Estimates from 1.6 million to 2.5 million
Kurds make up between 5% and 10% of Syria's population.
Regions with significant populations
Kurdish-inhabited areas by CIA (2002)
Syrian Kurds live mainly in three Kurdish pockets in northern Syria adjacent to Turkey
Many Kurds live in the large cities and metropolitan areas of the country, for example, in the neighborhoods of Ashrafiyya
and Rukn al-Din
which was formerly known as Hayy al Akrad
and the Aleppo neighbourhoods of al Ashrafiya and Sheikh Maqsood
Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria
, and make up between 5 and 10 percent of the Syrian population.
The Kurdish population in Syria is relatively small in comparison to the Kurdish populations in nearby countries, such as Turkey
(14.4–16 million), Iran
(7.9 million), and Iraq
The majority of Syrian Kurds speak Kurmanji
, a Kurdish dialect spoken in Turkey and northeastern Iraq and Iran.
It is estimated that at the beginning of the 20th century around 12,000 Kurds lived in Damascus
; an unknown number of Kurds lived in the Kurd-Dagh
region; 16,000 Kurds lived in the Jarabulus
region; and an unknown number lived in the Jazira province
, where they were likely the majority.
The extension of the railway and road to Nusaybin in 1918 intensified the immigration of Kurds southwards into the Syrian foothills and plains along rivers.
In the 1920s after the failed Kurdish rebellions
in Kemalist Turkey
, there was a large migration of Kurds to Syria's Jazira province. It is estimated that 25,000 Kurds fled at this time to Syria.
The French official reports show the existence of 45 Kurdish villages in Jazira prior to 1927. A new wave of refugees arrived in 1929.
The French authorities continued to allow Kurdish migration into the Mandate, and by 1939, the villages numbered between 700 and 800.
The French geographers Fevret and Gibert,
who estimated that in 1953 out of the total 146,000 inhabitants of Jazira, agriculturalist Kurds made up 60,000 (41%), nomad Arabs 50,000 (34%), and a quarter of the population were Christians.
Even though some Kurdish communities have a long history in Syria,
most Syrian Kurds originate from Turkey
and have immigrated during the 20th century. The government has used the fact that some Kurds fled to Syria during the 1920's to claim that Kurds are not indigenous to the country and to justify its discriminatory policies against them.
-speaking Kurds are classified as Arabs by the Arab nationalist Syrian government
The majority of the Kurds in Syria are originally Turkish Kurds, who left Turkey in the 1920s in order to escape the harsh repression of the Kurds in that country. These Kurds were later joined in Syria by a new large group that drifted out of Turkey throughout the interwar period during which the Turkish campaign to assimilate its Kurdish population was at it highest.
The Crusader fortress of Krak des Chevaliers
, which is known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad (Castle of the Kurds), was originally the location of a military settlement housing Kurdish soldiers.
Some Kurds were resettled in Syria as soldiers in Saladin
army goes back during the Crusades
of the 11th century. Kurdish military and feudal settlements from before this period have been found in the Alawite
and north Lebanese mountains and around Hama
and its surroundings. The Crusader fortress of Krak des Chevaliers
, known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad
(Castle of the Kurds), was originally a Kurdish military settlement before it was enlarged by French Crusaders. Similarly, the Kurd-Dagh
has been inhabited by Kurds for more than a millennium.
In the 12th century, Kurdish and other Muslim regiments accompanied Saladin
, who was a Kurd from Tikrit
, on his conquest of the Middle East
and establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty
(1171–1341), which was administered from Damascus
. The Kurdish regiments that accompanied Salidin established self-ruled areas in and around Damascus.
These settlements evolved into the Kurdish sections of Damascus of Hayy al-Akrad
(the Kurdish quarter) and the Salhiyya districts located in the north-east of Damasacus on Mount Qasioun
The Kurdish community's role in the military continued under the Ottomans. Kurdish soldiers and policeman from the city were tasked with both maintaining order and protecting the pilgrims’ route toward Mecca
Many Kurds from Syria's rural hinterland joined the local Janissary
corps in Damascus. Later, Kurdish migrants from diverse areas, such as Diyarbakir
, also joined these military units which caused an expansion of the Kurdish community in the city.
