Lahore's origins reach into antiquity. The city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis
, and Delhi Sultanate
by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire
between the late 16th and early 18th century, and served as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of the Afsharid
ruler Nader Shah
in 1739, and fell into a period of decay while being contested between the Afghans and the Sikhs. Lahore eventually became capital of the Sikh Empire
in the early 19th century, and regained some of its lost grandeur.
Lahore was then annexed to the British Empire
, and made capital of British Punjab
Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India
, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence
, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan
. It experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition
period preceding Pakistan's independence.
Following the success of the Pakistan Movement
and subsequent independence in 1947, Lahore was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province.
According to Hindu legend,
Lahore's name derives from Lavpur
("City of Lava
and is said to have been founded by Prince Lava,
the son of Sita
. The same account attributes the founding of nearby Kasur
, which was actually founded by Afghans in the Mughal period,
to his twin brother Kusha
Lahore's name had been recorded by early Muslim historians Luhawar
, and Rahwar
The Iranian Polymath
, Abu Rayhan Al-Biruni
, referred to the city as Luhāwar
in his 11th century work, Qanun,
while the poet Amir Khusrow
, who lived during the Delhi Sultanate
, recorded the city's name as Lāhanūr
. Yaqut al-Hamawi
records the city's name as Lawhūr, mentioning that it's famously known as Lahāwar. Rajput
sources recorded the city's name as Lavkot
One theory suggests that Lahore's name is a corruption of the word Ravāwar,
as R to L shifts are common in languages derived from Sanskrit
is the simplified pronunciation of the name Iravatyāwar -
a name possibly derived from the Ravi River
, known as the Iravati River in the Vedas
Another theory suggests the city's name may derive from the word Lohar
, meaning "blacksmith."
No definitive records exist to elucidate Lahore's earliest history, and Lahore's ambiguous early history have given rise to various theories about its establishment and history. Hindu
legend states that Keneksen, the founder of the Great Suryavansha
dynasty, is believed to have migrated out from the city.
Early records of Lahore are scant, but Alexander the Great
's historians make no mention of any city near Lahore's location during his invasion in 326 BCE, suggesting the city had not been founded by that point, or was unimportant.
mentions in his Geographia
a city called Labokla
situated near the Chenab
and Ravi Rivers
which may have been in reference to ancient Lahore, or an abandoned predecessor of the city.
Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang
gave a vivid description of a large and prosperous unnamed city when he visited the region in 630 CE that may have been Lahore.
The first document that mentions Lahore by name is the Hudud al-'Alam
("The Regions of the World"), written in 982 CE
in which Lahore is mentioned as a town which had "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards."
Few other references to Lahore remain from before its capture by the Ghaznavid
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
in the 11th century. Lahore appears to have served as the capital of Punjab during this time under Anandapala
of the Kabul Shahi
empire, who had moved the capital there from Waihind
The capital would later be moved to Sialkot
following Ghaznavid incursions.
The Data Darbar
shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint
of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri
, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
captured Lahore on an uncertain date, but under Ghaznavid rule, Lahore emerged effectively as the empire's second capital.
In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz
to the Throne of Lahore—a governorship of the Ghaznavid Empire
. The city was captured by Nialtigin, the rebellious Governor of Multan
, in 1034, although his forces were expelled by Malik Ayaz in 1036.
With the support of Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi
, Malik Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city which had been devastated after the Ghaznavid invasion. Ayaz erected city walls and a masonry fort built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one,
which had been demolished during the Ghaznavid invasion. A confederation of Hindu princes then unsuccessfully laid siege to Lahore in 1043-44 during Ayaz' rule.
The city became a cultural and academic centre, renowned for poetry under Malik Ayaz' reign.
Lahore was formally made the eastern capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1152,
under the reign of Khusrau Shah
The city then became the sole capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1163 after the fall of Ghazni
The entire city of Lahore during the medieval Ghaznavid era was probably located west of the modern Shah Alami Bazaar, and north of the Bhatti Gate
Following the death of Aibak, Lahore came to be disputed among Ghurid officers. The city first came under the control of the Governor of Multan
, Nasir ad-Din Qabacha
, before being briefly captured by the sultan of the Mamluks in Delhi, Iltutmish
, in 1217.
The threat of Mongol invasions and political instability in Lahore caused future Sultans to regard Delhi as a safer capital for medieval Islamic India,
though Delhi had before been considered a forward base, while Lahore had been widely considered to be the centre of Islamic culture in the subcontinent.
Lahore came under progressively weaker central rule under Iltutmish's descendants in Delhi - to the point that governors in the city acted with great autonomy.
Under the rule of Kabir Khan Ayaz, Lahore was virtually independent from the Delhi Sultanate.
Lahore was sacked and ruined by the Mongol army in 1241.
Lahore governor Malik Ikhtyaruddin Qaraqash fled the Mongols,
while the Mongols held the city for a few years under the rule of the Mongol chief Toghrul
Lahore briefly flourished again under the reign of Ghazi Malik
of the Tughluq dynasty
between 1320 and 1325, though the city was again sacked in 1329, by Tarmashirin
of the Central Asian Chagatai Khanate
, and then again by the Mongol chief Hülechü. Khokhars
seized Lahore in 1342,
but the city was retaken by Ghazi Malik's son, Muhammad bin Tughluq
The weakened city then fell into obscurity, and was captured once more by the Khokhars in 1394.
By the time Tamerlane
captured the city in 1398 from Shayka Khokhar, he did not loot it because it was no more wealthy.
The Neevin Mosque
is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Timur gave control of the Lahore region to Khizr Khan
, Governor of Multan
, who later established the Sayyid dynasty
in 1414 – the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate
Lahore was briefly occupied by the Timurid
Governor of Kabul in 1432-33.
Lahore began to be incurred upon yet again the Khokhar tribe, and so the city was granted to Bahlul Lodi
in 1441 by the Sayyid dynasty in Delhi, though Lodi would then displace the Sayyids in 1451 by establishing himself upon the throne of Delhi.
Bahlul Lodi installed his cousin, Tatar Khan, to be governor of the city, though Tatar Khan died in battle with Sikandar Lodi
Governorship of Lahore was transferred by Sikandar Lodi to Umar Khan Sarwani, who quickly left management of this city to his son Said Khan Sarwani. Said Khan was removed from power in 1500 by Sikandar Lodi, and Lahore came under the governorship of Daulat Khan Lodi
, son of Tatar Khan and former employer of Guru Nanak
– founder of the Sikh faith.
, the founder of the Mughal Empire
, captured Lahore in 1524 after being invited to invade by Daulat Khan Lodi
, the Lodi governor of Lahore.
The city became refuge to Humayun
and his cousin Kamran Mirza
when Sher Shah Suri
rose in power on the Gangetic Plains, displacing Mughal power. Sher Shah Suri continued to rise in power, and seized Lahore in 1540, though Humayun reconquered Lahore in February 1555.
The establishment of Mughal rule eventually led to the most prosperous era of Lahore's history.
Lahore's prosperity and central position has yielded more Mughal-era monuments in Lahore than either Delhi
By the time of rule of the Mughal empire's greatest emperors, a majority of Lahore's residents did not live within the walled city itself but instead lived in suburbs that had spread outside of the city's walls.
Only 9 of the 36 urban quarters around Lahore, known as guzars
, were located within the city's walls during the Akbar
During this period, Lahore was closely tied to smaller market towns known as qasbahs
, such as Kasur
, as well as Amritsar
, and Batala
in modern-day India
, which in turn, linked to supply chains in villages surrounding each qasbah
Beginning in 1584, Lahore became the Mughal capital when Akbar
began re-fortifying the city's ruined citadel, laying the foundations for the revival of the Lahore Fort
Akbar made Lahore one of his original twelve subah
and in 1585–86 relegated governorship of the city and subah
to Bhagwant Das
, brother of Mariam-uz-Zamani
, who was commonly known as Jodhabhai
Akbar also rebuilt the city's walls, and extended their perimeter east of the Shah Alami bazaar to encompass the sparsely populated Rarra Maidan
The Akbari Mandi grain market was set up during this era, and continues to function until present-day.
