Development (LRD) to support industrial and commercial applications of university research. It has led to numerous spin-offs
, such as the technology company Metris, and manages tens of millions of euros in investments and venture capital.
The university's electronic learning environment, TOLEDO, which started in September 2001, was gradually developed into the central electronic learning environment at the KUL. The word is an acronym for TOetsen en LEren Doeltreffend Ondersteunen
(English: "effectively supporting testing and learning"). It is the collective name for a number of commercial software programs and tools, such as Blackboard
. The project offers the Question Mark Perception assignment software to all institution members and has implemented the Ariadne KPS
to reuse digital learning objects inside the Blackboard environment.
On 11 July 2002, the KU Leuven became the dominant institution in the "KU Leuven Association" (see below).
KU Leuven is a member of the Coimbra Group
(a network of leading European universities) as well as of the LERU Group
(League of European Research Universities). Since November 2014, KU Leuven's Faculty of Economics and Business is accredited by European Quality Improvement System
, which is a leading accreditation system specializing in higher education institutions of management and business administration.
As of academic year of 2012–2013, the university held Erasmus contracts with 434 European establishments. It also had 22 central bilateral agreements in 8 countries: the United States, China, South Africa, Japan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Vietnam, Poland, and the Netherlands. The vast majority of international EU students came from the Netherlands, while most non-EU ones come from China.
KU Leuven is financially independent from the Catholic Church. Although a representative from the Church sits in its Board of Governors, their function is observational and has no voting power. Its management and academic decisions are similarly autonomous.
In December 2011, the university changed its official name to KU Leuven in all official communications and branding.
While its legal name remains to be Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the university uses KU Leuven in all communications, including academic research publications.
The long name is only used in contracts and only on the first instance, according to university's communication guidelines. According to its then rector, the change is intended as a way to emphasize its history of freedom of academic inquiry and its independence from the Church, without erasure of its Catholic heritage.
In 2018, a student of African origin died during a cruel hazing ritual to enter the Reuzegom
The perpetrators, whose parents mostly belong to the upper class,
are being prosecuted, but were so far only lightly sanctioned by the university authorities.
As a consequence of these events, which attracted international media coverage,
the institution received criticism as to how it handled the matter.
Students study in learning center AGORA at KU Leuven.
KU Leuven's main campus is in Leuven
where school faculties, libraries, institutes, residence halls, the university hospital UZ Leuven
, and other facilities are interspersed throughout the city proper, as well as just outside its ring road in Heverlee borough.
Its intercultural meeting center Pangaea is located in the city center. The University Sports Centre is located in Heverlee, including Univ-Fit gym. In addition, the UNESCO World Heritage Site Groot Begijnhof
, a historic beguinage
in the south of city, is owned by the university and functions as one of its many residence halls.
Public transport within the city is primarily served by the De Lijn bus system. Leuven is a main hub in Belgium's and nearby country's train network. Leuven station is located in the northeast edge of the city.
Organization and academics
Academics at KU Leuven is organized into three groups, each with its own faculties, departments, and schools offering programs up to doctoral level. While most courses are taught in Flemish, many are offered in English, particularly the graduate programs.
Notable divisions of the university include the Higher Institute of Philosophy and the Rega Institute for Medical Research
The students of the university are gathered together in the student's council Studentenraad KU Leuven.
They have representatives in most meetings at the university, including the Board of Directors. It was separated from LOKO [nl]
in 2012-2013 when the different locations outside of Leuven became part of the university. LOKO remained the overarching student organisation for all students in the city of Leuven.
