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Khuzestani Arabic
Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Gelet (Southern) Mesopotamian Arabic spoken by the Ahwazi Arabs in Khuzestan Province of Iran. It is also considered by most contemporary scholars to be a mix of Southern Mesopotamian Arabic and Gulf Arabic spoken in places such as Kuwait and Eastern Arabia. It has had a long history of contact with Persian language, leading to several changes.[1] The main changes are in word order, noun–noun and noun–adjective attribution constructions, definiteness marking, complement clauses, and discourse markers and connectors.[1][2]
Khuzestani Arabic
Native toIran
Afro-Asiatic
Khuzestani Arabic
Arabic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone
Khuzestani Arabic is only used in informal situations. It is not taught in school, not even as an optional course, although Modern Standard Arabic is taught.[1] Almost all Khuzestani Arabic speakers are bilingual in Arabic and Persian (the official language of Iran).[3] Khuzestani Arabic speakers are shifting to Persian; if the existing shift continues into the next generations, according to Bahrani & Gavami in Journal of the International Phonetic Association, the dialect will be nearly extinct in the near future.[3]
Distribution
Khuzestani Arabic is spoken in Ahvaz, Hoveyzeh, Bostan, Susangerd, Shush, Abadan, Khorramshahr, Shadegan, Hamidiyeh, Karun, and Bawi.[3]
Contact and lexis
The Khuzestani Arabic dialect is in contact with Bakhtiari Lurish, Persian and Mesopotamian Arabic.[3] Although the lexis of the dialect is primarily composed of Arabic words, it also has Persian, English, French and Turkish loanwords.[3] In the northern and eastern cities of Khuzestan, Luri is spoken in addition to Persian, and the Arabic of the Kamari Arabs of this region is "remarkably influenced" by Luri.[3] In cities in Khuzestan such as Abadan, some of the new generations, especially females, often mainly speak Persian.[3] A number of Khuzestani Arabic speakers furthermore only converse in Persian at home with their children.[3]
Phonology
Vowels
Consonants
Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speaker's background.[4] Nevertheless, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic is particularly rich in uvular, pharyngeal, and pharyngealized ("emphatic") sounds. The emphatic coronals (/sˤ/, /dˤ/, /tˤ/, and /ðˤ/) cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants.[citation needed] The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are only occasionally considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and they can be pronounced as /b/ ⟨ب⟩ and /f/ ⟨ف⟩ respectively depending on the speaker.[5][6]
Khuzestani Arabic consonant phonemes
LabialDentalDenti-alveolarPalatalVelarUvularPharyngealGlottal
plainemphatic1
Nasalmn
Stopvoiceless(p)tkʔ
voicedbdg
Fricativevoicelessfθsʃx ~ χħh
voiced(v)ðzðˤɣ ~ ʁʕ
Affricatevoiceless
voicedd͡ʒ
Tapɾ
Approximantl(ɫ)jw
Phonetic notes:
See also
Al-Ahvaz TV
References
  1. ^ a b c Khuzestani Arabic: a case of convergence
  2. ^ Shabibi, Maryam (2006). Contact-induced grammatical changes in Khuzestani arabic (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.529368.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Bahrani, Nawal; Ghavami, Golnaz Modarresi (2019). "Khuzestani Arabic". Journal of the International Phonetic Association: 1. doi​:​10.1017/S0025100319000203​.
  4. ^ Holes (2004:58)
  5. ^ Teach Yourself Arabic, by Jack Smart (Author), Frances Altorfer (Author)
  6. ^ Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (transl. of Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart, 1952)

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Last edited on 15 May 2021, at 07:22
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