Akbar also established the Dharampura
neighbourhood in the early 1580s, which survives today.
The earliest of Lahore's many havelis
date from the Akbari era.
Lahore's Mughal monuments were built under Akbar's reign of several emperors,
and Lahore reached its cultural zenith during this period, with dozens of mosques, tombs, shrines, and urban infrastructure developed during this period.
During the reign of Emperor Jahangir
in the early 17th century, Lahore's bazaars were noted to be vibrant, frequented by foreigners, and stocked with a wide array of goods.
In 1606, Jehangir's rebel son Khusrau Mirza
laid siege to Lahore after obtaining the blessings of the Sikh Guru Arjan Dev
Jehangir quickly defeated his son at Bhairowal, and the roots of Mughal-Sikh animosity grew.
Sikh Guru Arjan Dev was executed in Lahore in 1606 for his involvement in the rebellion.
Emperor Jahangir chose to be buried in Lahore, and his tomb
was built in Lahore's Shahdara Bagh
suburb in 1637 by his wife Nur Jahan
, whose tomb is also
Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan
reigned between 1628 and 1658 and was born in Lahore in 1592. He renovated large portions of the Lahore Fort
with luxurious white marble and erected the iconic Naulakha Pavilion
Shah Jahan lavished Lahore with some of its most celebrated and iconic monuments, such as the Shahi Hammam
in 1635, and both the Shalimar Gardens
and the extravagantly decorated Wazir Khan Mosque
in 1641. The population of pre-modern Lahore probably reached its zenith during his reign, with suburban districts home to perhaps 6 times as many compared to within the Walled City
Shah Jahan's son, and last of the great Mughal Emperors, Aurangzeb
, further contributed to the development of Lahore. Aurangzeb built the Alamgiri Bund
embankment along the Ravi River
in 1662 in order to prevent its shifting course from threatening the city's walls.
The area near the embankment grew into a fashionable locality, with several pleasure gardens laid near the band
by Lahore's gentry.
The largest of Lahore's Mughal monuments was raised during his reign, the Badshahi Mosque
in 1673, as well as the iconic Alamgiri
gate of the Lahore Fort
Civil wars regarding succession to the Mughal throne following Aurangzeb
's death in 1707 lead to weakening control over Lahore from Delhi
, and a prolonged period of decline in Lahore.
Mughal preoccupation with the Marathas
in the Deccan
eventually resulted in Lahore being governed by a series of governors who pledged nominal allegiance to the ever weaker Mughal emperors in Delhi.
Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah I
died en route to Lahore as part of a campaign in 1711 to subdue Sikh rebels under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur
His sons fought a battle outside Lahore in 1712 for succession to the Mughal crown, with Jahandar
winning the throne.
Sikh rebels were defeated during the reign of Farrukhsiyar
, when Abd as-Samad and Zakariyya Khan suppressed them.
Struggles between Zakariyya Khan's sons following his death in 1745 further weakened Muslim control over Lahore, thus leaving the city in a power vacuum, and vulnerable to foreign marauders.
Ahmad Shah Durrani
, the founder of the Afghan Durrani Empire
, captured Lahore in January 1748,
Following Ahmed Shah Durrani's quick retreat, the Mughals entrusted Lahore to Mu’īn al-Mulk Mir Mannu
Ahmad Shah Durrani again invaded in 1751, forcing Mir Mannu into signing a treaty that submitted Lahore to Afghan rule.
The Mughal Wazīr Ghazi Din Imad al-Mulk would seize Lahore in 1756, provoking Ahmad Shah Durrani to again invade in 1757, after which he placed the city under the rule of his son, Timur Shah Durrani
Durrani rule was briefly interrupted by the Maratha Empire
's capture of Lahore in 1758 under Raghunathrao
, who drove out the Afghans,
while a combined Sikh-Maratha defeated an Afghan assault in the 1759 Battle of Lahore
Following the Third Battle of Panipat
, Ahmad Shah Durrani crushed the Marathas and recaptured Lahore, Sikh forces quickly occupied the city after the Durranis withdrew from the city.
The Durranis invaded two more times, while the Sikhs would re-occupy the city after both invasions.
The Tomb of Asif Khan
was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Expanding Sikh Misls
secured control over Lahore in 1767, when the Bhangi Misl
state captured the city.
In 1780, The city was divided among three rulers, Gujjar Singh
, Lahna Singh
, and Sobha Singh. Instability resulting from this arrangement allowed nearby Amritsar
to establish itself as the area's primary commercial centre in place of Lahore.
Ahmad Shah Durrani's grandson, Zaman Shah
invaded Lahore in 1796, and again in 1798-9.Ranjit Singh
negotiated with the Afghans for the post of subahdar
to control Lahore following the second invasion.
By the end of the 18th century, the city's population drastically declined, with its remaining resident's living within the city walls, while the extramural suburbs lay abandoned, forcing travelers to pass through abandoned and ruined suburbs for a few miles before reaching the city's gates.
Following Zaman Shah
’s 1799 invasion of Punjab, Ranjit Singh
of nearby Gujranwala
to consolidate his position in the aftermath of the invasion. Singh was able to seize control of the region after a series of battles with the Sikh Bhangi Misl
chiefs who had seized Lahore in 1780.
His army marched to Anarkali, where according to legend, the gatekeeper of the Lohari Gate
, Mukham Din Chaudhry, opened the gates allowing Ranjit Singh's army to enter Lahore.
After capturing the Lahore, Sikh
soldiers immediately began plundering Muslim areas of the city until their actions were reined in by Ranjit Singh.
Ranjit Singh's rule restored some of Lahore's lost grandeur, but at the expense of destroying the remaining Mughal architecture for its building materials.
He established a mint in the city in 1800,
and moved into the Mughal palace at the Lahore Fort
after repurposing it for his own use in governing the Sikh Empire.
In 1801, he established the Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
to mark the site where Guru Ram Das
was born in 1534.
Lahore became the empire's administrative capital, though nearby economic center of Amritsar had also been established as the empire's spiritual capital by 1802.
By 1812 Singh had mostly refurbished the city's defenses by adding a second circuit of outer walls surrounding Akbar's original walls, with the two separated by a moat. Singh also partially restored Shah Jahan's decaying Shalimar Gardens.
Ranjit Singh also built the Hazuri Bagh Baradari
in 1818 to celebrate his capture of the Koh-i-Noor
diamond from Shuja Shah Durrani
He also erected the Gurdwara Dera Sahib
to mark the site of Guru Arjan Dev
's 1606 death. The Sikh royal court also endowed religious architecture in the city, including a number of Sikh gurdwaras, Hindu temples, and havelis
While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the time of his arrival, Ranjit Singh's rule saw the re-establishment of Lahore's glory – though Mughal monuments suffered during the Sikh period. Singh's armies plundered most of Lahore's most precious Mughal monuments, and stripped the white marble from several monuments to send to different parts of the Sikh Empire during his reign.
Monuments plundered for decorative materials include the Tomb of Asif Khan
, the Tomb of Nur Jahan
, and the Shalimar Gardens
Ranjit Singh's army also desecrated the Badshahi Mosque
by converting it into an ammunition depot and a stable for horses.
The Sunehri Mosque
in the Walled City of Lahore
was also converted to a gurdwara
while the Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum
was repurposed into a gunpowder factory.
The Sikh royal court, or the Lahore Durbar
, underwent a quick succession of rulers after the death of Ranjit Singh. His son Kharak Singh
quickly died after taking the throne on 6 November 1840, while the next appointed successor Nau Nihal Singh
to the throne died in an accident at Lahore's Hazuri Bagh
also on 6 November 1840 - the very same day of Kharak Singh's death.
Maharaja Sher Singh
was then selected as Maharajah, though his claim to the throne was quickly challenged by Chand Kaur
, widow of Kharak Singh and mother of Nau Nihal Singh, who quickly seized the throne.