Biomedical Sciences Group
- Faculty of Medicine
- Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences
- Department of Cardiovascular Sciences
- Department of Oral Health Sciences
- Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences
- Department of Human Genetics
- Department of Imaging and Pathology
- Department of Kinesiology
- Department of Microbiology and Immunology
- Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
- Department of Neurosciences
- Department of Oncology
- Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
- Department of Rehabilitation Sciences
- Department of Development and Regeneration
- Department of Public Health and Primary Care
- Doctoral School of Biomedical Sciences
Humanities and Social Sciences Group
- Institute of Philosophy
- Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies
- Faculty of Canon Law
- Faculty of Law
- Faculty of Economics and Business
- Faculty of Social Sciences
- Faculty of Arts
- Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences
- Documentation and Research Center for Religion, Culture, and Society (KADOC)
- Leuven Language Institute
- Doctoral School for the Humanities and Social Sciences
Science, Engineering and Technology Group
- Faculty of Architecture
- Faculty of Science
- Faculty of Engineering Science
- Faculty of Bioscience Engineering
- Faculty of Engineering Technology
- Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
- Department of Architecture
- Department of Biology
- Department of Biosystems
- Department of Civil Engineering
- Department of Chemistry
- Department of Chemical Engineering
- Department of Computer Science
- Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT)
- Department of Materials Engineering
- Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems
- Department of Physics and Astronomy
- Department of Mechanical Engineering
- Department of Mathematics
- Center for Science, Technology, and Ethics (CWTE)
- Arenberg Doctoral School of Science, Engineering, and Technology
Science, Engineering and Technology Group
- European Centre for Ethics
- HIVA — Research Institute for Work and Society
- Interfaculty Centre for Agrarian History
- University Statistics Centre (UCS)
- KU Leuven University Energy Institute
- LUCAS — Centre for Care Research and Consultancy
Artes - Ladeuze Library
KU Leuven has 24 libraries and learning centers across its 12 campuses, containing millions of books and other media. Its theology library alone hold 1.3 million volumes, including works dating from the 15th century.
The following libraries are found at its Leuven campus:
- 2Bergen — Biomedical Library
- 2Bergen — Campuslibrary Arenberg (exact sciences, engineering sciences, industrial engineering sciences, bio—engineering sciences, architecture and kinesiology and rehabilitation sciences)
- Artes — Ladeuze & Erasmushuis (Humanities & Social Sciences Group and the Faculty of Arts)
- Library of Psychology and Educational Sciences
- Law Library
- Library of Social Sciences
- Library of the Institute of Philosophy
- AGORA Learning Centre
- EBIB Learning Centre
- MATRIX (music and audio recordings library)
- Maurits Sabbe Library (Library of the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies)
Universitair ziekenhuis Leuven
(UZ Leuven) is the teaching hospital associated with the KU Leuven. Its most well known and largest campus is Gasthuisberg, which also houses the faculty of pharmaceutical sciences and most of the faculty of medicine.
Breakthrough and notable research
According to IEEE Spectrum
in 2019 this is a giant leap from 0.1% efficiency 10 years earlier.
Students attending a conference at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
According to QS World University Rankings by Subject in 2019, KU Leuven ranked within the world's top 50 universities in the following fields: Sports-related Subjects (11), Theology (14), Dentistry (17), Classics and Ancient History (22), Library and Information Management (23), Psychology (24), Statistics and Operational Research (26), Mechanical Engineering (30), Philosophy (31), Geography (34), Pharmacy & Pharmacology (35), Education and Training (36), Law (37), Social Policy and Administration (39), Development Studies (43), Materials sciences (45), Chemical Engineering (46), Politics (49), Sociology (50), Life Sciences and Medicine (56), Social Sciences and Management (60), Arts and Humanities (61), Engineering and Technology (61). Also according to QS, many other KU Leuven programs rank within the top 100 in the world, including Linguistics, English Language and Literature, History, Anatomy and Physiology, Architecture, Anthropology, Computer Science and Information System, Biological Sciences, Civil and Structural Engineering, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Business and Management Studies, Mathematics, Economics and Econometrics, Chemistry, Accounting and Finance .
It has been suggested that this article be split
into multiple articles. (Discuss
) (May 2020)
- Leon Bekaert (b. 1958), economics, businessman
- Paul Bulcke (b. 1954), economics, businessman, CEO of Nestlé
- Jan Callewaert, economics, founder of Option N.V.
