The Khartoum massacre
occurred on 3 June 2019, when the armed forces of the Sudanese Transitional Military Council
, headed by the Rapid Support Forces
(RSF), the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed
used heavy gunfire and teargas to disperse a sit-in by protestors in Khartoum, killing more than 100 people,
with difficulties in estimating the actual numbers.
At least forty of the bodies had been thrown in the River Nile
Hundreds of unarmed civilians were injured, hundreds of unarmed citizens were arrested, many families were terrorised in their home estates across Sudan,
and the RSF raped
more than 70 women and men.
was almost completely blocked in Sudan in the days following the massacre, making it difficult to estimate the number of victims.
On 30 May, the SPA expressed concern that a lethal attack by the TMC was intended, stating that on 29 May, "two citizens including a pregnant lady were shot dead by the TMC forces." The SPA warned that military trucks of NISS, the RSF and other state security forces were accumulating around the area of the sit-in.
On 1 June, the SPA said that it had reason to believe that the TMC was "planning and working to end the peaceful sit-in at the headquarters with excessive force and violence" after three people were killed in incidents on the fringes of the demonstration during the previous week.
On 3 June 2019 the military armed forces of the TMC headed by the Rapid Support Forces
, the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed
militia and NISS, together with other TMC forces
used heavy gunfire and teargas as well as sound bombs
aiming at dispersing the sit-in killing more than 100
people with difficulties in estimating the actual numbers.
Estimating the numbers of victims was difficult in the days following the massacre because of Internet
blockage and the presence of security forces. The Internet in Sudan was almost completely blocked during and following the massacre,
Janjaweed militias had wide presence throughout Khartoum and prevented documenting the number of victims.
As of the evening of 4 June 2019, there were reports of a large number of victims in the field of the sit-in with difficulty evacuating them. There were several reports of bodies thrown into the Nile.
Hundreds of unarmed civilians were injured, hundreds of unarmed citizens were arrested and many families were terrorised in their home estates across Sudan.
Seventy women and men were raped by the RSF according to doctors in Khartoum hospitals.
On 9 June, witnesses reported the smell of rotten corpses coming from drainage channels and suspected that soldiers had thrown victims there.
In total, more than 200 military vehicles were used in the attack, with more than 10,000 soldiers and other unidentified personnel in police uniforms.
The following is a timeline of what took place in the Khartoum sit-in camp:
- 4:30 am: Janjaweed militias and NISS with other TMC forces started surveying the area of the sit-in camp in preparation for the attack.
- 4:55 am: Around 100 military vehicles belonging to Janjaweed militias, armed with heavy military firearms, including anti-aircraft weapons and carrying hundreds of armed soldiers. These soldiers were carrying weapons and sticks when they surrounded the Military HQ in Khartoum. The cars prevented the unarmed civilians from entering the Military HQ. Simultaneously, another 100 white pick-up trucks without number plates, full of soldiers in police uniforms, arrived. Other Janjaweed soldiers were also seen in huge numbers along Nile Street.
- 6:00 am - onward: The joint forces started the attack on the sit-in camp using live bullets, sound bombs and teargas, storming the civilians from all directions, leaving a narrow path for protesters to exit. The militia started burning the tents and shooting indiscriminately, leaving hundreds dead and injured and throwing many bodies into the Nile.
According to local resident and PhD student Mohammed Elnaiem, the first phase of the attack included discussion between RSF members and the regular army, and in the second phase, the army vehicles departed while RSF vehicles "drove through the barricades.
Following the massacre, some bodies were recovered that wore uniforms belonging to the Sudanese Army. Activists concluded that there had been army soldiers who refused to attack the protestors or had attempted to protect them, whereupon they too had been murdered.
Nahid Jabrallah attributed the murders to the RSF.
After the main attack, the RSF shot wounded protestors in three Khartoum hospitals.
documented evidence that the rapes of 70 women and men during the massacre
were a deliberate campaign to "break the girls".
Nahid Jabrallah, founder of the Sima Centre for Women and Children's Studies
, and other activists and journalists, stated that there were extensive testimonies of gang rapes
and other sexual violence by the RSF during the 3 June attacks. Huma, an activist, said that RSF soldiers humiliated women by asking them to remove their underwear.
Online social network images showing women's underwear on a pole and a room full of women's clothing were considered "unverified" as of 20 June 2019.