Sher Singh raised an army that attacked Chand Kaur's forces in Lahore on 14 January 1841. His soldiers mounted weaponry on the minarets of the Badshahi Mosque
in order to target Chand Kaur's forces in the Lahore Fort
, destroying the fort's historic Diwan-e-Aam
Kaur quickly ceded the throne, but Sher Sing was then assassinated in 1843 in Lahore's Chah Miran
neighborhood along with his Wazir
Dhyan Singh's son, Hira Singh, sought to avenge his father's death by laying siege to Lahore in order to capture his father's assassins. The siege resulted in the capture of his father's murderer, Ajit Singh. Duleep Singh
was then crowned Maharajah, with Hira Singh as his Wazir
, but his power would be weakened by continued infighting among Sikh nobles,
as well as confrontations against the British during the two Anglo-Sikh Wars
After the conclusion of the two Anglo-Sikh wars, the Sikh empire fell into disarray, resulting in the fall of the Lahore Durbar
, and commencement of British rule after they captured Lahore and the wider Punjab Region.
British colonial period
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
The British East India Company
seized control of Lahore in February 1846 from the collapsing Sikh state, and occupied the rest of Punjab in 1848.
Following the defeat of the Sikhs at the Battle of Gujrat
, British troops formally deposed Maharaja Duleep Singh in Lahore that same year.
Punjab was then annexed to the British Indian Empire in 1849.
At the commencement of British rule, Lahore was estimated to have a population
Prior to annexation by the British, Lahore's environs consisted mostly of the Walled City
surrounded by plains interrupted by settlements to the south and east, such as Mozang
and Qila Gujar Singh
, which have since been engulfed by modern Lahore. The plains between the settlements also contained the remains of Mughal gardens, tombs, and Sikh-era military structures.
The British viewed Lahore's Walled City as a bed of potential social discontent and disease epidemics, and so largely left the inner city alone, while focusing development efforts in Lahore's suburban areas, and Punjab's fertile countryside.
The British instead laid out their capital city in an area south of the Walled City that would first come to be known as "Donald's Town" before being renamed "Civil Station."
Under early British rule, formerly prominent Mughal-era monuments that were scattered throughout Civil Station were also re-purposed, and sometimes desecrated – including the Tomb of Anarkali
, which the British had initially converted to clerical offices before re-purposing it as an Anglican
church in 1851.
The 17th century Dai Anga Mosque
was converted into railway administration offices during this time, the tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan converted into a storehouse, and tomb of Mir Mannu was used as a wine shop.
The British also used older structures to house municipal offices, such as the Civil Secretariat, Public Works Department, and Accountant General's Office.
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny
, the design of the Lahore Railway Station
was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The British built the Lahore Railway Station
just outside the Walled City shortly after the Mutiny of 1857
, and so built the station in the style of a medieval castle to ward off any potential future uprisings, with thick walls, turrets, and holes to direct gun and cannon fire for defence of the structure.
Lahore's most prominent government institutions and commercial enterprises came to be concentrated in Civil Station in a half-mile wide area flanking The Mall
, where unlike in Lahore's military zone, the British and locals were allowed to mix.
The Mall continues to serve as the epicentre of Lahore's civil administration, as well as one of its most fashionable commercial areas. The British also laid the spacious Lahore Cantonment
to the southeast of the Walled City at the former village of Mian Mir, where unlike around The Mall, laws did exist against the mixing of different races.
The British carried out a census of Lahore in 1901, and counted 20,691 houses in the Walled City.
An estimated 200,000 people lived in Lahore at this time.
Lahore's posh Model Town
was established as a "garden town" suburb in 1921, while Krishan Nagar
locality was laid in the 1930s near The Mall and Walled City.
, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
The 1941 census showed that city of Lahore had a population of 671,659, of which was 64.5% Muslim, with the remainder 35% being Hindu and Sikh, alongside a small Christian community.
The population figure was disputed by Hindus and Sikhs before the Boundary Commission that would draw the Radcliffe Line
to demarcate the border of the two new states based on religious demography.
In a bid to have Lahore awarded to India, they argued that the city was only 54% Muslim, and that Hindu and Sikh domination of the city's economy and educational institutions should trump Muslim demography.
Two-thirds of shops, and 80% of Lahore's factories belonged to the Hindu and Sikh community.
Kuldip Nayyar reported that Cyril Radcliffe
in 1971 had told him that he originally had planned to give Lahore to the new Dominion of India
but decided to place it within the Dominion of Pakistan
, which he saw as lacking a major city as he had already awarded Calcutta
As tensions grew over the city's uncertain fate, Lahore experienced Partition's worst riots.
Carnage ensued in which all three religious groups were both victims and perpetrators.
Early riots in March and April 1947 destroyed 6,000 of Lahore 82,000 homes.
Violence continued to rise throughout the summer, despite the presence of armoured British personnel.
Hindus and Sikhs began to leave the city en masse
as their hopes that the Boundary Commission to award the city to India came to be regarded as increasingly unlikely. By late August 1947, 66% of Hindus and Sikhs had left the city.
The Shah Alami Bazaar, once a largely Hindu quarter of the Walled City
, was entirely burnt down during subsequent rioting.
When Pakistan's independence was declared on 14 August 1947, the Radcliffe Line had not yet been announced, and so cries of Long live Pakistan
and God is greatest
were heard intermittently with Long live Hindustan
throughout the night.
On 17 August 1947, Lahore was awarded to Pakistan on the basis of its Muslim majority in the 1941 census, and was made capital of the Punjab
province in the new state of Pakistan. The city's location near the Indian border meant that it received large numbers of refugees fleeing eastern Punjab and northern India, though it was able to accommodate them given the large stock of abandoned Hindu and Sikh properties that could be re-distributed to newly arrived refugees.
left Lahore with a much weakened economy, and a stymied social and cultural scene that had previously been invigorated by the city's Hindus and Sikhs.
Industrial production dropped to one third of pre-Partition levels by end of the 1940s, and only 27% of its manufacturing units were operating by 1950, and usually well-below capacity. Capital flight
further weakened the city's economy while Karachi
industrialized and became more prosperous.
The city's weakened economy, and proximity to the Indian border, meant that the city was deemed unsuitable to be the Pakistani capital after independence. Karachi
was therefore chosen to be capital on account of its relative tranquility during the Partition period, stronger economy, and better infrastructure.
After independence, Lahore slowly regained its significance as an economic and cultural centre of western Punjab. Reconstruction began in 1949 of the Shah Alami Bazaar, the former commercial heart of the Walled City until it was destroyed in the 1947 riots.
The Tomb of Allama Iqbal
was built in 1951 to honour the philosopher-poet who provided spiritual inspiration for the Pakistan movement.
In 1955, Lahore was selected to be capital of all West Pakistan
during the single-unit period that lasted until 1970.
Shortly afterwards, Lahore's iconic Minar-e-Pakistan
was completed in 1968 to mark the spot where the Pakistan Resolution
With support from the United Nations
, the government
was able to rebuild Lahore, and most scars from the communal violence of Partition were ameliorated.
Lying between 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District
, on the east by Wagah
, and on the south by Kasur District
. The Ravi River
flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 square kilometres (156 sq mi). Lahore is in the north-eastern portion of the country.
Lahore has a semi-arid climate
(Köppen climate classification BSh
), not receiving enough rainfall to feature the humid subtropical climate
. The hottest month is May where temperatures routinely exceed 42C (107F). The monsoon season starts in late July, and the wettest month is August,
with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudbursts and flash floods. The coolest month is January with dense fog.
The city's record high temperature was 52.8C (127.1F), recorded on 5 June 2003.
48 °C (118 °F) was recorded on 10 June 2007.
At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 °C (131 °F).
The highest rainfall in a 24-hour period is 221 millimetres (8.7 in), recorded on 13 August 2008.
The results of the 2017 Census
determined the population to be at 11,126,285,
with an annual growth rate of 4.07% since 1998
Gender-wise, 52.35% of the population is male, while 47.64% is female, and transgender people make only 0.01% of the population.