The first licensed female doctors in India, Syria and Japan. Anandibai Joshee (Indian), Kei Okami (Japanese), Sabat Islambooly
(Kurdish Jew from Syria)
– October 10, 1885
During the Ottoman period
(1516–1922), some large Kurdish tribal groups both settled in and were deported to areas of northern Syria from Anatolia
. The largest of these tribal groups was the Reshwan confederation, which was initially based in the Adiyaman region
but eventually also settled throughout Anatolia. The Milli confederation, which was documented in Ottoman sources from the year 1518 onward, was the most powerful tribal group and dominated the entire northern Syrian steppe in the second half of the 18th century. The Kurdish dynasty of Janbulads
ruled the region of Aleppo
as governors for the Ottomans from 1591 to 1607 and its most notable member, Ali Janbulad
, allied with the Medici
At the beginning of the 17th century, districts of Jarabulus
and Seruj on the left bank of the Euphrates
were settled by Kurds.
In the mid-18th century, Ottomans recognized Milli tribal leaders as iskan başi
or chief of sedentarization
area. They were given taxing authority and controlling other tribes in the region. In 1758, Milli chief and iskan başi
Mahmud bin Kalash entered Khabur
valley, subjugated the local tribes and brought the area under control of Milli confederation and attempted to set up an independent principality. In 1800, the Ottoman government appointed the Milli chief Timur as governor of Raqqa
The Danish writer Carsten Niebuhr
, who traveled to Jazira in 1764, recorded five nomadic Kurdish tribes (Dukurie, Kikie, Schechchanie, Mullie and Aschetie) and six Arab tribes (Tay
, Kaab, Baggara, Geheish, Diabat and Sherabeh).
According to Niebuhr, the Kurdish tribes were settled near Mardin
in Turkey, and paid the governor of that city for the right of grazing their herds in the Syrian Jazira.
These Kurdish tribes gradually settled in villages and cities and are still present in Jazira (modern Syria's Hasakah Governorate
In the mid 1800s, the Emirate of Bohtan
of Bedir Khan Beg
span over parts of present day north eastern Syria.
The demographics of this area underwent a huge shift in the early part of the 20th century
authorities with the cooperation of Kurdish troops (and to a lesser degree, Circassian and Chechen tribes) persecuted Armenian
Christians in Upper Mesopotamia
and were granted their victims' land as a reward[verification needed]
Kurds were responsible for most of the atrocities against Assyrians, and Kurdish expansion happened at the expense of Assyrians (due to factors like proximity).
Kurdish as well as Circassian and Chechen tribes cooperated with the Ottoman
) authorities in the massacres of Armenian
Christians in Upper Mesopotamia
, between 1914 and 1920, with further attacks on unarmed fleeing civilians conducted by local Arab militias.
In 1936, there French forces
bombarded Amuda . On 13 August 1937, in a revenge attack, about 500 Kurds from the Dakkuri, Milan, and Kiki tribes attacked the then predominantly Christian Amuda
and burned the mostly Assyrian
The town was destroyed and the Christian population, about 300 families, fled to the towns of Qamishli
In other parts of the country during this period, Kurds became local chiefs and tax farmers in Akkar
(Lebanon) and the Qusayr highlands between Antioch
in northwestern Syria. The Afrin Plateau northwest of Aleppo, just inside what is today Syria, was officially known as the "Sancak of the Kurds" in Ottoman documents.
The Millis revolted against the Ottoman government after the death of their leader Ibrahim Pasa and some of them eventually settled for the most part on the Syrian side of the newly drawn Turkish-Syrian border of 1922.
Treaty of Sèvres and colonial borders
Provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres for an independent Kurdistan (in 1920).
Provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres
Immigration from Turkey
The majority of Kurds in Syria originally came from Turkey
in the 1920s.
Kurdish immigration waves to Syria's Jazira province started immediately after WWI
. After the war, the construction of road networks and the railway extension to Nusaybin
have intensified the Kurdish immigration from the Anatolian mountains to Syrian Jazirah.
After that, massive waves of Kurds fled their homes in the mountains of Turkey
after the failed Kurdish rebellions
in Kemalist Turkey
. It is estimated that 25,000 Kurds fled at this time to Syria, under French Mandate authorities
, who encouraged their immigration,
and granted them Syrian citizenship.