Jabrallah stated that "everyone was threatened with being raped if they resisted the RSF's orders."
International criminal lawyer Celine Bardet of We are not Weapons of War
said that evidence gathering for the systematic use of sexual violence as a tool of war needed separate consideration to other evidence gathering, because of social stigma against women testifying about the events. Bardet said that, as of June 2019, evidence was being collected about "a fair amount of sexual violence" that might be used as evidence of an international crime
, if the sexual violence were "systematic, targeted and [had] a specific objective".
Activist Dalia El Roubi stated that "the symbolism behind the rape of women is very substantial, it's aimed at breaking society" and that the sexual violence of the 3 June massacre was a deliberate action by the RSF to "break" communities in a similar way to which communities were "broken" in Darfur.
Pramila Patten from the United Nations
(UN) called for a UN human rights monitoring team to be sent to Sudan and for "rapes and gang rapes of protesters, women's rights defenders and women medical personnel working in hospitals near the sit-in" to stop.
Hala al-Karib, writing in Al Jazeera English
, said that local activists provided systematic support for the rape victims, "[extending] their hands to the hundreds of male and female sexual violence survivors and the families of those who were killed" with "discipline and the commitment to support the survivors of violence".
Al-Karib said that the activists "understood the root causes and politics behind sexual violence
" and "approached sexual violence as a crime connected [to] power relations", while "not [undermining] how personal it is as a crime". Al-Karib criticised the lack of support from international "multimillion-dollar agencies and NGOs" with "fancy conference rooms to strategise in", stating that the "actors that are traditionally tasked with addressing sexual violence [remained] unable or unwilling to end Sudan's sexual violence epidemic and help its survivors achieve justice."
On 12 June 2019, the Sudanese Doctors' Syndicate published a list of 104 people that were killed on or after 3 June, including 12 children.
The majority of the victims were killed by gunfire, while others were stabbed to death, burned, or had their skulls crushed after being run over by Janjaweed
pick-up trucks. The list below includes the name of the victim (some unidentified), the date of death, age, hospital and cause of death as indicated by the Sudanese Doctors' Syndicate:
Transitional Military Council and Rapid Support Forces
The military armed forces of the Transitional Military Council
(TMC), headed by the Rapid Support Forces
(RSF, derived from Janjaweed
militias) led by Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo
the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed
militia, are widely attributed as being responsible for the attack. The Daily Beast
attributed responsibility directly to RSF under Hemedti's command, based on videos,
testimonies by witnesses and interviews with civilian activists.
Three separate enquiries released statements to the media in late July 2019. On 27 July, an Attorney-General enquiry requested by the TMC attributed responsibility to "at least eight high-ranking officers" and stated a death toll of 87 and no rapes.
On 30 July, enquiries by the Darfur Bar Association and the National Umma Party attributed responsibility directly to the TMC,
confirmed the occurrences of rapes as part of the event,
and stated a total death toll of 124 (from 3 to 20 June).
On 27 July, Fathelrahman Saeed, the head of a committee appointed by the Attorney-General at the request of the TMC to investigate the massacre, stated that 87 people had been killed, 168 injured, no rapes had occurred and no tents had been burnt. Saeed stated that legal cases for crimes against humanity
had been launched against eight unnamed high-ranking security officers.
The Sudan Forensic Doctors Union described the result of the enquiry as "poor and defective", and the FFC, the Sudanese Women's Union, the Sudanese Professionals Association
and the Democratic Lawyers' Alliance rejected the report. Street protests took place in Khartoum in response to the report.
Darfur Bar Association enquiry
The Darfur Bar Association
(DBA) created a Truth and Fact-finding Committee to investigate the massacre, primarily the incidents of rape.
On 30 July, the DBA committee stated that eight rape victims were receiving psychological therapy; one in Omdurman had committed suicide as a result of the rape; one rape victim had been forced by social stigma to search for another home for her and her family. The DBA claimed that it had "ample evidence" of responsibility of TMC for the massacre and that the "decision to disband the sit-in" took place at a meeting including all TMC members, the Attorney-General, police chiefs and security directors.
The DBA committee argued that the Attorney-General enquiry was neither professional, independent nor impartial.
National Umma Party enquiry
The National Umma Party
formed an enquiry committee led by Yousef El Amin.