Lahore is a young city with over 40% of its inhabitants below the age of 15. The average life expectancy stand at less than 60 years of age.
The city has a Muslim majority (94.5%), Christian
(3%) minority population, Sikh
constitute (1.6%) combined.
There is also a small but longstanding Zoroastrian
community. Additionally, Lahore contains some of Sikhism
's holiest sites, and is a major Sikh pilgrimage site.
According to the 1998 census, 94% of Lahore's population is Muslim
, up from 60% in 1941. Other religions include Christians (5.80% of the total population, though they form around 9.0% of the rural population) and small numbers of Ahmadis
. Lahore's first church was built during the reign of Emperor Akbar
in the late 16th century, which was then leveled by Shah Jahan
The Punjabi language
is the most-widely spoken native language in Lahore with 87% of Lahore counting it as their first language according to the 1998 Census,
Lahore is the largest Punjabi-speaking city in the world.
are used as official languages and as mediums of instruction and media administration. However, Punjabi is also taught at graduation level and used in theaters, films and newspapers from Lahore.
Several Lahore-based prominent educational leaders, researchers and social commentators have demanded that the Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level and official use in Punjab assembly
Cityscape of Lahore
Lahore's modern cityscape
consists of the historic Walled City of Lahore
in the northern part of the city, which contains several world
and national heritage sites. Lahore's urban planning was not based on geometric design but was instead built piecemeal, with small cul-de-sacs, katrahs
developed in the context of neighbouring buildings.
Though certain neighbourhoods were named for particular religious or ethnic communities, the neighbourhoods themselves typically were diverse and were not dominated by the namesake group.
By the end of the Sikh rule, most of Lahore's massive haveli
compounds had been occupied by settlers. New neighbourhoods occasionally grew up entirely within the confines of an old Mughal haveli, such as the Mohallah Pathan Wali, which grew within the ruins of a haveli of the same name that was built by Mian Khan.
By 1831, all Mughal Havelis in the Walled City had been encroached upon by the surrounding neighbourhood,
leading to the modern-day absence of any Mughal Havelis in Lahore.
A total of thirteen gates once surrounded the historic walled city. Some of the remaining gates include the Raushnai Gate, Masti Gate, Yakki Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Khizri Gate, Shah Burj Gate, Akbari Gate and Lahori Gate. Southeast of the walled city is the spacious British-era Lahore Cantonment
Lahore is home to numerous monuments from the Mughal Dynasty
, Sikh Empire
, and British Raj
. The architectural style of the Walled City of Lahore
has traditionally been influenced by Mughal and Sikh styles.
The leafy suburbs to the south of the Old City, as well as the Cantonment southwest of the Old City, were largely developed under British colonial rule, and feature colonial-era buildings built alongside leafy avenues.
By the arrival of the Sikh Empire, Lahore had decayed from its former glory as the Mughal capital. Rebuilding efforts under Ranjit Singh and his successors were influenced by Mughal practices, and Lahore was known as the 'City of Gardens' during the Ranjit Singh period.
Later British maps of the area surrounding Lahore dating from the mid-19th century show many walled private gardens which were confiscated from the Muslim noble families bearing the names of prominent Sikh nobles – a pattern of patronage which was inherited from the Mughals.
While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the time of his arrival, Ranjit Singh's army's plundered most of Lahore's most precious Mughal monuments, and stripped the white marble from several monuments to send to different parts of the Sikh Empire.
Monuments plundered of their marble include the Tomb of Asif Khan
, Tomb of Nur Jahan
, the Shalimar Gardens
were plundered of much of its marble and costly agate
The Sikh state also demolished a number of shrines and monuments laying outside the city's walls.
Sikh rule left Lahore with several monuments, and a heavily altered Lahore Fort. Ranjit Singh's rule had restored Lahore to much of its last grandeur,
and the city was left with a large number of religious monuments from this period. Several havelis were built during this era, though only a few still remain.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
were also laid near Civil Station, and were paid for by donations solicited from both Lahore's European community, as well as from wealthy locals. The gardens featured over 600 species of plants, and were tended to by a horticulturist sent from London's Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew
Parks and gardens
The Shalimar Gardens
were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan
and were designed to mimic the Islamic
paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an
. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh
layout of four squares, with three descending terraces.
The Lawrence Garden
was established in 1862 and was originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th-century British Viceroy to India. The Circular Garden, which surrounds on the Walled City on three sides, was established by 1892.
The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh
, Iqbal Park
, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park
, Model Town Park
, Race Course Park
, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park
, Lahore Zoo Safari Park
, and Changa Manga
, a man-made forest near Lahore in the Kasur
district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah
, a 141-acre (57 ha) botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.
As of 2008, the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity
(PPP) was estimated at $40 billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent. This is at par with Pakistan's economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ($78 billion in 2008).
The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is estimated to be 11.5% and 19% to the provincial economy of Punjab.
As a whole Punjab has $115 billion economy making it first and to date only Pakistani Subdivision of economy more than $100 billion at the rank 144.
Lahore's GDP is projected to be $102 billion by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum, as compared to Karachi's 5.5%.
A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries.
Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services.
The city is Pakistan's largest software & hardware producing centre,
and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry.
The city has always been a centre for publications where 80% of Pakistan's books are published, and it remains the foremost centre of literary, educational and cultural activity in Pakistan.
The Lahore Expo Centre
is one of the biggest projects in the history of the city and was inaugurated on 22 May 2010.
Defense Raya Golf Resort, also under construction, will be Pakistan's and Asia's largest golf course. The project is the result of a partnership between DHA Lahore and BRDB Malaysia. The rapid development of large projects such as these in the city is expected to boost the economy of the country.
Ferozepur Road of the Central business districts
of Lahore contains high-rises and skyscrapers including Kayre International Hotel and Arfa Software Technology Park
Lahore's main public transportation system is operated by the Lahore Transport Company
(LTC) and Punjab Mass Transit Authority (PMTA). The backbone of its public transport network is the PMTA's Lahore Metrobus
and the Orange Line
of the Lahore Metro
train. LTC and PMTA also operates an extensive network of buses, providing bus service to many parts of the city and acting as a feeder system for the Metrobus. The Orange Line metro spans 27.1 km around the city, and operates at a speed of 80 km/h (50 mph).
The Orange Line Metro Train
is an automated rapid transit
system in Lahore.
The Orange line is the first of the three proposed rail lines proposed for the Lahore Metro
. As of 2020, it is the primary metro rail line in the city. The line spans 27.1 km (16.8 mi) with 25.4 km (15.8 mi) elevated and 1.72 km (1.1 mi) underground
and has a cost of 251.06 billion Rupees($1.6 billion). The line consists of 26 subway stations and is designed to carry over 250,000 passengers daily. CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive
rolled out the first of 27 trains for the metro on 16 May 2017.
The train has speed up to 80 km/hour. For improved durability it's bogies are heat-resistant, they can manage unstable voltage and also feature energy saving air-conditioning.
Successful initial test trials were run in mid 2018,
and commercial operations began on 25 October 2020.
The Blue Line
is a proposed 24 kilometres (15 mi) line from Chauburji to College Road, Township. Along the way, it will connect places like Mozang Chungi, Shadman Chowk, Jail Road, Mian Boulevard Gulberg, Mian Boulevard Garden Town and Faisal Town.
The Purple Line
is a proposed 19 km long train. It will connect Bhaati Chowk with the Allama Iqbal International Airport. Along the way it will connect places like Brandreth Road, Railway Station, Allama Iqbal Road, Dharampura and Ghazi Road.
