"Kiev" redirects here. For the chicken dish, see Chicken Kiev
Kyiv is an important industrial, scientific, educational and cultural center of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech
industries, higher education institutions, and historical landmarks. The city has an extensive system of public transport and infrastructure, including the Kyiv Metro
The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi
, one of its four legendary founders. During its history
, Kyiv, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of prominence and obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial center as early as the 5th century. A Slavic
settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia
, Kyiv was a tributary of the Khazars
until its capture by the Varangians
) in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus'
, the first East Slavic
state. Completely destroyed during the Mongol invasions
in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours, first Lithuania
, then Poland
The Ukrainian name is Ки́їв, written in the Ukrainian Cyrillic alphabet
, and usually rendered in Latin letters (or romanized
) as Kyiv
Before standardization of the alphabet in the early twentieth century, the name was also spelled Кыѣвъ, Киѣвъ, or Кіѣвъ with the now-obsolete letter yat
. The Old Ukrainian spelling from the 14th and 15th centuries was nominally *Києвъ, but various attested spellings include кїєва (gen.
), Кїєвь and Киев (acc.
), кїєво or кїєвом (ins.
), києвє, Кіеве, Кїєвѣ, Києвѣ, or Киѣве (loc.
is the romanized
official Ukrainian name for the city,
and it is used for legislative and official acts. Kiev
is the traditional English name for the city,
but because of its historical derivation from the Russian name, Kiev
became disfavored in many Western media outlets after the outbreak of the Russo-Ukrainian War
The city was known by various names in history. In the Norse sagas it was Kænugarðr
meaning city of the Kyivans (from Old East Slavic
: кияне, romanized: kijane
which survives in modern Icelandic Kænugarður
. Perhaps the earliest original manuscript to name the city is the Kyivan letter
, written ca. 930 AD by representatives of the city's Jewish community, with the name written as קייוב׳
In the Byzantine Greek of Constantine Porphyrogenitus's tenth-century De Administrando Imperio
it was Κιοάβα, Kioava
, Κίοβα, Kiova
, and "also called Sambatas", Σαμβατάς.
In Arabic, it was كويابة
work of 951 AD,
according to ibn Rustah
and other tenth-century authors.
In the medieval Latin of Thietmar of Merseburg's Chronicon
it was mentioned for the year 1015 as Cuieva
After it was rebuilt in the fifteenth century, Kyiv was called by the Turkic (Crimean Tatar
) name Menkerman
Today, the city is known as Kijów in Polish, and Киев, Kiyev, in Russian.
As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution. Early English sources spelled this word as Kiou
. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae
published by Ortelius
(London, 1570) the name of the city is spelled Kiou
. On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan
, the name of the city is Kiiow
, and the region was named Kÿowia
. In the book Travels
, by Joseph Marshall (London, 1772), the city is called Kiovia
In English, Kiev
appeared in print as early as 1804 in John Cary
's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities", and in Mary Holderness's 1823 travelogue New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev
The Oxford English Dictionary
in a quotation published by 1883, and Kyiv
Fragment of the New Universal Atlas
by John Cary
, London, 1808. The city was situated on the borderline between the former Polish
(left) and Russian
(right) zones of influence, with the name being Russified to Kiev
After Ukraine's 1991 independence, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names
into the Latin alphabet for legislative and official acts in October 1995,
according to which the Ukrainian name Київ is romanized
. These rules are applied for place names and addresses, as well as personal names in passports, street signs, and so on. In 2018, the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry launched #CorrectUA, an online campaign to promote the use of official Ukrainian spellings by countries and organizations, in place of "outdated, Soviet-era" place-names.
The place name Kyiv
is standardized in the authoritative database of Ukraine's toponyms maintained by Ukraine's mapping agency Derzhheokadastr. It has also been adopted by the United Nations GEGN Geographical Names Database,
the United States Board on Geographic Names
the International Air Transport Association
the European Union
English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions
several international organizations,
and the Encyclopædia Britannica
. Some English-language news sources have adopted Kyiv
in their style guides, including the AP
news services, media organizations in Ukraine,
and some media organizations in Canada,
the United Kingdom,
and the United States.
The first known humans in the region of Kyiv lived there in the late paleolithic period
The population around Kyiv during the Bronze Age
formed part of the so-called Trypillian culture
, as evidenced by artifacts from that culture found in the area.
During the early Iron Age
certain tribes settled around Kyiv that practiced land cultivation, husbandry and trading with the Scythians
and ancient states of the northern Black Sea coast.
Findings of Roman coins of the 2nd to the 4th centuries suggest trade relations with the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire
The people of the Zarubintsy culture
are considered the direct ancestors of the ancient Slavs who later established Kyiv.
Notable archaeologists of the area around Kyiv include Vikentiy Khvoyka
Scholars continue to debate when the city was founded: the traditional founding date is 482 AD, so the city celebrated its 1500 anniversary in 1982. Archaeological data indicates a founding in the sixth or seventh centuries,
with some researchers dating the founding as late as the late 9th century,
There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the city. One tells of members of a Slavic tribe (Polans
), brothers Kyi
(the eldest, after whom the city was named) Shchek and Khoryv
, and their sister Lybid
, who founded the city (See the Primary Chronicle
Another legend states that Saint Andrew
passed through the area in the 1st century. Where the city is now he erected a cross, where a church later was built.[by whom?]
Since the Middle Ages
an image of Saint Michael
has represented the city as well as the duchy
There is little historical evidence pertaining to the period when the city was founded. Scattered Slavic
settlements existed in the area from the 6th century, but it is unclear whether any of them later developed into the city. On the Ptolemy world map
there are several settlements indicated along the mid-stream of Borysthenes
, among which is Azagarium, which some historians believe to be the predecessor to Kyiv.