The French official reports show the existence of at most 45 Kurdish villages in Jazira prior to 1927. In 1927, Hadjo Agha, the chief of the powerful Kurdish tribe Havergan, arrived with more than 600 families in Qubour el-Bid (later renamed al-Qahtaniyah
The mandatory authorities continued to encourage Kurdish immigration into Syria, and a new significant wave of refugees arrived in 1929.
The number of Kurds settled in the Jazira province during the 1920's was estimated between 20,000
With the continuous intensive immigration the villages numbered between 700 and 800 in 1939.
Consequently, Kurds became majority in the districts of Tigris (later renamed al-Malikiyah
) and Qamishli
, while Arabs remained the majority in Hasakah
Under the French Mandate of Syria, newly-arriving Kurds were granted citizenship by French Mandate authorities
and enjoyed considerable rights as the French Mandate authority encouraged minority autonomy as part of a divide and rule
strategy and recruited heavily from the Kurds and other minority groups, such as Alawite
, for its local armed forces.
Early demands for a Kurdish autonomy came from the Kurdish deputy Nuri Kandy of Kurd Dagh, who asked the authorities of the French mandate to grant an administrative autonomy to all the areas with a Kurdish majority in 1924. Also the Kurdish tribes of the Barazi Confederation demanded autonomy for the Kurdish regions within the French Mandate.
But their requests were not fulfilled by the French at the time.
Between December 1931 and January 1932, the first elections under the new Syrian constitution
Among the deputies there were three members of the Syrian Kurdish nationalist Xoybûn
(Khoyboun) party from the three different Kurdish enclaves in Syria: Khalil bey Ibn Ibrahim Pacha (Jazira province
), Mustafa bey Ibn Shahin (Jarabulus
) and Hassan Aouni (Kurd Dagh
In the mid-1930s, there arose a new autonomist movement
in the Jazira province among Kurds and Christians. The Kurdish leaders Hajo Agha, Kaddur Bey, and Khalil Bey Ibrahim Pasha. Hajo Agha was the Kurdish chief of the Heverkan tribal confederation and one of the leaders of the Kurdish nationalist party Xoybûn (Khoyboun). He established himself as the representative of the Kurds in Jazira maintaining the coalition with the Christian notables, who were represented by the Syriac Catholic
Patriarch Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni and Michel Dôme the Armenian Catholic
president of the Qamishli
municipality. The Kurdish-Christian Coalition wanted French troops to stay in the province in case of Syrian independence
, as they feared the nationalist Damascus government would replace minority officials by Muslim Arabs from the capital. The French authorities, although some in their ranks had earlier encouraged this anti-Damascus movement, refused to consider any new status of autonomy inside Syria and even annexed the Alawite State
and the Jabal Druze State
to the Syrian Republic
In 1936, the French forces
bombarded Amuda. On 13 August 1937, in a revenge attack, Kurdish tribes sided with Damascus and about 500 men from the Dakkuri, Milan, and Kiki tribes led by the Kurdish tribal leader Sa'ed Agha al-Dakkuri attacked the then predominantly Christian Amuda
and burned the town.
The town was destroyed and the Christian population, about 300 families, fled to the towns of Qamishli and Hasakah
Two early presidents, Husni Zaim
and also Adib Al Shishakli
, were of Kurdish origin, but they didn't identify as Kurds nor did they speak Kurdish.
Shishakli even initiated the policy of prohibiting the Kurdish culture. Osman Sabri
and Hamza Diweran along with some Kurdish politicians, founded the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria
(KDPS) in 1957.
The objectives of KDPS were promotion of Kurdish
cultural rights, economic progress and democratic change. Following their demands for the recognition of the Kurdish cultural rights, the Party got suppressed by the United Arab Republic
and the possession of Kurdish publications or music was enough to be sent to be detained.
KDPS was never legally recognized by the Syrian state and remains an underground organization, especially after a crackdown in 1960 during which several of its leaders were arrested, charged with separatism and imprisoned. After the failure of Syrian political union with Egypt
Syria was declared an Arab Republic
in the interim constitution.