Taxi and Rickshaw
Ride sharing services such as Uber
are available in the city. They need to be booked in advance by apps or by calling their number. Motorcycle rides are also available in the city which have been introduced by private companies. These motorcycles also need to be booked in advance by apps or by calling their number.
play an important role of public transport in Lahore. There are 246,458 auto rickshaws, often simply called autos
, in the city. Motorcycle rickshaws, usually called "chand gari" (moon car) or "chingchi
" (after the Chinese company Jinan Qingqi Motorcycle Co. Ltd who first introduced these to the market) are also a very common means of domestic travel, though they are less common and cheaper than auto rickshaws. Chingchi
provide a shared ride experience for multiple passengers and fares, whereas Autorick shaws cater to only one passenger or group for a fare. Since 2002, all auto rickshaws have been required to use CNG
Urban (LOV) Wagon / Mini Bus
Medium-sized vans/wagons or LOVs (Low Occupancy Vehicle) run on routes throughout the city. They function like buses, and operate on many routes throughout the city.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
Allama Iqbal International Airport connects Lahore with many cities worldwide (including domestic destinations) by both passenger and cargo flight including Ras al Khaimah
(begins 28 August 2018),Ürümqi
, Abu Dhabi
, Dera Ghazi Khan
, Kuala Lumpur–International
, Paris–Charles de Gaulle
, Rahim Yar Khan
, and Tashkent
There are a number of municipal, provincial and federal roads
that serve Lahore.
Under Punjab Local Government Act 2013, Lahore is a metropolitan area
and under the authority of the Metropolitan Corporation Lahore.
The district is divided into 9 zones, each with its own elected Deputy Mayor. The Metropolitan Corporation Lahore is a body of those 9 deputy, as well as the city's mayor – all of whom are elected in popular elections. The Metropolitan Corporation approves zoning and land use, urban design and planning, environmental protection laws, as well as provide municipal services.
As per the Punjab Local Government Act 2013, the Mayor of Lahore
is the elected head of the Metropolitan Corporation of Lahore. The mayor is directly elected in municipal elections every four years alongside 9 deputy town
mayors. Mubashir Javed of the Pakistan Muslim League (N)
was elected mayor of Lahore in 2016. The mayor is responsible for the administration of government services, the composition of councils and committees overseeing Lahore City District
departments and serves as the chairperson for meeting of Lahore Council. The mayor also functions to help devise long-term development plans in consultation with other stakeholders and bodies to improve the condition, livability, and sustainability of urban areas.
is a subdivision of the Punjab, and is further divided into 9 administrative zones.
Each town in turn consists of a group of union councils, which total to 274.
The 2015 Local Government elections for Union Councils
in Lahore yielded the following results:
The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals
and events throughout the year, including Islamic, traditional Punjabi, Christian, and national holidays and festivals.
Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. Many of Lahore's dozens of Sufi shrines hold annual festivals called urs
to honor their respective saints. For example, the mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri
at the Data Darbar
shrine has an annual urs
that attracts up to one million visitors per year.
The popular Mela Chiraghan
festival in Lahore takes place at the shrine of Madho Lal Hussain
, while other large urs take place at the shrines of Bibi Pak Daman
, and at the Shrine of Mian Mir
. Eid ul-Fitr
and Eid ul-Adha
are celebrated in the city with public buildings and shopping centers decorated in lights. Lahoris also commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Husain
during massive processions that take place during the first ten days of the month of Muharram
is a traditional Punjabi
festival that marks the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centred in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite
-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant, while the Lahore Canal
is decorated with floating lanterns. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire
, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.
Lahore's churches are elaborately decorated for Christmas
Shopping centers and public buildings also install Christmas installations to celebrate the holiday, even though Christians only constitute 3% of the total population of Lahore in 2016.
Other well-known religious sites in the city are:
- Bibi Pak Daman
- Ali Hujwiri
- Mian Mir
- Madho Lal Hussain
- Khawaja Tahir Bandgi
- Ghazi Ilm Din Shaheed
- Sheikh Musa Ahangar
- Khawaja Mehmud
- Siraj-ud-Din Gilani
- peer makki
- Baba Shah Jamal
There are many havelis
inside the Walled City of Lahore, some in good condition while others need urgent attention. Many of these havelis are fine examples of Mughal
and Sikh Architecture
. Some of the havelis inside the Walled City include:
- Chuna Mandi Havelis
- Dina Nath Ki Haveli
- Haveli Barood Khana
- Haveli Mian Khan (Rang Mehal)
- Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
- Haveli Shergharian (near Lal Khou)
- Haveli Sir Wajid Ali Shah (near Nisar Haveli)
- Lal Haveli beside Mochi Bagh
- Mubarak Begum Haveli Bhatti Gate
- Mubarak Haveli – Chowk Nawab Sahib, Mochi/Akbari Gate
- Mughal Haveli (residence of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh)
- Nisar Haveli
- Salman Sirhindi ki Haveli
Lahore is known as Pakistan's educational capital,
with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan. Lahore is Pakistan's largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, law, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics, nanotechnology and the only future hyper high-tech center of Pakistan.
Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. It has the only AACSB
accredited business school in Pakistan, namely, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS). The literacy rate of Lahore is 74%. Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest and best educational institutes:
- Aitchison College, established in 1886
- Beaconhouse National University, established in 2003
- Central Model School, established in 1883
- Crescent Model Higher Secondary School, established in 1968
- College of Home Economics, established in 1955
- College of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, established in 1950
- Convent of Jesus and Mary, established in 1867
- Dayal Singh College, established in1910
- De'Montmorency College of Dentistry, established in 1929
- Don Bosco High School, established in 1956
- Fatima Jinnah Medical University, established in 1948
- Forman Christian College, established n 1864
- Garrison College for Boys, established in 2014
- Government College University, Lahore, established in 1864
- Hailey College of Commerce, established in 1927
- Islamia College, established in 1892
- Jamia Ashrafia, established in 1947
- King Edward Medical University, established in 1860
- Kinnaird College for Women University, established in 1913
- Lady Maclagan Training College, established in 1933
- Lady Willingdon Nursing School, established in 1933
- Lahore College for Women University, established in 1922
- Lahore Garrison University
- Lahore Grammar School, established in 1979
- Lahore Medical and Dental College, established in 1997
- Lahore School of Economics, established in 1993
- Lahore University of Management Sciences, established in 1986
- M.A.O College, established in 1933
- Muslim Model High School, established in 1890
- National College of Arts, established in 1875
- Oriental College, established in 1876
- Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design, established in 1994
- PakTurk International Schools and Colleges, established in 2006
- Queen Mary College, established in 1908
- Sacred Heart High School, established in 1906
- St. Anthony's High School, established in 1892
- St. Francis High School, established in 1842
- University College Lahore, established in 1994
- University College of Pharmacy, established in 1944
- University Law College, established in 1868
- University of Central Punjab, established in 2002
- University of Education, established in 2002
- University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, established in 1921
- University of Health Sciences, Lahore, established in 2002
- University of Lahore, established in 1999
- University of Management and Technology (Lahore), established in 2002
- University of the Punjab, established in 1882
- University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, established in 1882
Lahore is home to several golf courses. The Lahore Gymkhana Golf Course
, the Lahore Garrison Golf and Country Club, the Royal Palm Golf Club and newly built Defence Raya Golf & Country Club are well maintained Golf Courses in Lahore. In nearby Raiwind
Road, a 9 holes course, Lake City, opened in 2011. The newly opened Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort is another addition to the city. It is a state-of-the-art facility featuring golf, water parks, and leisure activities such as horse riding, archery and more. The Lahore Marathon
is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank
across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on 30 January 2005, and again on 29 January 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on 14 January 2007.[failed verification]
Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the Ravi River
.[better source needed]
Professional sports teams from Lahore
Twin towns and sister cities
- Istanbul, Turkey (1975)
- Sariwon, North Korea (1988)
- Xi'an, Shaanxi, China (1992)
- Kortrijk, Belgium (1993)
- Fez, Morocco (1994)
- Bukhara, Uzbekistan
- Samarkand, Uzbekistan (1995)
- Amol, Iran (2010)
- Isfahan, Iran (2004)
- Mashad, Iran (2006–2012)
- London, England
- Glasgow, Scotland (2006)
- Chicago, Illinois, United States (2007)
- Belgrade, Serbia (2007)
- Kraków, Poland (2007)
- Coimbra, Portugal (2007)
- Dushanbe, Tajikistan
- Córdoba, Spain (1994)
- Bogotá, Colombia
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2015)
- ^ "Landing in the heart of Pakistan". The Express Tribune. 9 August 2015.
