"Lip rounding" redirects here. For the lip rounding of vowels, see Roundedness
is a secondary articulatory
feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity
produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants
. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded
The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars
. Most other labialized sounds also have simultaneous velarization
, and the process may then be more precisely called labio-velarization
American English has three degrees of labialization: tight rounded (/w/, initial /r/), slight rounded (/ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/, coloring /r/), and unrounded, which in vowels is sometimes called 'spread'. These secondary articulations are not universal.[example needed]
A few languages, including Arrernte
, have contrastive labialized forms for almost all of their consonants.
Out of 706 language inventories surveyed by Ruhlen (1976)
, labialization occurred most often with velar
(42%) and uvular
(15%) segments and least often with dental
segments. With non-dorsal consonants, labialization may include velarization
as well. Labialization is not restricted to lip-rounding. The following articulations have either been described as labialization, or been found as allophonic
realizations of prototypical labialization:
In North America, languages from a number of families have sounds that sound labialized (and vowels that sound rounded) without participation of the lips. See Tillamook language
for an example.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet
, labialization of velar consonants is indicated with a raised w modifier [ʷ] (Unicode
U+02B7), as in /kʷ/. (Elsewhere this diacritic generally indicates simultaneous labialization and velarization.
) There are also diacritics, respectively [ɔ̹], [ɔ̜], to indicate greater or lesser degrees of rounding.
These are normally used with vowels, but may occur with consonants. For example, in the Athabaskan language Hupa
, voiceless velar fricatives
distinguish three degrees of labialization, transcribed either /x/, /x̹/, /xʷ/ or /x/, /x̜ʷ/, /xʷ/.
If precision is desired, the Abkhaz and Ubykh articulations may be transcribed with the appropriate fricative or trill raised as a diacritic: [tᵛ], [tᵝ], [tʙ], [tᵖ].
For simple labialization, Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996)
resurrected an old IPA symbol, [ ̫],
which would be placed above a letter with a descender such as ɡ. However, their chief example is Shona sv
which they transcribe /s̫/ and /z̫/ but which actually seem to be whistled sibilants
, without necessarily being labialized.
Another possibility is to use the IPA diacritic for rounding, distinguishing for example the labialization in English soon
[s̹] and [sʷ] swoon
The open rounding of English /ʃ/ is also unvelarized.
Labialization also refers to a specific type of assimilatory process where a given sound become labialized due to the influence of neighboring labial sounds. For example, /k/ may become /kʷ/ in the environment of /o/, or /a/ may become /o/ in the environment of /p/ or /kʷ/.
In the Northwest Caucasian languages
as well as some Australian languages
rounding has shifted from the vowels to the consonants, producing a wide range of labialized consonants and leaving in some cases only two phonemic vowels. This appears to have been the case in Ubykh and Eastern Arrernte
, for example. The labial vowel sounds usually still remain, but only as allophones next to the now-labial consonant sounds.
- labialized voiceless bilabial stop ([pʷ] (in Chaha, Paha)
- labialized voiced bilabial stop ([bʷ] (in Chaha, Paha)
- labialized voiceless alveolar stop [tʷ] (in Archi, Abkhaz, Lao, Paha, Ubykh)
- labialized voiced alveolar stop [dʷ] (in Archi, Abkhaz, Ubykh)
- labialized voiceless velar stop [kʷ] (in Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Halkomelem, Kabardian, Taos, Chipewyan, Hadza, Gwichʼin, Tlingit, Akan, Nez Perce, Archi, Cantonese, Wariʼ, Chaha, Dahalo, Hausa, Igbo, Italian, Lao, Latin, Nahuatl, Nawat, Ossetic, Paha, Portuguese, Thai, Tigrinya, Hiw, Ubykh, Bearlake Slavey, Breton)
- labialized voiced velar stop ([ɡʷ] (in Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Akan, Archi, Chaha, Dahalo, Hausa, Oowekyala, Ossetic, Hadza, Igbo, Gwichʼin, Kabardian, Paha, Portuguese, Tigrinya, Ubykh, Breton)
- labialized voiceless uvular stop ([qʷ] (in Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Kabardian, Ossetic, Paha, Tlingit, Nez Perce, Ubykh)
- labialized pharyngealized voiceless uvular stop[qˤʷ] (in Archi, Ubykh)