- Mathew Chandrankunnel (b. 1958), professor of philosophy of science at Dharmaram Vidya Kshetram
- Mathias Cormann (b. 1970), Belgian-born Australian Senator and Minister for Finance
- Jo Cornu, engineer, previous CEO of the National Railway Company of Belgium
- Joan Daemen (b. 1965), cryptographer, one of the designers of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
- Julien De Wilde (b. 1967), civil engineer, businessman
- Noël Devisch (b. 1943), agriculture
- Gabriel Fehervari (b. 1970) law, businessman
- Willy Geysen, law, head of the Centre for Intellectual Property Rights (CIR)
- Dr. A. Q. Khan (b. 1936), Founder of Pakistan's Nuclear Program
- Koen Lamberts (b. 1964), President and Vice-Chancellor, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)
- Georges Meekers (b. 1965), Belgian-born wine writer and educator
- Simon Mignolet (b. 1988), goalkeeper
- Martin Moors, philosopher
- Rudi Pauwels (b. 1960), pharmacologist, co-founder of Tibotec and Virco
- Vincent Rijmen (b. 1970), cryptographer, one of the designers of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
- Guðmundur Steingrímsson (b. 1972), Icelandic politician
- Francine Swiggers, economics, businesswoman
- Wu Rong-i, economics, former Vice Premier of Taiwan, Taiwanese politician
- Andreas Utermann, finance, former CEO of Allianz Global Investors
- Marc Van Ranst (b. 1965), physician, virologist
- Herman Van Rompuy (b. 1947), Belgian statesman, appointed President of the European Council in November 2009
- Jef Valkeniers, doctor and politician
- Frans Vanistendael, law
- Catherine Verfaillie (b. 1957) physician, stem cell scientist
- Koen Vervaeke (b. 1959), history, diplomat
- Koen Lenaerts, law, president of the European Court of Justice
- Peter Carmeliet, physician and medical scientist
It has been suggested that this article be split
into multiple articles. (Discuss
) (May 2020)
Notable recipients of honorary doctorates at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven include:
- Baudouin of Belgium (1951), King of the Belgians
- Albert II of Belgium (1961), King of the Belgians
- Timothy Garton Ash (2011), British historian and Professor of European Studies, University of Oxford
- Michelle Bachelet (2015), President of Chile
- Abhijit Banerjee (2014), Indian economist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople (1996)
- Roberto Benigni (2007), Italian actor, comedian, screenwriter and director of film, theatre and television.
- John Braithwaite (2008), Australian criminologist (application of the idea of restorative justice to business regulation and peacebuilding)
- Manuel Castells (2004), Professor of Sociology, Open University of Catalonia, University of Southern California
- Leon O. Chua (2013), professor in the electrical engineering and computer sciences department at the University of California, Berkeley
- Carla Del Ponte (2002), former Chief prosecutor of two United Nations international criminal law tribunals
- Jared Diamond (2008), professor of Geography and Physiology, UCLA
- Jacques Derrida (1989), French philosopher
- John Kenneth Galbraith (1972), Canadian economist
- Nadine Gordimer (1980), South African author, Booker Prize 1974, Nobel Prize in Literature 1991
- Alan Greenspan (1997), economist, former chairman of the Board of Governors of the US Federal Reserve
- Eugène Ionesco (1977), Romanian and French playwright
- Ban Ki-moon (2015), Secretary-General of the United Nations
- Helmut Kohl (1996), former Chancellor of Germany
- Christine Lagarde (2012), Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
- Mario Vargas Llosa (2003), Peruvian writer
- Michael Marmot (2014), British epidemiologist, University College London
- Martha Nussbaum (1997), American philosopher, University of Chicago
- Dirk Obbink, Lecturer in Papyrology and Greek Literature at Oxford University and the head of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri Project.
- Roger Penrose (2005), professor in Mathematical Physics, University of Oxford
- Navi Pillay (2012), United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
- Thomas S. Popkewitz (2004), professor of curriculum theory, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education
- Mary Robinson (2000), former President of Ireland
- Jacques Rogge (2012), President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC)
- Oscar Arnulfo Romero (1980), archbishop of San Salvador (El Salvador), human rights activist
- Helmut Schmidt (1983), former Chancellor of Germany
- Nate Silver (2013), American author and statistician
- Fiona Stanley (2014), Australian epidemiologist
- Rowan Williams (2011), Archbishop of Canterbury
- Angela Merkel (2017), German politician, Chancellor of Germany
- James P. Allison (2017), Immunologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018
Dutch pronunciation: [katoˈlikə ʔynivɛrsiˈtɛit ˈløːvə(n)]
According to the university's style guidelines, KU Leuven is the only official name in all languages. 
(in Dutch) However, according to the university's statutes,  KU Leuven
is an abbreviation of Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven, 
which is the university's legal name by the law of 28 May 1970 issuing legal personality to the institution, 
in the university's own official publications, 
with a variant Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
according to the Flemish Community of Belgium. 
The Old University of Leuven
(1425–1797) is the oldest university in the low countries, and the Catholic University of Leuven (1834) is generally, yet controversially, identified as a continuation of it. In the mid-1800s, Belgium's highest court, the Court of Cassation
, ruled that the 1834 "Catholic University of Leuven" was a different institution created under a different charter and thus cannot be regarded as continuing the 1425 "University of Leuven".