- ^ Smith, Oliver (12 June 2018). "Paris of the East? Athens of the North? The cities with ideas above their station" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- ^ "The 'City of Lights' vs 'City of Gardens'". 12 January 2018.
- ^ "Punjab Portal". Government of Punjab. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- ^ a b "Population of Major Cities Census – 2017 [pdf]" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- ^ "National Dialing Codes". Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- ^ a b https://www.thebusinessyear.com/pakistan-top-4-four-economic-centers-cities-in-2020/focus
- ^ a b http://finance.gov.pk
- ^ "Pakistan: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". citypopulation.de.
- ^ a b Lahore Cantonment, globalsecurity.org
- ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". 22 April 2008. Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2011.Cite uses generic title (help)
- ^ Shelley, Fred (16 December 2014). The World's Population: An Encyclopedia of Critical Issues, Crises, and Ever-Growing Countries. ABC-CLIO. p. 356. ISBN 978-1-61069-506-0. Lahore is the historic center of the Punjab region of the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent
- ^ Usha Masson Luther (1990). Historical Routes of North West Indian Subcontinent, Lahore to Delhi, 1550s–1850s A.D.: Network Analysis Through DCNC-micro Methodology. Sagar Publications.
- ^ Diminishing Conflicts in Asia and the Pacific: Why Some Subside and Others Don't. Routledge. 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-67031-9. Retrieved 8 April 2017. Lahore, perhaps Pakistan's most liberal city...
- ^ Craig, Tim (9 May 2015). "The Taliban once ruled Pakistan's Swat Valley. Now peace has returned". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 11 February 2018. "We now want to dress like the people of Punjab," said Abid Ibrahim, 19, referring to the eastern province that includes Lahore, often referred to as Pakistan's most progressive city.
- ^ "Lahore attack: Pakistan PM Sharif demands swift action on terror". BBC. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016. Lahore is one of Pakistan's most liberal and wealthy cities. It is Mr Sharif's political powerbase and has seen relatively few terror attacks in recent years.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab acad ae af Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4.
- ^ "Rising Lahore and reviving Pakistan – The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 21 July 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Kudaisya, Gyanesh; Yong, Tan Tai (2004). The Aftermath of Partition in South Asia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1134440481. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- ^ a b "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 4 March 2005. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- ^ Zaidi, S. Akbar (15 October 2012). "Lahore's domination". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- ^ a b Windsor, Antonia (22 November 2006). "Out of the rubble". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- ^ a b Planet, Lonely. "Lahore, Pakistan – Lonely Planet". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- ^ Gazetteer of the Ferozpur District: 1883. 1883.
- ^ Haroon Khalid. "How old is Lahore? The clues lie in a blend of historical fact and expedient legend". Dawn. A legend subsequently grew that connected the history of the city with Valmiki's Ramayana. According to this narrative, Valmiki lived on a mound on the banks of the Ravi when he hosted Ram's consort Sita after she was banished from Ayodhya. It is here that she gave birth Lav and Kush, the princes of Ayodhya, who later founded the twin cities of Lahore and Kasur.
- ^ Bombay Historical Society (1946). Annual bibliography of Indian history and Indology, Volume 4. p. 257. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- ^ Baqir, Muhammad (1985). Lahore, past and present. B.R. Pub. Corp. pp. 19–20. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- ^ Nadiem, Ihsan H. (2005). Punjab: Land, History, People. Al-Faisal Nashran. ISBN 978-969-503-434-7.
- ^ Nadiem, Ihsan N (2005). Punjab: land, history, people. Al-Faisal Nashran. p. 111. ISBN 9789695032831. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- ^ a b Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities: With an Account of Its Modern Institutions, Inhabitants, Their Trade, Customs, &c. Printed at the New Imperial Press.
- ^ a b Suvorova, Anna (22 July 2004). Muslim Saints of South Asia: The Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries. Routledge. ISBN 1134370059.
- ^ al-Hamawi, Yaqut. "Mu'jam al-Buldan". arabiclexicon.hawramani.com/. Retrieved 14 March 2020. لَوْهُور: بفتح أوله، وسكون ثانيه، والهاء، وآخره راء، والمشهور من اسم هذا البلد لهاور: وهي مدينة عظيمة مشهورة في بلاد الهند.
- ^ a b Journal of Central Asia. Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Quaid-i-Azam University. 1978.
- ^ Boltz, William G.; Shapiro, Michael C. (1 January 1991). Studies in the Historical Phonology of Asian Languages. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9027235740.
- ^ Journal of Asian Civilisations. Taxila Institute of Asian Civilisations. 2001.
- ^ Zamir, Sufia (14 January 2018). "HERITAGE: THE LONELY LITTLE TEMPLE". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- ^ a b Neville, p.xii
- ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities: With an Account of Its Modern Institutions, Inhabitants, Their Trade, Customs, &c. Printed at the New Imperial Press.
- ^ Charles Umpherston Aitchison (2002). Lord Lawrence and the Reconstruction of India Under the British Rule. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 54. ISBN 9788177551730.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab acad Bosworth, C. Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill. ISBN 978-9047423836. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- ^ unknown author from Jōzjān (1937). Hudud al-'Alam, The Regions of the World: A Persian Geography, 372 A.H. – 982 A.D. Translated by V. Minorsky. London: Oxford University Press.
- ^ Al-Hind, the Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries By André Wink
- ^ "Dawn Pakistan – The 'shroud' over Lahore's antiquity". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ Al-Hind, the Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries By André Wink PAGE 235
- ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 106. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- ^ Andrew Petersen (1996). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-415-06084-4.
- ^ ".GC University Lahore". Gcu.edu.pk. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ James L. Wescoat; Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (1 January 1996). Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects. Dumbarton Oaks. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-88402-235-0.
- ^ Encyclopedia of Chronology: Historical and Biographical. Longmans, Green and Company. 1872. p. 590. Retrieved 26 December 2017. lahore 1152.
- ^ "Lahore" Encyclopædia Britannica
- ^ "Once upon a time". Apnaorg.com. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander. "Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia (2 volumes): A Historical Encyclopedia" ABC-CLIO, 22 July 2011 ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8 pp 269–270
- ^ a b c d e f Jackson, Peter (16 October 2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521543290. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- ^ Sadasivan, Balaji (14 August 2018). The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9789814311670 – via Google Books.
- ^ "isbn:8190891804 – Google Search". books.google.com.
- ^ Neville, p.xiii
- ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 107. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- ^ Ahmed, Farooqui Salma (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson India. ISBN 9788131732021.
- ^ a b Dhillon, Dalbir Singh (1988). Sikhism Origin and Development. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- ^ Masson, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich (2003). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast : from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO. ISBN 9789231038761.
- ^ "Short Cuts". The Economist. 19 March 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016. For centuries Lahore was the heart of Mughal Hindustan, known to visitors as the City of Gardens. Today it has a greater profusion of treasures from the Mughal period (the peak of which was in the 17th century) than India's Delhi or Agra, even if Lahore's are less photographed.
- ^ Chandra, Satish (2005). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part – II. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 8124110662. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (2003). Agra historical and descriptive with an account of Akbar and his court and of the modern city of Agra. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120617096. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- ^ a b Holt, P. M. (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 2A, The Indian Sub-Continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim West. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291372. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- ^ Pashaura Singh (2006). Life, and Work of Guru Arjan: History, Memory, and Biography in the Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 23, 217–218. ISBN 978-0-19-567921-2.
- ^ "International council on monuments and sites" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
- ^ "Lahore Fort Alamgiri Gate". Asian Historical Architecture. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Oxford University: New Imperial Press.
- ^ Axworthy, Michael (2010). Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. I.B. Tauris. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-85773-347-4.