- labialized voiced uvular stop ([ɢʷ] (in Oowekyala, Kwak'wala, Tsakhur)
- labialized glottal stop ([ʔʷ] (in Adyghe, Kabardian, Lao, Tlingit)
- labialized prenasalized voiced bilabial plosive[ᵐbʷ] (in Tamambo)
- labialized voiceless alveolar affricate [t͡sʷ] (in Adyghe, Archi, Lezgian, Tsakhur)
- labialized voiced alveolar affricate [d͡zʷ] (in Adyghe, Dahalo)
- labialized voiceless palato-alveolar affricate [t͡ʃʷ] (in Archi, Abaza, Adyghe, Paha, Aghul, German)
- labialized voiced palato-alveolar affricate [d͡ʒʷ] (in Abaza, Aghul, Tsakhur, German)
- labialized voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate[t͡ɕʷ] (in Abkhaz, Akan, Ubykh)
- labialized voiced alveolo-palatal affricate [d͡ʑʷ] (in Abkhaz, Akan, Ubykh)
- labialized voiceless alveolar sibilant [sʷ] (in Archi, Lao, Lezgian)
- labialized voiced alveolar sibilant [zʷ] (in Archi, Tsakhur, Lezgian)
- labialized voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant [ʃʷ] (in Archi, Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Paha, Aghul, Ubykh)
- labialized voiced palato-alveolar sibilant [ʒʷ] (in Archi, Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Aghul, Ubykh)
- labialized voiceless retroflex sibilant [ʂʷ] (in Bzhedug)
- labialized voiced retroflex sibilant [ʐʷ] (in Bzhedug)
- labialized voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant [ɕʷ] (in Abkhaz, Ubykh)
- labialized voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant [ʑʷ] (in Abkhaz, Ubykh)
Central non-sibilant fricatives
- labialized voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸʷ]
- labialized voiced bilabial fricative [βʷ] (in Tamambo)
- labialized voiceless labiodental fricative [fʷ] (in Hadza, Chaha)
- labialized voiced labiodental fricative [vʷ])
- labialized voiceless dental fricative [θʷ] (in Paha)
- labialized voiced dental fricative [ðʷ] (in Paha)
- labialized voiceless palatal fricative [çʷ] (in Akan)
- labialized voiceless velar fricative [xʷ] (in Abaza, Adyghe, Avestan, Chaha, Halkomelem, Kabardian, Oowekyala, Taos, Navajo, Tigrinya, Lillooet, Tlingit)
- labialized voiced velar fricative [ɣʷ] (in Abaza, Navajo, Lillooet, Gwichʼin, possibly Proto-Indo-European)
- labialized voiceless uvular fricative [χʷ] (in Abkhaz, Adyghe, Archi, Halkomelem, Kabardian, Lillooet, Tlingit, Wariʼ, Chipewyan, Oowekyala, Ossetic, Ubykh)
- labialized pharyngealized voiceless uvular fricative [χˤʷ] (in Abkhaz, Archi, Ubykh)
- labialized voiced uvular fricative [ʁʷ] (in Abkhaz, Adyghe, Chipewyan, Kabardian, Ubykh)
- labialized pharyngealized voiced uvular fricative [ʁˤʷ] (in Archi, Ubykh)
- labialized voiceless pharyngeal fricative [ħʷ] (in Abaza, Abkhaz)
- labialized voiced pharyngeal fricative [ʕʷ] (in Abaza, Lillooet)
- labialized bilabial ejective [pʷʼ] (In Adyghe)
- labialized alveolar ejective [tʷʼ] (in Abkhaz, Adyghe, Ubykh)
- labialized velar ejective [kʷʼ] (in Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Archi, Bearlake Slavey, Halkomelem, Kabardian, Ossetic, Tlingit, Ubykh)
- labialized palato-alveolar ejective fricative [ʃʷʼ] (in Adyghe)
- labialized uvular ejective [qʷʼ] (in Abaza, Abkhaz, Archi, Halkomelem, Hakuchi, Tlingit, Ubykh)
- labialized pharyngealized uvular ejective [qˤʷʼ] (in Archi, Ubykh)
- labialized alveolar ejective affricate [t͡sʷʼ] (in Archi, Khwarshi)
- labialized alveolar lateral ejective affricate[t͡ɬʷʼ] (in Khwarshi)
- labialized palato-alveolar ejective affricate[t͡ʃʷʼ] (in Abaza, Archi, Khwarshi)
- labialized alveolo-palatal ejective affricate[t͡ɕʷʼ] (in Abkhaz, Ubykh)
- labialized retroflex ejective affricate [ʈ͡ʂʷʼ] (allophonic in Adyghe)
- labialized velar lateral ejective affricate [k͡ʟ̝̊ʷʼ] (in Archi)
- labialized velar ejective fricative [xʷʼ] (in Tlingit)
- labialized uvular ejective fricative [χʷʼ] (in Tlingit)
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ As a mnemonic, the more-rounded diacritics resembles the rounded vowel ⟨ɔ⟩.
- ^ International Phonetic Association (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-52163751-0.
- ^ This is not a subscript w but originally a subscript omega that "recalls the letter w" (Jespersen & Pedersen, 1926, Phonetic Transcription and Transliteration: Proposals of the Copenhagen Conference, April 1925. Oxford University Press).
- ^ See . Archived May 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ John Esling (2010) "Phonetic Notation", in Hardcastle, Laver & Gibbon (eds) The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, 2nd ed.
- ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:223)
Last edited on 12 April 2021, at 22:46
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