However, according to the 1773 "Dictionary of Ancient Geography" of Alexander Macbean
, that settlement corresponds to the modern city of Chernobyl
. Just south of Azagarium, there is another settlement, Amadoca, which is supposed as the capital of Amadoci people
living in area between marshes of Amadoca in the west and Amadoca mountains in the east.
Another name for Kyiv mentioned in history, the origin of which is not completely clear, is Sambat, which apparently has something to do with the Khazar Empire
. The Primary Chronicle
says the residents of Kyiv told Askold
"there were three brothers Kyi, Shchek, and Khoriv. They founded this town and died, and now we are staying and paying taxes to their relatives the Khazars". In his book De Administrando Imperio
, Constantine Porphyrogenitus
mentions a caravan of small-cargo boats which assembled annually, and writes, "They come down the river Dnieper and assemble at the strong-point of Kyiv (Kioava), also called Sambatas".
Other historians suggest that Magyar tribes ruled the city between 840 and 878, before migrating with some Khazar
tribes to the Carpathian Basin
. The Primary Chronicles also mention movement of Hungarians pass Kyiv. To this day in Kyiv exists a place known as "Uhorske urochyshche
" (Hungarian place),
which is better known as Askold's Grave
According to the aforementioned scholars the building of the fortress of Kyiv was finished in 840 under the leadership of Keő (Keve), Csák, and Geréb, three brothers, possibly members of the Tarján tribe
. The three names appear in the Kyiv Chronicle as Kyi, Shchek, and Khoryv
and may be not of Slavic origin, as Russian historians have always struggled to account for their meanings and origins. According to Hungarian historian Viktor Padányi, their names were inserted into the Kyiv Chronicle in the 12th century, and they were identified as old-Russian mythological heroes.
These events had a profound effect on the future of the city and on the East Slavic civilization
. Before Bogolyubsky's pillaging, Kyiv had had a reputation as one of the largest cities in the world, with a population exceeding 100,000 in the beginning of the 12th century.
In the early 1320s, a Lithuanian army led by Grand Duke Gediminas
defeated a Slavic army led by Stanislav of Kyiv
at the Battle on the Irpen' River
and conquered the city. The Tatars
, who also claimed Kyiv, retaliated in 1324–1325, so while Kyiv was ruled by a Lithuanian prince, it had to pay tribute to the Golden Horde
. Finally, as a result of the Battle of Blue Waters
in 1362, Algirdas
, Grand Duke of Lithuania, incorporated Kyiv and surrounding areas into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
In 1482, Crimean Tatars
sacked and burned much of Kyiv.
The 1686 city map of Kyiv ("Kiovia")
With the 1569 (Union of Lublin
), when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
was established, the Lithuanian-controlled lands of the Kyiv region (Podolia
, and Podlachia
) were transferred from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
, and Kyiv became the capital of Kyiv Voivodeship
The 1658 Treaty of Hadiach
envisaged Kyiv becoming the capital of the Grand Duchy of Rus'
within the Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth
but this provision of the treaty never went into operation.
Occupied by the Russian troops since the 1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav
, Kyiv became a part of the Tsardom of Russia
from 1667 on the Truce of Andrusovo
and enjoyed a degree of autonomy. None of the Polish-Russian treaties concerning Kyiv have ever been ratified.
In the Russian Empire
, Kyiv was a primary Christian centre, attracting pilgrims
, and the cradle of many of the empire's most important religious figures, but until the 19th century, the city's commercial importance remained marginal.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, Russian military
and ecclesiastical authorities dominated city life;
the Russian Orthodox Church
had involvement in a significant part of Kyiv's infrastructure and commercial activity. In the late 1840s the historian, Mykola Kostomarov(Russian: Nikolay Kostomarov)
, founded a secret political society, the Brotherhood of Saint Cyril
, whose members put forward the idea of a federation of free Slavic peoples with Ukrainians as a distinct and separate group rather than a subordinate part of the Russian nation; the Russian authorities quickly suppressed the society.
Following the gradual loss of Ukraine's autonomy, Kyiv experienced growing Russification in the 19th century by means of Russian migration, administrative actions and social modernization. At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian
-speaking part of the population dominated the city centre, while the lower classes
living on the outskirts retained Ukrainian folk culture
to a significant extent.
However, enthusiasts among ethnic Ukrainian nobles, military and merchants made recurrent attempts to preserve native culture in Kyiv, by clandestine book-printing, amateur theatre, folk studies etc.
Kyiv in the late 19th century
During the Russian industrial revolution
in the late 19th century, Kyiv became an important trade and transportation centre of the Russian Empire
, specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and on the Dnieper river. By 1900, the city had also become a significant industrial centre, having a population of 250,000. Landmarks of that period include the railway infrastructure, the foundation of numerous educational and cultural facilities, and notable architectural monuments (mostly merchant-oriented). In 1892, the first electric tram line
of the Russian Empire started running in Kyiv (the 3rd in the world).
Kyiv's council chambers in 1930
In 1934, Kyiv became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The city boomed again during the years of Soviet industrialization as its population grew rapidly and many industrial giants were established, some of which exist today.
In World War II
, the city again suffered significant damage, and Nazi Germany
occupied it from 19 September 1941 to 6 November 1943
. Axis forces killed or captured more than 600,000 Soviet soldiers in the great encirclement Battle of Kyiv
in 1941. Most of those captured never returned alive.
Shortly after the Wehrmacht
occupied the city, a team of NKVD
officers who had remained hidden dynamited most of the buildings on the Khreshchatyk
, the main street of the city, where German military and civil authorities had occupied most of the buildings; the buildings burned for days and 25,000 people were left homeless.
Allegedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded up all the local Jews
they could find, nearly 34,000,
and massacred them at Babi Yar
in Kyiv on 29 and 30 September 1941.
In the months that followed, thousands more were taken to Babi Yar where they were shot. It is estimated that the Germans murdered more than 100,000 people
of various ethnic groups, mostly civilians, at Babi Yar during World War II.
The Ukrainian national flag was raised outside Kyiv's City Hall for the first time on 24 July 1990.
Kyiv recovered economically in the post-war years, becoming once again the third-most important city of the Soviet Union. The catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
in 1986 occurred only 100 km (62 mi) north of the city. However, the prevailing south wind blew most of the radioactive debris away from Kyiv.
Geographically, Kyiv is located on the border of the Polesia
woodland ecological zone, a part of the European mixed woods area, and the East European forest steppe biome
. However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the surrounding region. Kyiv is completely surrounded by Kyiv Oblast
Originally on the west bank, today Kyiv is located on both sides of the Dnieper
, which flows southwards through the city towards the Black Sea
. The older and higher western part of the city sits on numerous wooded hills (Kyiv Hills
), with ravines and small rivers. Kyiv's geographical relief contributed to its toponyms
, such as Podil (means lower), Pechersk (caves), and uzviz (a steep street, "descent"). Kyiv is a part of the larger Dnieper Upland
adjoining the western bank of the Dnieper in its mid-flow, and which contributes to the city's elevation change. The northern outskirts of the city border the Polesian Lowland
. Kyiv expanded into the Dnieper Lowland
on the left bank (to the east
) as late as the 20th century. The whole portion of Kyiv on the left bank of the Dnieper is generally referred to as Left bank
: Лівий берег, Livyi bereh). Significant areas of the left bank Dnieper valley were artificially sand-deposited, and are protected by dams.
Within the city the Dnieper River forms a branching system of tributaries
, isles, and harbors within the city limits. The city is close to the mouth of the Desna River
and the Kyiv Reservoir
in the north, and the Kaniv Reservoir
in the south. Both the Dnieper and Desna rivers are navigable
at Kyiv, although regulated by the reservoir shipping locks and limited by winter freeze-over.
In total, there are 448 bodies of open water within the boundaries of Kyiv, which include the Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds. They occupy 7949 hectares. Additionally, the city has 16 developed beaches (totalling 140 hectares) and 35 near-water recreational areas (covering more than 1,000 hectares). Many are used for pleasure and recreation, although some of the bodies of water are not suitable for swimming.
Kyiv has a warm-summer humid continentalclimate
The warmest months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of 13.8 to 24.8 °C (56.8 to 76.6 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with mean temperatures of −4.6 to −1.1 °C (23.7 to 30.0 °F). The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F) on 30 July 1936.
The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was −32.9 °C (−27.2 °F) on 11 January 1951.
Snow cover usually lies from mid-November to the end of March, with the frost-free period lasting 180 days on average, but surpassing 200 days in some years.
Legal status, local government and politics Legal status and local government
Most key buildings of the national government are located along Hrushevskoho Street
(vulytsia Mykhaila Hrushevskoho) and Institute Street (vulytsia Instytutska). Hrushevskoho Street is named after the Ukrainian academician, politician, historian, and statesman Mykhailo Hrushevskyi
, who wrote an academic book titled: "Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII" about the history of Bar, Ukraine
That portion of the city is also unofficially known as the government quarter (Ukrainian
: урядовий квартал).
The city state administration and council is located in the Kyiv City council building on Khreshchatyk
Street. The oblast state administration and council is located in the Kyiv Oblast
council building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky (Lesya Ukrayinka Square). The Kyiv-Sviatoshyn Raion
state administration is located near Kiltseva doroha (Ring Road) on prospekt Peremohy (Victory Parkway), while the Kyiv-Svyatoshyn Raion local council is located on vulytsia Yantarna (Yantarnaya Street).
Government buildings in Kyiv
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it
. (August 2013)
View to the left bank neighbourhoods of Kyiv
The Dnieper River
naturally divides Kyiv into the Right Bank and the Left Bank areas. Historically located on the western right bank of the river, the city expanded into the left bank only in the 20th century. Most of Kyiv's attractions as well as the majority of business and governmental institutions are located on the right bank. The eastern 'Left Bank' is predominantly residential. There are large industrial and green areas in both the Right Bank and the Left Bank.
Kyiv is further informally divided into historical or territorial neighbourhoods, each housing from about 5,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.
view of Right-Bank Kyiv, where the city centre is located (May 2011)
The first known formal subdivision of Kyiv dates to 1810 when the city was subdivided into 4 parts: Pechersk
, Starokyiv, and the first and the second parts of Podil
. In 1833–1834 according to Tsar Nicholas I
's decree, Kyiv was subdivided into 6 police raions
(districts); later being increased to 10. In 1917, there were 8 Raion Councils (Duma
), which were reorganised by bolsheviks
into 6 Party-Territory Raions.
During the Soviet era, as the city was expanding, the number of raions also gradually increased. These newer districts of the city, along with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new, fresher minds, so too did the names of Kyiv's districts change accordingly.
The last raion reform took place in 2001 when the number of raions has been decreased from 14 to 10.
Under Oleksandr Omelchenko
from 1999 to 2006), there were further plans for the merger of some raions and revision of their boundaries, and the total number of raions had been planned to be decreased from 10 to 7. With the election of the new mayor-elect (Leonid Chernovetsky
) in 2006, these plans were shelved.
According to the official registration
statistics, there were 2,847,200 residents within the city limits of Kyiv in July 2013.
According to the All-Ukrainian Census
, the population of Kyiv in 2001 was 2,611,300.