Syrian Arab Republic
On 23 August 1962, the government conducted a special population census only for the province of Jazira
based on reports of illegal infiltration of tens of thousands of Turkish Kurds into Syria.
As a result, around 120,000 Kurds in Jazira (20% of Syrian Kurds) were stripped of their Syrian citizenship
even though they were in possession of Syrian identity cards.
The inhabitants who had Syrian identity cards were told to hand them over to the administration for renewal. However, many of those Kurds who submitted their cards received nothing in return. Many were arbitrarily categorized as ajanib
('foreigners'), while others who did not participate in the census were categorized as maktumin
('unregistered'), an even lower status than the ajanib
; for all intents and purposes,
these unregistered Kurds did not exist in the eyes of the state. They could not get jobs, become educated, own property or participate in politics.
In some cases, classifications varied even within Kurdish families: parents had citizenship but not their children, a child could be a citizen but not his or her brothers and sisters. Those Kurds who lost their citizenship were often dispossessed of their lands, which were given by the state to Arab and Assyrian settlers.
A media campaign was launched against the Kurds with slogans such as Save Arabism in Jazira!
and Fight the Kurdish Menace!
These policies in the Jazira region coincided with the beginning of Barzani
in Iraqi Kurdistan
and discovery of oilfields in the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria. In June 1963, Syria took part in the Iraqi
military campaign against the Kurds by providing aircraft, armoured vehicles and a force of 6,000 soldiers. Syrian troops crossed the Iraqi border and moved into the Kurdish town of Zakho
in pursuit of Barzani's fighters
Syrian policies in the 1970s led to Arabs resettling in majority Kurdish areas.
In 1965, the Syrian government decided to create an Arab cordon (Hizam Arabi
) in the Jazira region along the Turkish
border. The cordon was along the Turkish-Syrian border and 10–15 kilometers wide,
stretched from the Iraqi
border in the east to Ras Al-Ain
in the west. The implementation of the Arab cordon
plan began in 1973 and Bedouin
Arabs were brought in and resettled in Kurdish areas
. The toponymy
of the area such as village names were Arabized. According to the original plan, some 140,000 Kurds had to be deported to the southern desert near Al-Raad
. Although Kurdish farmers were dispossessed of their lands, they refused to move and give up their houses. Among these Kurdish villagers, those who were designated as alien were not allowed to own property, to repair a crumbling house or to build a new one.
In 1976 the further implementation of the arabization policy along the Turkish border was officially dropped by Hafez al Assad. The achieved demographic changes were not reverted,
and in 1977 a ban on non-arabic place names was issued.
In March 1986, a few thousand Kurds wearing Kurdish costume gathered in the Kurdish
part of Damascus
to celebrate the spring festival of Newroz
. Police warned them that Kurdish dress was prohibited and they fired on the crowd leaving one person dead. Around 40,000 Kurds took part in his funeral in Qamishli. Also in Afrin
, three Kurds were killed during the Newroz demonstrations.
After the protests, the Syrian government prohibited the Newroz festivities and established a new holiday on the same day, honoring the mothers.
After an incident in a football
stadium in Qamishli
, 65 people were killed and more than 160 were injured in days of clashes starting from 12 March. Kurdish sources indicated that Syrian security forces used live ammunition against civilians after clashes broke out at a football match between Kurdish fans of the local team and Arab
supporters of a visiting team from the city of Deir al-Zor
. The international press reported that nine people were killed on 12 March. According to Amnesty International hundreds of people, mostly Kurds, were arrested after the riots. Kurdish detainees were reportedly tortured and ill-treated. Some Kurdish students were expelled from their universities, reportedly for participating in peaceful protests.
The Kurdistan National Assembly of Syria was formed to represent Syrian Kurds based on two major conferences, one at the US Senate in March 2006 and the other at the EU parliament in Brussels in 2006. The Kurdistan National Assembly of Syria (KNAS) seeks democracy for Syria and supports granting equal rights to Kurds and other Syrian minorities. They seek to transform Syria into a federal state, with a democratic system and structure for the federal government and provincial governments.
Syrian Civil War
Following the Tunisian Revolution
and the Egyptian Revolution
, 4 February 2011 was declared
a Day of Rage
in Syria by activists through Facebook
. Few turned out to protest, but among the few were Kurdish demonstrators in the northeast of the country.