See also: History of the Old University of Leuven
- ^ 2019 annual report: https://www.kuleuven.be/over-kuleuven/pdf/jaarverslag-2019-ku-leuven.pdf
- ^ a b "Basic info legal entity KU Leuven". admin.kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
- ^ "About KU Leuven". www.kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- ^ "Studeren aan de KU Leuven, ook buiten Leuven – KU Leuven". Kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2015-10-18.
- ^ "International programmes". Kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- ^ a b https://www.usnews.com/education/best-global-universities/catholic-university-of-leuven-504785
- ^ a b c d "World University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 2019-08-20. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
- ^ a b c d "QS World University Rankings 2021". 8 January 2021.
- ^ a b c d "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020". www.shanghairanking.com. 8 January 2021.
- ^ "Reuters Top 100". Reuters. Retrieved 2019-07-11.
- ^ a b Bellefroid, Fred. "OECD Quality Assessment – Fostering Quality at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven" (PDF). OECD.
- ^ "Religion and Philosophical Diversity at KU Leuven". www.kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2020-05-08.
- ^ "Religion in Leuven". www.kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2020-05-08.
- ^ Nicolaus Vernulaeus, Academia Lovaniensis, Louvain, chez Petrus Sassenus, édition de 1667, p. 1 : Primus Academiae Conditor fuit Ioannes Quartus, Lotharingiae, Brabantiae, et Limburgiae Dux, Marchio Sacri Imperii, Hannoniae, Hollandiae, Zelandiae Comes, et Dominus Frisiae, Religionis et optimarum Artium Princeps amantissimus. Movit illum miseratio imprimis primariae in Brabantia Urbis Lovanii, quae intestinis afflicta seditionibus, dilapsisque in Angliam et aliò mercimoniis, ac diminuto Civium artificumque numero vacua pene facta erat, ut iterum instauraretur frequentareturque. En : Emiel Lamberts and Jan Roegiers, Leuven University, Louvain, 1990, p. 21 : « The foundation of Louvain was the work of both ducal and municipal authorities. John IV, the Duke of Brabant, encouraged by two of his councillors, Engelbert van Nassau and Edmund van Dynter, strongly favoured the etablishment of a higher centre of Learning in his dukedom ». Édouard Van Even, Louvain dans le passé et le présent, pp. 551-552: « C'est à Jean IV que les historiens ont attribué la gloire de cette fondation. ....Or, dans les comptes, nous avons constaté que l'université fut érigée par l'édilité louvaniste et que Jean IV n'a pas fait beaucoup plus que de permettre à son secrétaire d'adresser une supplique à la cour de Rome et de placeter les bulles d'érection ».
- ^ Édouard Van Even, Louvain dans le passé et le présent, p. 552: « On avait également besoin du concours de l'écolâtre du chapitre de Saint-Pierre, maître Guillaume Neve, alors le chef de l'instruction à Louvain. Dans le principe, ce fonctionnaire se montra hostile au projet. C'était, sans doute, affaire d'intérêt personnel. Quoi qu'il en soit, la ville se vit obligée de recourir à l'intervention d'un prêtre, appelé Rutger Reppen, pour conquérir l'écolátre à sa cause. Cet ecclésiastique dut rencontrer chez le fonctionnaire du chapitre une résistance sérieuse ».
- ^ Jules Delhaize, La domination française en Belgique, Brussels, 1909, tome III, p. 171 : « Les articles 3 et 4 du traité de Campo-Formio consacrèrent enfin, au point de vue international, la réunion de la Belgique à la France. Voici ces articles. Art. 3 - Sa Majesté l'Empereur, Roi de Hongrie et de Bohême, renonce pour elle et ses successeurs en faveur de la République française, à tous ses droits et titres sur les ci-devant provinces belgiques, connues sous le nom de Pays-Bas autrichiens. La République française possédera ces pays à perpétuité, en toute souveraineté et propriété, et avec tous les biens territoriaux qui en dépendent»
- ^ The law of 15 September 1793 had decreed the suppression of all the colleges and universities in France, but the universities remain de facto until the new law of 7 ventôse year III (25 February 1795) creating the Écoles centrales. In accordance with this law the University of Louvain was abolished by Decree of the Departement of the Dijle. Louis Trénard, De Douai à Lille, une université et son histoire, Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 1978, p.37 note 6.