- ^ Roy, Kaushik (2004). India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil. Permanent Black, India. pp. 80–1. ISBN 978-81-7824-109-8.
- ^ Mehta, J.L. (2005). Advanced study in the history of modern India 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- ^ "Tomb of Asif Khan" (PDF). Global Heritage Fund. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- ^ Pakistani Sikhs reopen temple after 73 years, retrieved 21 January 2020
- ^ a b c d Bansal, Bobby (2015). Remnants of the Sikh Empire: Historical Sikh Monuments in India & Pakistan. Hay House, Inc. ISBN 978-9384544935.
- ^ Kakshi, S.R.; Pathak, Rashmi; Pathak, S.R. Bakshi R. (1 January 2007). Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. pp. 272–274. ISBN 978-81-7625-738-1. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- ^ Singh, Bhagata (1990). Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his times. Sehgal Publishers Service.
- ^ K.S. Duggal (1989). Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign. Exoticindiaart.com. ISBN 8170172446. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- ^ "Pakistan – Lahore – Hindukush Karakuram Tours & Treks". Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- ^ Kartar Singh Duggal (1 January 2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.
- ^ Masson, Charles. 1842. Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, 3 v. London: Richard Bentley (1) 37
- ^ a b Sidhwa, Bapsi (2005). City of Sin and Splendour: Writings on Lahore. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-303166-6.
- ^ a b Marshall, Sir John Hubert (1906). Archaeological Survey of India. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing.
- ^ a b Sidhwa, Bapsi (14 August 2018). City of Sin and Splendour: Writings on Lahore. Penguin Books India. ISBN 9780143031666 – via Google Books.
- ^ The Panjab Past and Present. 22. Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjab University. 1988. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- ^ Soomro, Farooq (13 May 2015). "A visual delight – Maryam Zamani and Wazir Khan Mosques". Dawn. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- ^ a b Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. By the turn of the twentieth century, Lahore's population had nearly doubled from what it had been when the province was first annexed, growing from an estimated 120,000 people in 1849 to over 200,000 in 1901.
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. On the eve of annexation, Lahore's suburbs were made up of a flat, debris-strewn plain interrupted by a small number of populous abadis, the deserted cantonment and barracks of the former Sikh infantry (which, according to one British large buildings in various states of disrepair.
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. The inner city, on the other hand, remained problematic. Seen as a potential hotbed of disease and social instability, and notoriously difficult to observe and fathom, the inner districts of the city remained stubbornly resistant to colonial intervention. Throughout the British period of occupation in Punjab, for reasons we will explore more fully, the inner districts of its largest cities were almost entirely left alone. 5 The colonial state made its most significant investments in suburban tracts outside of cities... It should not surprise us that the main focus of imperial attention in Punjab was its fertile countryside rather than cities like Lahore.
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. .
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. What is more striking than the fact that Punjab's new rulers (cost-effectively) appropriated the symbolically charged buildings of their predecessors is how long some of those appropriations lasted. The conversion of the Mughal-era tomb of Sharif un-Nissa, a noblewoman during Shah Jahan's reign, popularly known as Anarkali, was one such case (Figure 1.2). This Muslim tomb was first used as offices and residences for the clerical staff of Punjab's governing board. In 1851, however, the tomb was converted into the Anglican church
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. the mosque of Dai Anga, Emperor Shah Jahan's wet nurse, which the British converted first into a residence and later into the office of the railway traffic manager. Nearby was the tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan, a highly placed member of Akbar's court, which the railway used as a storehouse... manager. Nearby was the tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan, a highly placed member of Akbar's court, which the railway used as a storehouse. That same tomb had been acquired earlier by the railway from the army, who had used it as a theater for entertaining officers. The railway provided another nearby tomb free of charge to the Church Missionary Society, who used it for Sunday services. The tomb of Mir Mannu, an eighteenth-century Mughal viceroy of Punjab who had brutally persecuted the Sikhs while he was in power, escaped demolition by the railway but was converted nevertheless into a private wine merchant's shop
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. with an abundance of abandoned large structures scattered throughout the civil station on nazul (state administered) property, the colonial government often chose to house major institutions in converted buildings rather than to build anew. These institutions included the Civil Secretariat, which, as we have seen, was located in Ventura's former house; the Public Works from Ranjit Singh's period; and the Accountant General's office, headquartered in a converted seventeenth century mosque near the tomb of Shah Chiragh, just off Mall Road. In
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. The Lahore station, built during a time when securing British civilians and troops against a future "native" uprising was foremost in the government's mind, fortified medieval castle, complete with turrets and crenellated towers, battered flanking walls, and loopholes for directing rifle and cannon fire along the main avenues of approach from the city
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. We should remember that outside of colonial military cantonments, where rules encouraging racial separation were partially formalized in the residential districts of India's colonial cities. Wherever government institutions, commercial enterprises, and places of public congregation were concentrated, mixing among races and social classes was both legally accommodated and necessary. In Lahore these kinds of activities were concentrated in a half-mile-wide zone stretching along Mall Road from the Civil Secretariat, near Anarkali's tomb, at one end to the botanical gardens at the other (see.
- ^ a b bahādur.), Muḥammad Laṭīf (Saiyid, khān (1891). History of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Calcutta Central Press Company, limited.
- ^ a b Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. As a gesture of loyalty, Punjab's "Princes, Chiefs, merchants, men of local note, and the public generally" formed a subscription to erect the "Victoria Jubilee Institute for the Promotion and Diffusion of Technical and Agricultural Education and Science" in Lahore, a complex that eventually formed the nucleus of the city's museum and the Mayo School of Art (completed in 1894).
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. According to the 1901 census, therefore, the inner city of Lahore contained exactly 20,691 "houses"
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. We should remember that outside of colonial military cantonments, where rules encouraging racial separation were partially formalized in the residential districts of India's colonial cities. Wherever government institutions, commercial enterprises, and places of public congregation were concentrated, mixing among races and social classes was both legally accommodated and necessary. In Lahore these kinds of activities were concentrated in a half-mile-wide zone stretching along Mall Road from the Civil Secretariat, near Anarkali's tomb, at one end to the botanical gardens at the other
- ^ "Republic Day". The Tribune. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "A memorial will be built to Bhagat Singh, says the governor of Lahore." Daily Times Pakistan. 2 September 2007.
- ^ Story of Pakistan – Lahore Resolution 1940, Jin Technologies. Retrieved 19 September 2007.
- ^ Ahmed, Khalid (3 June 2017). "The City that wanted to know". Indian Express. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- ^ a b Dabas, Maninder (17 August 2017). "Here's How Radcliffe Line Was Drawn On This Day And Lahore Could Not Become A Part of India". The Times of India.
- ^ a b Kuldip Nayar (24 August 2018). "'I nearly gave you Lahore': When Kuldip Nayar asked Cyril Radcliffe about deciding Indo-Pak border". Scroll.in. Scroll.in.
- ^ Kaul, Pyarelal (1991). Crisis in Kashmir. Suman Publications. p. 42. Under Radcliffe Award, Lahore was to have gone to India and not to Pakistan. The Arbitrator Radcliffe, announced to the representatives of India and Pakistan that Lahore had fallen to the lot of India.
- ^ Nayar, Kuldip (24 September 2006). "Line of Division: Real and Imagined". The Tribune.
- ^ Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena; Loescher, Gil; Long, Katy; Sigona, Nando (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0191645884. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- ^ a b de Jonge, Rene (1989). Urban planning in Lahore: a confrontation with real development. Peter Groote. ISBN 9789036701839. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- ^ "Second Islamic Summit Conference". Oic-oci.org. Archived from the original on 14 October 2006. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Political History and Administrative History of the Punjab" (PDF).
- ^ "Lahore – History of Lahore". thelahorecity.com. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- ^ a b "Climatological Normals of Lahore". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- ^ "Smoke not smog". 6 November 2016.
- ^ "Quetta". Pakmet.com.pk. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Highest temperature in 78 years: Four die as city sizzles at 48o C". Daily Times. 10 June 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Heatwave to persist for 4–5 days", The Dawn, 10 June 2007.