The historic changes in population are shown in the side table. According to the census, some 1,393,000 (53.3%) were female and 1,219,000 (46.7%) were male. Comparing the results with the previous census (1989) shows the trend of population ageing
which, while prevalent throughout the country, is partly offset in Kyiv by the inflow of working age migrants. Some 1,069,700 people had higher or completed secondary education, a significant increase of 21.7% since 1989.
The June 2007 unofficial population estimate based on amount of bakery
products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors and commuters) gave a number of at least 3.5 million people.
According to the 2001 census data, more than 130 nationalities and ethnic groups reside within the territory of Kyiv. Ukrainians
constitute the largest ethnic group
in Kyiv, and they account for 2,110,800 people, or 82.2% of the population. Russians
comprise 337,300 (13.1%), Jews 17,900 (0.7%), Belarusians
16,500 (0.6%), Poles
6,900 (0.3%), Armenians
4,900 (0.2%), Azerbaijanis
2,600 (0.1%), Tatars
2,500 (0.1%), Georgians
2,400 (0.1%), Moldovans
and Russian are commonly spoken in the city; approximately 75% of Kyiv's population responded "Ukrainian" to the 2001 census question on their native language, roughly 25% responded "Russian".
According to a 2006 survey, Ukrainian is used at home by 23% of Kyivans, 52% use Russian and 24% switch between both.
In the 2003 sociological survey, when the question 'What language do you use in everyday life?' was asked, 52% said 'mostly Russian', 32% 'both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure', 14% 'mostly Ukrainian', and 4.3% 'exclusively Ukrainian'.
According to the census of 1897, of Kyiv's approximately 240,000 people approximately 56% of the population spoke the Russian language, 23% spoke the Ukrainian language, 13% spoke Yiddish, 7% spoke Polish and 1% spoke the Belarusian language.
A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute
found that 94% of Kyiv was ethnic Ukrainian, and 5% ethnic Russian. The languages spoken at home were Ukrainian (27%), Russian (32%), and an equal combination of Ukrainian and Russian (40%).
The Jews of Kyiv are first mentioned in a 10th century letter
, but the Jewish population remained relatively small until the nineteenth century.
A series of pogroms
was carried out in 1882, and another in 1905. On the eve of World War I
, the city's Jewish population was over 81,000,
and by 1939 there were approximately 224,000 Jews in Kyiv,
some of whom fled the city ahead of the German invasion
of the Soviet Union that began in June 1941. On 29 and 30 September 1941, nearly 34,000 Kyivan Jews were massacred at Babi Yar
by the German Wehrmacht
, Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
, and local collaborators.
Jews began returning to Kyiv at the end of the war, but experienced another pogrom in September 1945.
In the 21st century, Kyiv's Jewish community numbers about 20,000. There are two major synagogues in the city: the Great Choral Synagogue
and the Brodsky Choral Synagogue
Modern Kyiv is a mix of the old (Kyiv preserved about 70 percent of more than 1,000 buildings built during 1907–1914
) and the new, seen in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the people themselves. When the capital of the Ukrainian SSR
was moved from Kharkiv
to Kyiv many new buildings were commissioned to give the city "the gloss and polish of a capital".
In the discussions that centered on how to create a showcase city center, the current city center of Khreshchatyk
and Maidan Nezalezhnosti
(Independence Square) were not the obvious choices.
Some of the early, ultimately not materialised, ideas included a part of Pechersk
, European Square
and Mykhailivska Square
The plans of building massive monuments (of Vladimir Lenin
and Joseph Stalin
) were also abandoned; due to lack of money (in the 1930s–1950s) and because of Kyiv's hilly landscape.
Experiencing rapid population growth between the 1970s and the mid-1990s, the city has continued its consistent growth after the turn of the millennium. As a result, Kyiv's central districts provide a dotted contrast of new, modern buildings among the pale yellows, blues and greys of older apartments. Urban sprawl has gradually reduced, while population densities of suburbs has increased. The most expensive properties are located in the Pechersk, and Khreshchatyk areas. It is also prestigious to own a property in newly constructed buildings in the Kharkivskyi Raion
along the Dnieper.
at the turn of the millennium has heralded other changes. Western-style residential complexes, modern nightclubs
, classy restaurants and prestigious hotels opened in the centre. And most importantly, with the easing of the visa rules in 2005,
Ukraine is positioning itself as a prime tourist attraction, with Kyiv, among the other large cities, looking to profit from new opportunities. The centre of Kyiv has been cleaned up and buildings have been restored and redecorated, especially Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Many historic areas of Kyiv, such as Andriyivskyy Descent
, have become popular street vendor locations, where one can find traditional Ukrainian art
, religious items, books, game sets (most commonly chess
) as well as jewellery for sale.
Numerous songs and paintings were dedicated to the city. Some songs became part of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish folklore, less known are German and Jewish. The most popular songs are "How not to love you, Kyiv of mine?" and "Kyiv Waltz". Renowned Ukrainian composer Oleksandr Bilash
wrote an operetta called "Legend of Kyiv".
It is said that one can walk from one end of Kyiv to the other in the summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. Most characteristic are the horse-chestnuts
: каштани, kashtany
Among the numerous islands, Venetsianskyi (or Hydropark
) is the most developed. It is accessible by metro or by car, and includes an amusement park, swimming beaches, boat rentals, and night clubs. The Victory Park (Park Peremohy
) located near Darnytsia subway station is a popular destination for strollers, joggers, and cyclists. Boating, fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes in Kyiv. The area lakes and rivers freeze over in the winter and ice fishermen are a frequent sight, as are children with their ice skates. However, the peak of summer draws out a greater mass of people to the shores for swimming or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures sometimes reaching 30 to 34 °C (86 to 93 °F).
