Khuzestani Arabic is only used in informal situations. It is not taught in school, not even as an optional course, although Modern Standard Arabic
Almost all Khuzestani Arabic speakers are bilingual in Arabic and Persian (the official language of Iran).
Khuzestani Arabic speakers are shifting to Persian; if the existing shift continues into the next generations, according to Bahrani & Gavami in Journal of the International Phonetic Association
, the dialect will be nearly extinct in the near future.
Khuzestani Arabic is spoken in Ahvaz
, and Bawi.
Contact and lexis
The Khuzestani Arabic dialect is in contact with Bakhtiari Lurish
, Persian and Mesopotamian Arabic
Although the lexis of the dialect is primarily composed of Arabic words, it also has Persian, English, French and Turkish
In the northern and eastern cities of Khuzestan, Luri
is spoken in addition to Persian, and the Arabic of the Kamari Arabs of this region is "remarkably influenced" by Luri.
In cities in Khuzestan such as Abadan, some of the new generations, especially females, often mainly speak Persian.
A number of Khuzestani Arabic speakers furthermore only converse in Persian at home with their children.
Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speaker's background.
Nevertheless, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic is particularly rich in uvular
, and pharyngealized
") sounds. The emphatic coronals
(/sˤ/, /dˤ/, /tˤ/, and /ðˤ/) cause assimilation
of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants.
The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ
⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ
⟩ (not used by all speakers) are only occasionally considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and they can be pronounced as /b/ ⟨ب
⟩ and /f/ ⟨ف
⟩ respectively depending on the speaker.
Khuzestani Arabic consonant phonemes
- /p/ and /v/ occur mostly in borrowings from Persian, and may be assimilated to /b/ or /f/ in some speakers.
- /ɡ/ is pronunciation of /q/ in Khuzestani Arabic and the rest of southern Mesopotamian dialects.
- The gemination of the flap /ɾ/ results in a trill /r/.
- ^ a b c Khuzestani Arabic: a case of convergence
- ^ Shabibi, Maryam (2006). Contact-induced grammatical changes in Khuzestani arabic (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.529368.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Bahrani, Nawal; Ghavami, Golnaz Modarresi (2019). "Khuzestani Arabic". Journal of the International Phonetic Association: 1. doi:10.1017/S0025100319000203.
- ^ Holes (2004:58)
- ^ Teach Yourself Arabic, by Jack Smart (Author), Frances Altorfer (Author)
- ^ Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (transl. of Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart, 1952)
Last edited on 15 May 2021, at 07:22
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