On 30 July, El Amin stated that the sit-in was disbanded by "a large military force wearing RSF uniforms and riot police" and that the massacre had been "premeditated and planned". He stated that 47 victims of the massacre died on 3 June, with a total of 124 dying from 3 to 20 June. He confirmed rapes, throwing of bodies into the Nile, and burning of tents.
, a human rights activist who became famous during the Arab Spring
, argued that the governments of Saudi Arabia
, the United Arab Emirates
(UAE) and Egypt
supported the carrying out of the massacre.
Some of the military vehicles and equipment used in the massacre were manufactured in the UAE.
The late May visits by TMC leader al-Burhan to the Egyptian president el-Sisi
and to the de facto ruler of the UAE, Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan
, and of the TMC deputy leader Dagalo to Mohammad bin Salman
, the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia, were interpreted by el-Baghdadi as encouragements for the TMC to cancel negotiations with the opposition and to carry out a massacre.
El-Baghdadi situates this in the general context of Saudi, UAE and Egyptian leaders being afraid of democratic movements.
Mahmoud Elmutasim, a political activist and doctor who graduated from the University of Khartoum
, stated that Saudi Arabia and the UAE are opposed to the existence of democracies in the Middle East, since if "the idea of democracy itself [should] ever take root, or become widespread in the Middle East," then it would constitute a threat to the governmental systems of Saudi Arabia and the UAE.
The New Arab
and Middle East Eye
similarly argued that "The blooded assault was launched shortly after top Sudanese generals visited Riyadh, Abu Dhabi and Egypt to secure support for their takeover, with observers arguing the transitional military council received a green light from the three powerful Arab states for their move".
After news of the massacre, Egypt called for restraint and the UAE called for dialogue and an investigation into the massacre. Emirati Minister of Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash
stated "We are concerned about the massacre we've seen. We support calls for proper investigation". Gargash also called for dialogue which he hoped would prevail in Sudan, stating "The regional experience has taught us that the orderly and conservative transition of the state and its institutions is the only way to avoid years of chaos and loss".
Transition period official investigation
According to an anonymous military official present at negotiations for the initial verbal deal, quoted by The Christian Science Monitor
, US negotiators led by Donald E. Booth
proposed that TMC members be guaranteed immunity from prosecution in the investigation. The military official stated, "The Americans demanded a deal as soon as possible. Their message was clear: power-sharing in return for guarantees that nobody from the council will be tried."
In late July, the FFC requested that the constitutional declaration, a document intended to add details complementary to the political agreement, should give no immunity against prosecution to any civilian or military leaders of the transition institutions.
On 5 March 2020, an investigation by Physicians for Human Rights
(PHR) stated that Sudanese security forces
had planned the attack against pro-democracy stagings in Khartoum. The report said that the 3 June massacre was carried out using techniques by the Sudanese
authorities in which they "purposefully pre-positioned" their units and armed them with tear gas
and assault rifles
before the attack was initiated. PHR stated, "Security forces' horrific tactics – sexual violence
, including rape
, use of tear gas, whips, batons
, and live ammunition
– killed and critically injured hundreds of civilians."
On Monday 4 June, Transitional Military Council
(TMC) cancelled all agreements reached during talks with the main opposition alliance on setting up a transitional administration. The sides had agreed on forming a parliament and a government that would prepare for elections after three years.
The leaders of the Declaration of Freedom and Change Forces
(DFCF) opposition alliance, said an open-ended civil disobedience campaign would continue to try to force the council from power.
The leaders also added that there is no room for negotiations," as military leaders attempted to do damage control in the face of international criticism of Monday's indiscriminate killings.
On Tuesday, Khartoum was tense with many roads barricaded by protesters, shops shut and streets mostly empty. Rapid Support Forces (RSF) vehicles were patrolling the streets in Omdurman, on the other side of the River Nile from Khartoum
and firing into the air.
On Tuesday the United Nations Security Council
met on at the request of Britain and Germany
to hear a briefing from UN envoy Nicholas Haysom
, who has been working with the African Union (AU) on a solution to the crisis in Sudan. But China, backed by Russia, blocked a bid to condemn the killing of civilians and issue an urgent call from world powers for an immediate halt to the violence.