- ^ Jan Roegiers et al., Leuven University, Leuven, Leuven University Press, 1990, p. 31: "With the Law of 3 Brumaire of Year IV, which reorganized higher education in the French Republic, there was no place for the University of Louvain, and it was abolished by Decree of the Departement of the Dijle on 25 october (1797)".
- ^ Souvenir du XXVe anniversaire de la fondation de l'Université catholique : Novembre 1859, Louvain, typographie Vanlinthout et Cie, 1860 : "Inaugurée à Malines, le 4 novembre 1834, l'Université catholique a célébré à Louvain, le jeudi 3 novembre 1859, sa vingt-cinquième année d'existence"Souvenir du XXVe anniversaire de la fondation de l'Université catholique: Novembre 1859.
- ^ a b Ruling of the Cour de Cassation of Belgium of 26 November 1846: "The Catholic University of Leuven can not be regarded as continuing the old University of Leuven", in, Table générale alphabétique et chronologique de la Pasicrisie Belge contenant la jurisprudence du Royaume de 1814 à 1850, Brussels, 1855, p. 585, column 1, alinea 2. See also: Bulletin Usuel des Lois et Arrêtés, 1861, p. 166.
- ^ "History". www.kuleuven.be. Retrieved Oct 4, 2020.
- ^ "EFMD EQUIS Accreditation for KU Leuven's Faculty of Economics and Business". Retrieved Oct 4, 2020.
- ^ a b "KU Leuven drops "Catholic" from its name | Flanders Today". www.flanderstoday.eu. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
- ^ News, Flanders (2011-12-26). "Leuven University changes its name". vrtnws.be. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
- ^ "Belgian support for innovative agricultural research".
- ^ Sanda Dia al eerder slachtoffer van racisme bij Reuzegom Het Laatste Nieuws, 30 August 2020
- ^ Antwerp governor’s son was member of student club involved in fatal hazing The Brussels Times, 08 August 2020
- ^ Studentengroepen eisen sterk signaal KU Leuven voor leden Reuzegom De Morgen, 6 August 2020
- ^ KU Leuven staff want tougher punishment for students involved in deadly hazing The Brussels Times, 04 August 2020
- ^ A Black Belgian Student Saw a White Fraternity as His Ticket. It Was His Death The New York Times, 4 October 2020
- ^ "Student Services Leuven". www.kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2020-05-09.
- ^ "Faculties, departments and schools". www.kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2020-05-09.
- ^ "Studentenraad KU Leuven". Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- ^ "... that our library has more than 1.3 million volumes?". Retrieved 2017-05-08.
- ^ "KU Leuven libraries". bib.kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2017-05-08.
- ^ https://www.kuleuven.be/english/research-stories/2019/solar-hydrogen-panels
- ^ a b Heremans, Gino; Trompoukis, Christos (2017). "Vapor-fed solar hydrogen production exceeding 15% efficiency using earth abundant catalysts and anion exchange membrane". Sustainable Energy & Fuels. 1 (10): 2061–2065. doi:10.1039/C7SE00373K. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
- ^ "Green Energy Breakthrough Thanks to KU Leuven Scientists". www.kuleuven.be. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
- ^ a b Gallucci, Maria (2019-03-13). "Solar Panel Splits Water to Produce Hydrogen". IEEE Spectrum. IEEE. Retrieved 2020-11-09. A research team in Belgium says its prototype panel can produce 250 liters of hydrogen gas per day
- ^ Members KU Leuven Association. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- ^ a b "World University Rankings 2020-2021". Center for World University Rankingsg. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- ^ a b "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2020 - P(top 10%)". CWTS Leiden Ranking. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- ^ "Reuters World's Top 100 Innovative Universities 2019". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
- ^ "U.S. News Education: Best Global Universities - Catholic University of Leuven". 26 December 2020.
- ^ "Best Global Universities in Belgium". U.S. News Education. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
- ^ Ewalt, David. "Europe's 100 Most Innovative Universities".
- ^ Studies (CWTS), Centre for Science and Technology. "CWTS Leiden Ranking". CWTS Leiden Ranking. Retrieved 2020-05-09.
- ^ "QS World University Rankings by Subject 2019". Top Universities. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- ^ "KU Leuven and UGent to confer joint honorary doctorate on Angela Merkel".
Last edited on 17 May 2021, at 19:55
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