On 7 October 2011, Kurdish leader Mashaal Tammo
was gunned down in his apartment by masked men widely believed to be government agents. During Tammo's funeral procession the next day in the town of Qamishli
, Syrian security forces fired into a crowd of more than 50,000 mourners, killing five people.
According to Tammo's son, Fares Tammo, "My father's assassination is the screw in the regime's coffin. They made a big mistake by killing my father."
Since then, Kurdish demonstrations became a routine part of the Syrian uprising.
In June 2012, the Syrian National Council
(SNC), the main opposition group, announced Abdulbaset Sieda
, an ethnic Kurd, as their new leader.
's female units were fighting against ISIS
Under the administration of the Kurdish Supreme Committee, the People's Protection Units
(YPG) were created to control the Kurdish inhabited areas in Syria. On 19 July, the YPG captured the city of Kobanê
, and the next day captured Amuda
The KNC and PYD afterwards formed a joint leadership council to run the captured cities.
By 24 July, the Syrian towns of Al-Malikiyah
), Ras al-Ayn
had also come under the control of the People's Protection Units. The only major cities with significant Kurdish populations that remained under government control were Hasaka
Mistreatment by Syrian government
International and Kurdish human rights organizations have accused the Syrian government of discriminating against the Kurdish minority. Amnesty International
also reported that Kurdish human rights activists are mistreated and persecuted.
Geographic distribution of the Kurdish languages spoken by Kurds
The Kurds often speak the Kurdish language
in public, unless all those present do not. According to the Human Rights Watch
, Kurds in Syria are not allowed to officially use the Kurdish language, are not allowed to register children with Kurdish names, are prohibited to start businesses that do not have Arabic
names, are not permitted to build Kurdish private schools and are prohibited from publishing books and other materials written in Kurdish.
In 1988 it was prohibited also to sing in non-arabic language at weddings or festivities.
But this is no longer enforced due to the civil war.
The decree 768 of the year 2000, prohibited shops to sell cassettes or videos in Kurdish language. The decree also encouraged to implement older restrictions of the Kurdish language.
In 1962, 20 percent of Syria's Kurdish population were stripped of their Syrian citizenship following a very highly controversial census raising concerns among human rights groups. According to the Syrian government, the reason for this enactment was due to groups of Kurds infiltrating the Al-Hasakah Governorate
in 1945. The Syrian government claims that the Kurds came from neighboring countries, especially Turkey
, and crossed the Syrian border illegally. The government claims that these Kurds settled down, gradually, in the region in cities like Amuda
until they accounted for the majority in some of these cities. The government also claims that many Kurds were capable of registering themselves illegally in the Syrian civil registers. The government further speculated that Kurds intended to settle down and acquire property, especially after the issue of the agricultural reform law, in order to benefit from land redistribution.
However, according to Human Rights Watch, the Syrian government falsely claimed that many of the Kurds who were the original inhabitants of the land were foreigners, and in turn, violated their human rights by stripping them of their Syrian citizenship.
The flag of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria
As a result of government claims of an increase in illegal immigration, the Syrian government decided to conduct a general census on 5 October 1962 in the governorate with claims that its sole purpose was to purify registers and eliminate the alien infiltrators. As a result, the verified registrations of the citizens of Syria were included in the new civil registers. The remaining, which included 100,000 Kurds, were registered as foreigners (or "ajanib") in special registers.
Many others did not participate in the census through choice or other circumstances; they are known as "maktoumeen", meaning "unrecorded".
Since then, the number of stateless Kurds
has grown to more than 200,000.
According to Refugees International, there are about 300,000 Kurdish non-citizens in Syria; however, Kurds dispute this number and estimate about 500,000. An independent report has confirmed that there are at least 300,000 non-citizen Kurds living in Syria.
According to the Human Rights Watch, by many accounts, the special census was carried out in an arbitrary manner separating members of the same families and classifying them differently. HRW claims that some Kurds in the same family became citizens while others became foreigners suggesting an inaccuracy in the Syrian government's process; HRW also alleges that some of the Kurds who had served in the Syrian army lost citizenship while those who bribed officials kept theirs.