Lilacs in the National Botanical Garden, with the Vydubychi Monastery
, Darnitskiy Rail Bridge and left-bank Kyiv visible in the background
A wide variety of farm produce is available in many of Kyiv's farmer markets with the Besarabsky Market
located in the very centre of the city being most famous. Each residential region has its own market, or rynok
. Here one will find table after table of individuals hawking everything imaginable: vegetables, fresh and smoked meats, fish, cheese, honey, dairy products such as milk and home-made smetana
(sour cream), caviar
, cut flowers, housewares, tools and hardware, and clothing. Each of the markets has its own unique mix of products with some markets devoted solely to specific wares such as automobiles, car parts, pets, clothing, flowers, and other things.
Kyiv also has numerous recreational attractions like bowling alleys, go-cart tracks, paintball venues, billiard halls and even shooting ranges. The 100-year-old Kyiv Zoo
is located on 40 hectares and according to CBC "the zoo has 2,600 animals from 328 species".
Museums and galleries
Kyiv is home to some 40 different museums.
In 2009 they recorded a total of 4.3 million visits.
The annual 5.5-kilometre (3.4-mile) 'Run under the Chestnuts' is a popular public sporting event in Kyiv, with hundreds taking part every year.
Other prominent non-football sport clubs in the city include: the Sokil Kyiv
ice hockey club and BC Budivelnyk
basketball club. Both of these teams play in the highest Ukrainian leagues for their respective sports. Budivelnyk was founded in 1945, Sokil was founded in 1963, during the existence of the Soviet Union. Both these teams play their home games at the Kyiv Palace of Sports
During the 1980 Summer Olympics
held in the Soviet Union
, Kyiv held the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football tournament at its Olympic Stadium
, which was reconstructed specially for the event. From 1 December 2008 stadium the stadium underwent a full-scale reconstruction in order to satisfy standards put in place by UEFA
for hosting the Euro 2012
football tournament; the opening ceremony took place in the presence of president Viktor Yanukovich
on 8 October 2011,
with the first major event being a Shakira
concert which was specially planned to coincide with the stadium's re-opening during Euro 2012. Other notable sport stadiums/sport complexes in Kyiv include the Valeriy Lobanovskyi Dynamo Stadium
, the Palace of Sports
, among many others.
Logo promoting tourism in Kyiv
Since introducing a visa-free regime for EU-member states and Switzerland in 2005, Ukraine has seen a steady increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting the country.
Before the 2008–09 recession
the average annual growth in the number of foreign visits in Kyiv was 23% over a three-year period.
In 2009, a total of 1.6 million tourists stayed in Kyiv hotels, of whom almost 259,000 (ca. 16%) were foreigners.
After UEFA Euro 2012
, the city became the most popular destination for European tourists. A record number of 1.8 million foreign tourists was registered then along with about 2.5 million domestic tourists. More than 850,000 foreign tourists visited Kyiv in the first half of 2018, as compared to 660,000 tourists over the same period in 2013. As of 2018, the hotel occupancy rate from May to September averages 45–50%. Hostels and three-star hotels are approximately 90% full, four-star hotels 65-70%. Six five-star hotels average 50-55% occupancy. Ordinary tourists generally come from May to October, and business tourists from September to May.
Kyiv city anthem
As with most capital cities
, Kyiv is a major administrative, cultural and scientific centre of the country. It is the largest city in Ukraine in terms of both population and area and enjoys the highest levels of business activity. On 1 January 2010, there were around 238,000 business entities
registered in Kyiv.
Official figures show that between 2004 and 2008 Kyiv's economy outstripped the rest of the country's, growing by an annual average of 11.5%.
Following the global financial crisis
that began in 2007, Kyiv's economy suffered a severe setback in 2009 with gross regional product
contracting by 13.5% in real terms.
Although a record high, the decline in activity was 1.6 percentage points
smaller than that for the country as a whole.
The economy in Kyiv, as in the rest of Ukraine, recovered somewhat in 2010 and 2011. Kyiv is a middle-income city, with prices comparable to many mid-size American cities (i.e., considerably lower than Western Europe).
Because the city boasts a large and diverse economic base and is not dependent on any single industry and/or company, its unemployment rate has historically been relatively low – only 3.75% over 2005–2008.
Indeed, even as the rate of joblessness jumped to 7.1% in 2009, it remained far below the national average of 9.6%.
As of July 2019, the average monthly net salary in Kyiv reached 16,249 UAH
(€560 / US$
In May 2011, Kyiv authorities presented a 15-year development strategy which calls for attracting as much as EUR82 billion of foreign investment
by 2025 to modernize the city's transport and utilities infrastructure and make it more attractive for tourists.
Historical economic data
* – data not available; ** – calculated at annual average official exchange rate; *** – ILO
methodology (% of workforce
, the largest aircraft ever mass-produced, designed by Antonov
Education and science
The UNIT (Ukrainian National IT) Factory is a full-stack web development training school.
In 2016, UNIT Factory (Ukrainian National IT Factory) opened. It offers a completely new format of IT education. The education is completely free for all trainees subject to compliance with the terms of the program. Within this project are the Technology Companies' Development Center (TCDC), BIONIC University open inter-corporate IT-university, as well as two hi-tech laboratories—VR Lab (Crytek) and Smart City lab.
Local public transport
Trolleybus ElektroLAZ-301 at Sofia Square, passing by the statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky
The publicly owned and operated Kyiv Metro is the fastest, the most convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of the city. The Metro is expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand, having three lines with a total length of 66.1 kilometres (41.1 miles) and 51 stations (some of which are renowned architectural landmarks). The Metro carries around 1.422 million passengers daily
accounting for 38% of the Kyiv's public transport load. In 2011, the total number of trips exceeded 519 million.