On Wednesday 5 June, the DFCF called on all countries and international organisations to stop dealing with Sudan's Transitional Military Council. They also called on the international community to start looking into "the ongoing violations and crimes committed by (TMC) in all cities and towns and to stop it immediately." As reported by the Central Committee of Sudan Doctors (CCSD), an organisation of medical volunteers, dozens of bodies were pulled from the Nile Wednesday and doctors said they had been weighed down with rocks in an attempt to hide the true death toll.
On Thursday 6 June, the African Union
Peace and Security Department issued a statement suspending the participation of Sudan
in all AU activities with immediate effect - "until the effective establishment of a civilian-led transitional authority," which it described as the only way to "exit from the current crisis".
On Sunday 9 June 2019, normally a regular working day in Sudan, protesters launched a civil disobedience campaign aiming at removing the TMC. Four people were shot dead by the TMC forces in Khartoum.
As roads were blocked, almost all formal and informal businesses were closed, including, banks, public transport and Khartoum International Airport
, where several airlines cancelled their Sudan flights following the massacre and passengers were left waiting outside airport's departures terminal.
The general strike was followed by about 60–100% of workers, varying between sectors, for a total of 3 days
and was followed on 12 June by an agreement between the TMC and the opposition to free political prisoners, stop the strike, and resume negotiations
An online social media trend with the hashtag #BlueForSudan started several days after the massacre, representing solidarity for the protest movement, with blue signifying the favorite color of Mohamed Mattar, one of the victims of the massacre.
The United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres
, condemned the use of excessive force by Sudan's security agents and said he was "alarmed" by reports that forces had opened fire inside a hospital.
, United Kingdom
, United States
– On 4 June, the Troika issued a statement on developments in Sudan.
"The Troika condemns the violent attacks in Sudan on 3rd June, which resulted in the killing and injuring of many peaceful civilian protesters. By ordering these attacks, the Transitional Military Council has put the transition process and peace in Sudan in jeopardy. We call for an agreed transfer of power to a civilian-led government as demanded by the people of Sudan. We welcome the statement of the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) and support the important role of the AU in solving the crisis in Sudan, including its demand for an immediate handover to a civilian-led government". "The Troika also expresses its serious concern over the TMC’s announcement that it will cease negotiations with the Forces for Freedom and Change, retract all previous agreements with them on formation of an interim government, and will hold elections within nine months. The people of Sudan deserve an orderly transition, led by civilians, that can establish the conditions for free and fair elections, rather than have rushed elections imposed by the TMC’s security forces".
– On 3 June, issued the following statement "The Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki strongly condemns the violence that erupted today which led to reported deaths and several civilian injuries. In this regard, he calls for an immediate and transparent investigation in order to hold those all responsible accountable. The Chairperson calls on the Transitional Military Council to protect the civilians from further harm". "the Chairperson calls on all international partners to reinforce common efforts towards the immediate cessation of the violence and rapid resumption of negotiations for a political settlement.
Many Sudanese artists designed and created pieces of art that show the scale of the massacre. Khalid Kodi from Boston College
, United States
, made a painting that depicts a Sudanese woman in front of the military headquarters, with the woman symbolising the women who were raped
by the RSF
during the massacre.