- ^ "Lahore Extremes (1931-2018)". Pakistan Meteorological Department. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
- ^ "Pakmet.com.pk - Pakistan's Biggest Property Website". PakMet. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011.
- ^ "Lahore Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- ^ "Extremes of Lahore". Pakistan Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- ^ a b c d "Pakistan: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". citypopulation.de.
- ^ a b "District Wise Population by Sex and Rural/Urban – Census 2017 [pdf]" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- ^ "Lahore Population 2018". 18 October 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- ^ a b "Largest Christian Community of Pakistan resides in Lahore District". christiansinpakistan.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- ^ "Sikh pilgrims from India arrive in Lahore". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- ^ Chaudhry, Nazir Ahmad (2000). Lahore. Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 969351047X.
- ^ Sehyr Mirza (31 October 2014). "Lahore's only functional Hindu temple: Persecution amidst lights". Retrieved 14 November 2020.
- ^ "PAKISTAN - CENSUS". 12 September 2011. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011.
- ^ "Population Census Organization". 26 September 2009. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009.
- ^ University of the Punjab (2015), "B.A. Two-Year (Pass Course) Examinations"
- ^ University of the Punjab (2015). "Department of Punjabi". Archived from the original on 27 November 2016.
- ^ "Supreme Court's Urdu verdict: No language can be imposed from above". The Nation. 15 September 2015. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
- ^ "Two-member SC bench refers Punjabi language case to CJP". Business Recorder. 14 September 2015. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
- ^ "Architecture of Lahore." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Web. 19 August 2016.
- ^ http://nation.com.pk/columns/23-Sep-2010/Some-vanished-gardens-of-Lahore, The Nation newspaper, Published 23 September 2010, Retrieved 27 February 2017
- ^ http://lahore.city-history.com/places/hazori-bagh/ Archived 21 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Hazuri Bagh Baradari in Lahore on Lahore City History website, Retrieved 27 February 2017
- ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Oxford University: New Imperial Press. (page 87)
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. Montgomery Hall faced inward, toward the main avenue of what would become a and reading room, a teak dance and "rinking"floor (skating rink), and room for the Gymkhana Club. Lawrence Hall was devoted to the white community in Lahore;the spaces and program of Montgomery Hall allowed for racial interaction between British civilians and officials and the elites of Lahori society.
- ^ Glover, William (January 2007). Making Lahore Modern, Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5022-4. Like Lawrence and Montgomery Halls, moreover, the garden's major elements were all financed through a combination of provincial, municipal, and private funds from both British carefully isolated space of controlled cultural interaction underwritten by elite collaboration. Both the botanical garden and the zoo in Lawrence Gardens drafted a controlled display of exotic nature to the garden's overall didactic program. The botanical garden exhibited over six hundred species of plants, trees, and shrubs, all carefully tended by a horticulturist sent out from the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.
- ^ Gill, Anjum. "Father of modern Lahore remembered on anniversary." Daily Times (Pakistan). 12 July 2004. Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Lawrence Gardens Archived 6 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine at Garden Visit website. (Retrieved on 27 March 2007)
- ^ "Bagh-E-Jinnah / Lawrence Gardens". 12 February 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- ^ a b c "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- ^ "Lahore's Shahbaz growth rate". Express Tribune. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- ^ "Richest cities in the world in 2020 by GDP". City Mayors. 11 March 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- ^ a b c d Asian Development Bank. "Rapid Mass Transit System Project" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- ^ "Expo Centre Lahore". LahoreExpo. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- ^ "Defence Raya Golf Resort, Lahore – By D.H.A Lahore". Homespakistan.com. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- ^ "Metro Bus Lahore Pakistan -Rapid Bus Transport". pakvisit.com. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
- ^ "Good news on track: Lahore to get Pakistan's first metro train", Express Tribune, Lahore, 23 March 2014. Retrieved on 20 October 2014.
- ^ "Development agenda: Lahore metro train gets green signal – The Express Tribune". 14 May 2015.
- ^ "Norinco Technical Proposal" (PDF). January 2016. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- ^ "First Orange Line Metro train rolls out – The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
- ^ "Lahore opens Pakistan's first metro line". International Railway Journal. 26 October 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Orange Line Metro train runs on trial basis in Lahore". thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- ^ "Punjab CM inaugurates Lahore's much-delayed Orange Line Metro Train". Daily Pakistan. 25 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- ^ a b "Lahore Rapid Mass Transit Rail - Railway Technology". www.railway-technology.com. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "2020 Ultimate Guide To Lahore". Visit Lahore. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- ^ "Urban (LOV) Wagon / Mini Bus - Routes & Fares | Lahore Transport Company". ltc.gop.pk. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ "History of Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore". lahoreairport.com.pk. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ "Pakistan International Airlines". Archived from the original on 23 January 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- ^ 2018, UBM (UK) Ltd. "China Southern adds Guangzhou – Lahore route from Aug 2018".
- ^ Liu, Jim (18 March 2018). "China Southern adds plans Lahore launch from late-June 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- ^ "PIA advertisement promoting Barcelona resumption". Archived from the original on 14 October 2016.
- ^ 2017, UBM (UK) Ltd. "Pakistan International W16 International route additions".
- ^ "Uzbek Airways resumes flight from Tashkent to Lahore". 5 April 2017.
- ^ "Metropolitan Corporation Lahore". lahore.gop.pk.
- ^ "City District Governments". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
- ^ "City District". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
- ^ "LG polls results: a nightmare for PTI". thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- ^ Linus Strothman (2016). Tschacher, Torsten; Dandekar, Deepra (eds.). Islam, Sufism and Everyday Politics of Belonging in South Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781317435969. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- ^ "Devotees throng Lahore shrine for Mian Mir Sahab's Urs | SAMAA". Samaa TV.
- ^ Shahid, QAM | Sheharyar Rizwan | Kalbe Ali | Shakeel Ahmed | Mohammad Hussain Khan | Zulfiqar Ali | Saleem (8 September 2019). "MUHARRAM: WALKING THE MOURNERS' PATH". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- ^ "11 Dead at Pakistani Kite Festival, Metal Kite Strings, Stray Celebratory Gunfire Claim Lives at Annual Event, More Than 100 Injured". CBS News. 26 February 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
- ^ "In pictures: Christmas celebrations across Pakistan". www.geo.tv.
- ^ "Christmas festivities all set to begin in Lahore". The Express Tribune. 22 December 2018.
- ^ Reporter, The Newspaper's Staff (2 January 2016). "Ten-fold increase in foreign tourists for Lahore Walled City". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- ^ "Historical mosques of Lahore". Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- ^ "Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan – A Guide For Travelers – The Tourist". The Tourist. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- ^ Blanshard Asher, Catherine (1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1.
- ^ Raza, M. Hanif (1999). Portrait of Pakistan. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Ferozsons, Ltd. p. 155. ISBN 969-0-01545-1.
- ^ "Lahore Marathon Website". Lahoremarathon.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Lahore soon to get a Sports City". Lahore Metblogs. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j "No committee to develop ties with Lahore's twins". Daily Times of Pakistan. 2 March 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- ^ a b c d Abbas, Zaffar, ed. (5 January 2016). "Islamabad to get new sister city". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications.
- ^ a b Syed Shayan (February 2015). "Ground Realities 4". Akhbar Peela. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- ^ "Lahore and Chicago declared sister cities". City District Government of Lahore. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- ^ Aslam, Talat, ed. (27 April 2007). "Musharraf for Lahore-Cordoba liaison to promote ties with Spain". The News International. Karachi, Pakistan: Jang Group of Newspapers.
- ^ "Lei nº 6.105/2016". Câmara Municipal do Rio de Janeiro. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016. (in Portuguese)
- ^ "Commemorating Sept 1965: Nation celebrates Defence Day with fervour". The Express Tribune. 6 September 2013.
- ^ "Defence Day celebrated with renewed pledges". DAWN.COM. 7 September 2002.
Last edited on 15 June 2021, at 19:14
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.