The historic Kyiv tram system
was the first electric tramway in the former Russian Empire and the third one in Europe after the Berlin Straßembahn
and the Budapest
tramway. The tram system consists of 139.9 km (86.9 mi) of track,
including 14 km (8.7 mi) two Rapid Tram
lines, served by 21 routes with the use of 523 tram cars. Once a well maintained and widely used method of transport, the system is now gradually being phased out in favor of buses and trolleybuses.
The Kyiv Funicular
was constructed during 1902–1905. It connects the historic Uppertown
, and the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil
through the steep Saint Vladimir Hill
overseeing the Dnieper River. The line consists of only two stations.
All public road transport (except for some minibuses) is operated by the united Kyivpastrans
municipal company. It is heavily subsidized by the city.
The Kyiv public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat rate
tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Digital ticket
system is already established in Kyiv Metro, with plans for other transport modes. Discount passes are available for grade school and higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free. There are monthly passes in all combinations of public transportation. Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of one ride is far lower than in Western Europe.
market in Kyiv is expansive but not regulated. In particular, the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a fierce competition between private taxi companies.
Roads and bridges
Kyiv represents the focal point of Ukraine's "national roads" system, thus linked by road to all cities of the country. European routes
intersect in Kyiv.
There are 8 over-Dnieper
bridges and dozens of grade-separated
intersections in the city. Several new intersections are under construction. There are plans to build a full-size, fully grade-separated ring road
In 2009, Kyiv's roads were in poor technical condition and maintained inadequately.
and lack of parking space are growing problems for all road transport services in Kyiv.
Railways are Kyiv's main mode of intracity and suburban transportation. The city has a developed railroad infrastructure including a long-distance passenger station, 6 cargo stations, depots, and repairing facilities. However, this system still fails to meet the demand for passenger service. Particularly, the Kyiv-Pasazhyrskyi Railway Station
is the city's only long-distance passenger terminal (vokzal
Construction is underway for turning the large Darnytsia railway station
on the left-bank part of Kyiv into a long-distance passenger hub, which may ease traffic at the central station. Bridges over the Dnieper River
are another problem restricting the development of city's railway system. Presently, only one rail bridge out of two is available for intense train traffic. A new combined rail-auto bridge is under construction, as a part of Darnytsia project.
In 2011, the Kyiv city administration established a new 'Urban Train' for Kyiv. This service runs at standard 4- to 10-minute intervals throughout the day and follows a circular route around the city centre, which allows it to serve many of Kyiv's inner suburbs. Interchanges between the Kyiv Metro and Fast Tram
exist at many of the urban train's station stops.
Suburban 'Elektrichka' trains are serviced by the publicly owned Ukrainian Railways
. The suburban train service is fast, and unbeatably safe in terms of traffic accidents. But the trains are not reliable, as they may fall significantly behind schedule, may not be safe in terms of crime, and the elektrichka
cars are poorly maintained and are overcrowded in rush hours
There are 5 elektrichka directions from Kyiv:
More than a dozen of elektrichka stops are located within the city allowing residents of different neighborhoods to use the suburban trains.
Twin towns – sister cities
- Ankara, Turkey (1993)
- Ashgabat, Turkmenistan (2001)
- Athens, Greece (1996)
- Baku, Azerbaijan (1997)
- Beijing, China (1993)
- Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (1997)
- Brasília, Brazil (2000)
- Bratislava, Slovakia (1969)
- Brussels, Belgium (1997)
- Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000)
- Chicago, United States (1991)
- Chișinău, Moldova (1993)
- Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (1989)
- Florence, Italy (1967)
- Havana, Cuba (1994)
- Jakarta, Indonesia (2005)
- Kraków, Poland (1993)
- Kyoto, Japan (1971)
- Leipzig, Germany (1956)
- Lima, Peru (2005)
- Mexico City, Mexico (1997)
- Munich, Germany (1989)
- Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan (1998)
- Odense, Denmark (1989)
- Osh Region, Kyrgyzstan (2002)
- Pretoria, South Africa (1993)
- Riga, Latvia (1998)
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2000)
- Santiago, Chile (1998)
- Sofia, Bulgaria (1997)
- Suzhou, China (2005)
- Tallinn, Estonia (1994)
- Tampere, Finland (1954)
- Tashkent, Uzbekistan (1998)
- Tbilisi, Georgia (1999)
- Toulouse, France (1975)
- Vilnius, Lithuania (1991)
- Warsaw, Poland (1994)
- Wuhan, China (1990)
Other cooperation agreements
- Belgrade, Serbia (2002)
- Helsinki, Finland
- Jerusalem, Israel (2000)
- Lisbon, Portugal
- Paris, France
- Rome, Italy
- Stockholm, Sweden
- Toronto, Canada (1991)
- Tripoli, Libya (2001)
- Vienna, Austria
- Yerevan, Armenia (1995)
Notable people from Kyiv
- Nikolai Amosov, Soviet and Ukrainian heart surgeon and inventor
- Oleg Blokhin, Ukrainian football player
- Leonid Bronevoy, Soviet and Russian actor
- Nikolai Berdyaev, Russian Orthodox religious and political philosopher
- Mikhail Bulgakov, Russian writer
- Konstantin Buteyko, creator of the Buteyko method for the treatment of asthma and other breathing disorders
- Zino Davidoff (born Sussele-Meier Davidoff), Swiss premium tobacco manufacturer; known as "King of Cigars"
- Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet writer, journalist, translator, and cultural figure
- André Grabar, historian of Romanesque art and the art of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Bulgarian Empire
- Eugeniusz Horbaczewski, Polish fighter pilot
- Milton Horn, Russian American sculptor
- Vladimir Horowitz, classical pianist
- Milla Jovovich, American actress
- Jan Koum, American computer programmer, CEO and co-founder of WhatsApp
- Viktor Kaspruk, political scientist
- Ana Layevska, Ukrainian-Mexican actress
- Serge Lifar, French ballet dancer
- Valeriy Lobanovskyi, Soviet and Ukrainian football coach
- Kazimir Malevich, pioneer of geometric abstract art and the originator of the avant-garde Suprematist movement
- Natalya Marchenkova, animator and animation director, born in Kyiv.
