In their capacity as Caliphs
, the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire
would appoint an official known as the Sharif of Mecca
. The role went to a member of the Hashemite
family, but the Sultans typically promoted Hashemite intra-familial rivalries in their choice, preventing the building of a solid base of power in the Sharif.
King Ali of Hejaz
With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the Sultan, Mehmed V
, in his capacity as "Caliph
", declared a jihad
against the Entente powers
. The British in particular hoped to co-opt the Sharif
as a weighty alternative religious figure backing them in the conflict. The British
already had a series of treaties with other Arab
leaders in the region and were also fearful that the Hejaz
could be used as a base to attack their shipping to and from India
. The Sharif
was cautious but, after discovering that the Ottomans
planned to remove and possibly murder him, agreed to work with the British
if they would support a wider Arab Revolt
and the establishment of an independent Arab Kingdom — the British
implied they would. After the Ottomans
executed other Arab nationalist
leaders in Damascus
, the Hejaz
rose against and soundly defeated them, almost completely expelling them (Medina
remaining under Ottoman
...Great Britain, France and Russia agreed to recognize the Sherif as lawful independent ruler of the Hedjaz and to use the title of "King of the Hedjaz" when addressing him, and a note to this effect was handed to him on 10 December 1916.
Kings of Hejaz
- ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Saudi Arabia". WorldStatesmen.org. Ben M. Cahoon. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- ^ Yamani, M. (13 October 2009), Cradle of Islam: the Hijaz and the quest for an Arabian identity (Pbk. ed.), I.B. Tauris (published 2009), ISBN 978-1-84511-824-2
- ^ Al-Rasheed, M. A History of Saudi Arabia. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
- ^ A Brief overview of Hejaz - Hejaz history
- ^ Dividing the Middle East - The Great Loot - Extra History - #1, retrieved 24 March 2021
- ^ Baker, Randall (1979), King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, Cambridge, England. New York: Oleander Press, ISBN 978-0-900891-48-9
- ^ Teitelbaum, Joshua (2001), The rise and fall of the Hashimite Kingdom of Arabia, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0-8147-8271-2
- ^ Division of Near Eastern Affairs (1931). Mandate for Palestine (PDF) (Report). US State Department. p. 7.
- ^ Christian J Tams. "League of Nations, B.2.Membership". Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/e519. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
- ^ LoN Hejaz, HC Deb 17 March 1930 vol 236 c1714.
Last edited on 27 April 2021, at 17:52
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