- ^ Walsh, Declan (4 July 2019). "Sudan Power-Sharing Deal Reached by Military and Civilian Leaders". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- ^ Walsh, Declan (4 June 2019). "Sudan's Protesters Reject Military Plan After Crackdown Kills Dozens". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
- ^ a b c d e Salih in Khartoum, Zeinab Mohammed; Burke, Jason (11 June 2019). "Sudanese doctors say dozens of people raped during sit-in attack". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- ^ a b c d e f "Complete civil disobedience, and open political strike, to avoid chaos". Sudanese Professionals Association. 4 June 2019. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- ^ Albaih, Khalid (7 June 2019). "No, it's not over for the Sudanese revolution". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan leader vows to 'uproot regime'". 13 April 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ a b Kareem Khadder and Julia Hollingsworth. "Sudan death roll rises to 100 as bodies found in Nile, say doctors". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ a b Oliphant, Roland (3 June 2019). "Sudan protests: Thirty dead and more than 100 injured as troops disperse demonstrators". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ "Security forces in Sudan carry out raids across capital, killing at least 30". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan security forces shoot protesters at sit-in outside army headquarters". The Defense Post. 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ a b "Death toll in Sudan crackdown rises to 100 after 40 bodies recovered from Nile | IOL News". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "Protesters shot as Sudan military tries to clear Khartoum sit-in". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ a b "Turn the Internet Back On in Sudan, and Keep It On". Internet Society. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ a b Julia Hollingsworth, Gianluca Mezzofiore and Sarah El Sirgany. "At least 35 killed as Sudan military storms sit-in". CNN. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ FFC; TMC; IDEA; Reeves, Eric (10 August 2019). "Sudan: Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period". sudanreeves.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
- ^ FFC; TMC (4 August 2019). "(الدستوري Declaration (العربية))" [(Constitutional Declaration)] (PDF). raisethevoices.org (in Arabic). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
- ^ a b Abdelaziz, Khalid (21 October 2019). "Tens of thousands rally against former ruling party in Sudan". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- ^ a b "Sudan Activist: 'Committee of Inquiry should include women'". Radio Dabanga. 23 October 2019. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- ^ "What prompted the protests in Sudan?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko de (24 December 2018). "Sudanese Protests, After Days of Violence, Turn Anger Over Bread Toward Bashir". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan admits to 46 protest deaths". 6 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ Burke, Jason; correspondent, Africa; Salih, and Zeinab Mohammed (3 June 2019). "At least 30 Sudanese protesters feared killed as security forces attack Khartoum sit-in". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ Reuters (19 April 2019). "Sudan: huge crowds call for civilian rule in biggest protest since Bashir ousting". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ "'The politicking is starting': Sudanese protesters struggle to loosen military's grip". Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ Sanchez, Raf (15 April 2019). "Sudanese military forced to abandon attempt to clear protesters". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ correspondent, Jason Burke Africa (11 April 2019). "Sudan protesters reject army takeover after removal of president". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ correspondent, Jason Burke Africa (8 April 2019). "Sudan protests continue as security forces appear split". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ "Open Call for Urgent Action: Risk of Escalating Violence in the Sit-in area in Khartoum". www.sudaneseprofessionals.org. تجمع المهنيين السودانيين. 30 May 2019. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- ^ a b "Five dead as Sudan military rulers try to disperse sit-in". The East African. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan leader vows to 'uproot regime'". 13 April 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan military calls snap election after crackdown". 4 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- ^ "Khartoum residents in 'state of terror' after bloody crackdown". Capital News. 7 June 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ correspondent, Jason Burke Africa; Salih, and Zeinab Mohammed (5 June 2019). "Sudan paramilitaries threw dead protesters into Nile, doctors say". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "The Latest: Sudan official disputes protesters' death toll". kansas. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "تجمع المهنيين السودانيين – Sudanese Professionals Association". www.sudaneseprofessionals.org. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan's Livestream Massacre". BBC Africa Eye - YouTube. BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- ^ a b c Akram-Boshar, Shireen; Bean, Brian (13 June 2019). "Massacre and Uprising in Sudan". Jacobin. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- ^ a b c d Ismail, Nermin (9 June 2019). "Militiamen in Sudan raped men and women, says eyewitness". DW. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019. They say that some of the bodies were of men wearing Sudanese army uniforms," the human rights activist reports. Her analysis: "This means the militiamen also attacked some members of the army who showed solidarity with the demonstrators — either because they'd refused to participate in this crime, or because they were trying to protect women and girls from being raped. And so these men were murdered, too.