- Jonathan Markovitch, Chief Rabbi of Kyiv
- Golda Meir, Israeli politician, the fourth Prime Minister of Israel
- Moses of Kiev, 12th century Talmudist
- Alexander Ostrowski, mathematician
- Nicholas Pritzker, scion of the Pritzker Family
- Lev Shestov, Russian existentialist philosopher
- Andriy Shevchenko, Ukrainian footballer
- Igor Sikorsky, Russian-American aviation pioneer
- Alexander Vertinsky, Russian and Soviet singer, composer, poet, cabaret artist, and actor
- Ludmila Anatolievna Yaroshevskaya, composer
- ^ English: /
ˈɛf/ KEE-ev, -ef, kee-EV, -EF, US also /
kiːv/ KEEV.Ukrainian: [ˈkɪjiu̯] (listen).
- ^ Russian: Киев [ˈkʲi(j)ɪf].
- ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- ^ Oksana Lyachynska (31 May 2012). "Kyiv's 1,530th birthday marked with fun, protest". Kyiv Post.
- ^ a b Vitali Klitschko sworn in as mayor of Kyiv, Interfax-Ukraine (5 June 2014)
- ^ a b Poroshenko appoints Klitschko head of Kyiv city administration – decree, Interfax-Ukraine (25 June 2014)
Poroshenko orders Klitschko to bring title of best European capital back to Kyiv, Interfax-Ukraine (25 June 2014)
- ^ "Major Agglomerations of the World". Citypopulation.de. 1 April 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- ^ kyivan, Wiktionary.com (28 November 2017)
- ^ kievan. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged, retrieved 29 May 2013 from Dictionary.com
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- ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- ^ Zraick, Karen (13 November 2019). "Wait, How Do You Pronounce Kiev?". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- ^ a b Чисельність населення м.Києва [Population of Kyiv city] (in Ukrainian). UkrStat.gov.ua. 1 November 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- ^ a b The most recent Ukrainian census, conducted on 5 December 2001, gave the population of Kyiv as 2 611 300 (Ukrcensus.gov.ua – Kyiv city Web address accessed on 4 August 2007). Estimates based on the amount of bakery products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors and commuters) suggest a minimum of 3.5 million. "There are up to 1.5 mln undercounted residents in Kiev", Korrespondent, 15 June 2005 (in Russian)
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(in Ukrainian) Election results in Ukraine since 1998, Central Election Commission of Ukraine
Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview, ABC-CLIO, 2008, ISBN 1851099077 (page 1629)
Ukraine on its Meandering Path Between East and West by Andrej Lushnycky and Mykola Riabchuk, Peter Lang, 2009, ISBN 303911607X (page 122)
After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
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Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 – CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)
UDAR submits to Rada resolution on Ukraine's integration with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (8 January 2013)
(in Ukrainian) Electronic Bulletin "Your Choice – 2012". Issue 4: Batkivshchyna Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research (24 October 2012)
Ukraine's Party System in Transition? The Rise of the Radically Right-Wing All-Ukrainian Association "Svoboda" by Andreas Umland, Centre for Geopolitical Studies (1 May 2011)"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
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- ^ Lavretian Chronicle Archived 2008-01-18 at the Wayback Machine and Novgorod Chronicles Archived 2020-08-02 at the Wayback Machine: "В лЂто 6743. Не хотя исперва оканныи, всепагубныи диаволъ роду человЂческому добра, въздвиже крамолу межи рускыми князи да быша человЂци не жили мирно: о том бо ся злыи радуется кровопролитью крестияньскому. Поиде князь Володимиръ Рюриковиць с кыяны и Данило Романович с галицаны на Михаила /л.158./ Всеволодица Чермного къ Чернигову, а Изяславъ побЂжа в Половци; и много воева около Чернигова и посадъ пожьже, а Михаилъ выступи ис Чернигова; и много пустошивъ около Чернигова, поиде опять; и Михаилъ створивъ прелесть на ДанилЂ и много би галицанъ и бещисла, Данила же едва уиде; а Володимиръ пришедши опять, сЂде въ КиевЂ. И не ту бысть того до сыти зла, нь прииде Изяславъ с погаными Половци в силЂ тяжьцЂ и Михаилъ с черниговци под Киевъ, и взяша Кыевъ; а Володимера и княгыню его изымаша Половци, поведоша в землю свою, и много зла сътвориша кияномъ; а Михаилъ сЂде в ГалицЂ, а Изяславъ в КиевЂ; и опять пустиша Володимира Половци на искупЂ и жену его, и на НЂмцЂх имаша искупъ князи. 'В лЂто 6744 . Поиде князь Ярославъ из Новаграда къ Киеву на столъ, понявши съ собою новгородцовъ болших муж: Судимира въ СлавнЂ, Якима Влунковица, Костя Вячеслалича, а новоторжець 100 муж; а в НовЂградЂ посади сына своего Александра; и, пришедши, сЂде в КиевЂ на столЂ; и державъ новгородцовъ и новоторжанъ одину недЂлю и, одаривъ, отпусти прочь; и приидоша вси здрави. Того же лЂта пришедше безбожныи Татарове, плениша всю землю Болгарьскую А и град их Великыи взяша, исЂкоша вся и жены и дЂти" and others.