Stateless Kurds also do not have the option of legally relocating to another country because they lack passports or other internationally recognized travel documents. In Syria, other than in the governorate of Al-Hasakah
, foreigners cannot be employed at government agencies and state-owned enterprises; they may not legally marry Syrian citizens. Kurds with foreigner status do not have the right to vote in elections or run for public office, and when they attend universities they are often persecuted and cannot be awarded with university degrees.
non-citizens Kurds living in Syria are not awarded school certificates and are often unable to travel outside of their provinces.
In April 2011, the President signed Decree 49 which provides citizenship for Kurds who were registered as foreigners in Hasaka.
However, a recent independent report has suggested that the actual number of non-citizens Kurds who obtained their national ID cards following the decree does not exceed 6,000, leaving the remainder of 300,000 non-citizens Kurds living in Syria in a state of uncertainty.
One newly nationalized Kurd has been reported as saying: ‘I’m pleased to have my ID card .... But not until the process is completed will I truly trust the intentions of this action. Before my card is activated, I must have an interview, no doubt full of interrogation and intimidation, with State Security. Citizenship should not be a privilege. It is my right.’
According to one researcher, the Kurdish street perceived the measure of providing citizenship as 'not well-intentioned, but simply an attempt to distance Kurds from the developing protest movement of the Syrian Revolution.'
Influential Syrian Kurds
- Ibrahim Hananu (1869–1935), Ottoman municipal official and later a leader of a revolt against the French presence in northern Syria.
- Adib Shishakli (1909–1964), Syrian military leader and President of Syria (1953–1954).
- Ata Bey al-Ayyubi (1877–1951), Prime Minister of Syria (1936) and President of Syria (1943).
- Husni al-Za'im (1897–1949), Prime Minister and President of Syria (1949).
- Sherkoh Abbas, Kurdistan National Assembly of Syria President.
- Husni al-Barazi (1895–1975), Prime Minister of Syria (1942–1943)
- Muhsin al-Barazi (1904–1949), Prime Minister of Syria (1949).
- Khalid Bakdash (1912–1995), leader (1936–1995) of the Syrian Communist Party.
- Qadri Jamil (born 1952), Kurdish politician and one of the leaders of the People's Will Party and the Popular Front for Change and Liberation.
- Mahmoud al-Ayyubi (born 1932), Prime Minister of Syria (1972–1976)
- Muhammad Mustafa Mero (born 1941), Prime Minister of Syria (2000–2003).
- Daham Miro (1921–2010), Kurdish political leader and former chairman of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria.
- Mashaal Tammo (1958–2011), Kurdish Political leader and founder of the Kurdish Future Movement.
- ^ a b c World Factbook (Online ed.). Langley, Virginia: US Central Intelligence Agency. 2019. ISSN 1553-8133. Retrieved 25 June 2019. CIA estimates are as of June 2019 "Ethnic groups: Sunni Arab ~50%, Alawite ~15%, Kurd ~10%, Levantine ~10%, other ~15% (includes Druze, Ismaili, Imami, Nusairi, Assyrian, Turkoman, Armenian)"
- ^ a b "Who are the Kurds?". BBC News (Online ed.). 31 October 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- ^ Darke, Diana (1 January 2010). Syria. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 9781841623146.
- ^ "Syria rejects Russian proposal for Kurdish federation". Al-Monitor. 24 October 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
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- ^ "Alawite Kurds in Syria: Ethnic discrimination and dectarian privileges. By Maya Ehmed". Ekurd.net. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
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- ^ a b Shoup, John A. (2018), "Syria", The History of Syria, ABC-CLIO, p. 6, ISBN 978-1440858352, Syria has several other ethnic groups, the Kurds... they make up an estimated 9 percent...Turkomen comprise around 4-5 percent of the total population. The rest of the ethnic mix of Syria is made of Assyrians (about 4 percent), Armenians (about 2 percent), and Circassians (about 1 percent).
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- ^ "Syrian Kurdish moves ring alarm bells in Turkey". Reuters. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- ^ "Kurds seek autonomy in a democratic Syria". BBC World News. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
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Tejel, Jordi (2009). Syria's Kurds: History, Politics and Society
. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415424400
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