- ^ a b c d e "Sudanese activists seek justice for mass rapes after militia 'breaks the girls'". France 24. 20 June 2019. Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- ^ "UN seeks to verify reports of gang-rape by Sudan militias". France 24/AFP. 13 June 2019. Archived from the original on 21 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- ^ a b al-Karib, Hala (5 September 2019). "Sudan's youth showed us how to counter sexual violence". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- ^ "Sudan: The names of 100 people killed in a week of deadly violence". Middle East Eye. 30 July 2019. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- ^ "US names new envoy to Sudan as political crisis continues". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- ^ a b Bendimerad, Rym; Faisal, Natalia (13 June 2019). "#BlueforSudan: Why is social media turning blue for Sudan?". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- ^ Hendawi, Hamza (29 April 2019). "Out of the Darfur desert: the rise of Sudanese general Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo". The National (Abu Dhabi). Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- ^ "Sudan's Livestream Massacre". YouTube - BBC AFRICA EYE. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- ^ Lynch, Justin (5 June 2019). "Remember The Darfur Genocide? With Saudi Help, One of the Killer Commanders There Is Taking Over Sudan". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- ^ a b c "Angry response to June 3 massacre report in Sudan capital". Radio Dabanga. 29 July 2019. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- ^ a b c d e "Darfur Bar Ass report on June 3 Khartoum rape cases damns Sudan junta". Radio Dabanga. 31 July 2019. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
- ^ a b c d "NUP: June 3 Khartoum massacre premeditated and planned". Radio Dabanga. 31 July 2019. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
- ^ a b c d el-Baghdadi, Iyad (11 June 2019). "The Princes Who Want to Destroy Any Hope for Arab Democracy". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- ^ a b "Chaos reigns in Sudan as military clings to power amid information blackout". TRT World. 11 June 2019. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- ^ Arab, The New. "Sudan military backers UAE, Saudi Arabia call for 'dialogue' after Eid massacre". alaraby. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan crackdown: Saudis 'gave green light' for assault on protesters". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- ^ "WARIGI: Hidden hand in Sudan junta's about-turn on power sharing". Daily Nation. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudanese forces storm protest camp, more than 35 people killed: medics". Reuters. 3 June 2019.
- ^ "UAE senior official supports investigation of 'massacre' in Sudan". Middle East Monitor. 7 June 2019.
- ^ "'Our revolution won': Sudan's opposition lauds deal with military". Al Jazeera English. 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
- ^ "Sudan's military council to be dissolved in transition deal". WTOP-FM. AP. 8 July 2019. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
- ^ "Int'l community applauds Sudan political agreement". Radio Dabanga. 18 July 2019. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- ^ a b Idris, Insaf (17 July 2019). "Political Agreement on establishing the structures and institutions of the transitional period between the Transitional Military Council and the Declaration of Freedom and Change Forces" (PDF). Radio Dabanga. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- ^ Magdy, Samy (8 July 2019). "Sudan: International pressure enabled power-sharing pact". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
- ^ "Sudan's pro-democracy movement concludes Constitutional Declaration draft". Radio Dabanga. 28 July 2019. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- ^ "Hamdok forms investigation committee into attacks on pro-democracy protests". Radio Dabanga. 22 September 2019. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
- ^ "Sudan accused of masterminding lethal attacks on Khartoum protesters". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- ^ a b "Sudan opposition rejects military's transition plan after day of violence". Citizentv.co.ke. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ a b c Mohammed Tawfeeq, Kareem Khadder and Jonny Hallam. "Sudan opposition rejects calls for talks as crisis worsens following deadly crackdown". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "Urgent Call: Killing and burning at the sit-in". Sudanese Professionals Association. 3 June 2019. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- ^ Julia Hollingsworth. "Death toll rises to 60 following Sudan crackdown". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "Toll in Sudan army attack jumps as China, Russia block UN action". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan violence: 40 bodies pulled from Nile". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "Over 35 people killed in Sudan's protest site: CCSD - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". sudantribune.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "African Union suspends Sudan over military crackdown". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "African Union suspends Sudan, demands civilian administration". Reuters. 6 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- ^ "Deadly start to first day of 'civil disobedience' campaign in Sudan". France 24. 9 June 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan protesters begin civil disobedience campaign against military rulers". Daily Telegraph. The Telegraph/AFP. 9 June 2019. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ "Security forces tear-gas Sudan protesters". 9 June 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ France-Presse, Agence (9 June 2019). "Sudan protesters begin civil disobedience campaign against military rulers". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ Reuters. "Civil disobedience campaign empties streets of Sudan's capital". The Standard. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Sudan protest leaders call for civil disobedience against military rulers | DW | 9 June 2019". DW.COM. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ "Field Report – Evaluation on the General Strike and Civil Disobedience in the Professional, Vocational, Service and Local Sectors". Sudanese Professionals Association. 12 June 2019. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- ^ a b "Sudan army, protesters to resume talks on transitional council". Al Jazeera English. 12 June 2019. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- ^ "Sudan: Troika statement, June 2019". GOV.UK. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
- ^ "Joint Statement on Developments in Sudan". United States Department of State. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- ^ "US, Britain denounce Sudan military rulers' election plan". The East African. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- ^ "Statement of the Chairperson on the situation in Sudan | African Union". au.int. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
Last edited on 12 May 2021, at 21:32
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.