- ^ Trubachev, O. N., ed. (1987). "*kyjevъ/*kyjevo". Ėtimologicheskiĭ slovarʹ slavi͡anskikh I͡Azykov: Praslavi͡anskiĭ leksicheskiĭ fond (in Russian). 13 (*kroměžirъ–*kyžiti). Moscow: Nauka. pp. 256–257.
- ^ a b "Kiev". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 14 November 2020. The entry is the same as the print edition of Collins Dictionary of English (13th ed.). Glasgow, UK: HarperCollins. 2018. It includes the note "Ukrainian name: Kyiv". For American English, the website also includes the definition from Webster's New World College Dictionary (4th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2010. In the 2018 5th edition, WNWCD changed the main headword to Kyiv, with Kiev as a see-also entry with the label "Russ. name for Kyiv".
- ^ "Kiev". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 14 November 2020. Merriam–Webster's online dictionary entry has the headword "Kiev" with the label "variants: or Ukrainian Kyiv or Kyyiv." According to M–W's help on entries, the key word or signals an equal variant spelling: "these the two spellings occur with equal or nearly equal frequency and can be considered equal variants. Both are standard, and either one may be used according to personal inclination."
- ^ a b Ukrainian Commission for Legal Terminology. "Kiev?, Kyiv?! Which is right?". UA Zone. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Kiev". Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020. The entry includes the usage note "Ukrainian name Kyiv", and the dictionary has a see-also entry for "Kyiv" cross-referencing this one. The entry text is republished from the print edition of the Oxford Dictionary of English (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2010.
- ^ "Kiev". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online. Pearson English Language Teaching. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
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- ^ a b Rudnycʹkyj, Jaroslav B. (1982). "Kyiv" Київ. An Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language. 2. Ottawa, ON: Ukrainian Mohyla Mazepian Academy of Sciences, and Ukrainian Language Association. pp. 660–666.
- ^ Porphyrogenitus, Constantine (1967). De Administrando Imperio. Washington, D. C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, and Trustees for Harvard University. pp. 56–59. LCCN 68-24220.
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- ^ Marshall, Joseph, fl.1770 (1971) . Travels through Germany, Russia, and Poland in the years 1769 and 1770. New York: Arno Press. ISBN 0-405-02763-X. LCCN 77135821. Originally published: London, J. Almon, 1773, LCCN 03-5435.
- ^ Holderness, Mary (1823). Journey from Riga to the Crimea, with some account of the manners and customs of the colonists of new Russia. London: Sherwood, Jones and co. p. 316. LCCN 04024846. OCLC 5073195.
- ^ "I, n.1". OED Online. Oxford University Press. September 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019. 2017 Thai News Service (Nexis) 21 Apr. Kyiv filed a lawsuit against Russia at the ICJ for intervening militarily.
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- ^ Public-facing government websites of major English-speaking states use Kyiv, including in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and Malta.
- ^ The list includes NATO, OSCE, World Bank
- ^ Stylebook, A. P. (14 August 2019). "AP has changed its style for the capital of Ukraine to Kyiv, in line with the Ukrainian government's preferred transliteration to English and increasing usage. Include a reference in stories to the former spelling of Kiev. The food dish remains chicken Kiev". @APStylebook. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
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- ^ Morrow, Adrian (10 October 2019). "The Globe is changing its style on the capital of Ukraine from the Russian-derived 'Kiev' to 'Kyiv,' the transliteration the Ukrainian government uses. (A style note informs us we will continue to spell 'chicken Kiev' the old way)". @adrianmorrow on Twitter. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- ^ The Economist Style Guide. London: Profile Books. 2005. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-86197-916-2.
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- ^ Taylor, Adam (16 October 2019). "Inbox: 'The Washington Post is changing its style on the capital of Ukraine, which we will now render as Kyiv, rather than Kiev, effective immediately... The spelling Kiev may still appear in historical contexts, the dish chicken Kiev and when quoting written material...'". @mradamtaylor on Twitter. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (18 November 2019). "The New York Times has switched to Kyiv, instead of Kiev, as the spelling for the Ukrainian capital. The change discontinues a Russian transliteration of the city's name, though one that had been in wide use in English for many decades". @AndrewKramerNYT on Twitter (NYT Moscow correspondent). Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- ^ a b c d e Kyiv at Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia
- ^ Kiev in the Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia: "Населення періоду мідного віку на тер. К. було носієм т. з. трипільської культури; відомі й знахідки окремих предметів бронзового віку."
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- ^ dr. Viktor Padányi – Dentu-Magyaria p. 325, footnote 15
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- ^ Paul M. HOHENBERG; Lynn Hollen Lees; Paul M Hohenberg (2009). The Making of Urban Europe, 1000–1994. Harvard University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-674-03873-8.
- ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 9780521864039. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2017.
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- ^ The Destruction of Kiev, University of Toronto Research Repository
- ^ Orest Subtelny (1989). Ukraine. A History. [Illustr.] (Repr.). CUP Archive. p. 38.
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- ^ Т.Г. Таирова-Яковлева, Иван Выговский // Единорогъ. Материалы по военной истории Восточной Европы эпохи Средних веков и Раннего Нового времени, вып.1, М., 2009: Под влиянием польской общественности и сильного диктата Ватикана сейм в мае 1659 г. принял Гадячский договор в более чем урезанном виде. Идея Княжества Руського вообще была уничтожена, равно как и положение о сохранении союза с Москвой. Отменялась и ликвидация унии, равно как и целый ряд других позитивных статей.
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