"Tharthar" redirects here. For the wife of Stilgar
in the book by Frank Herbert, see Dune (novel)
), and known in Iraq
as Buhayrat ath-Tharthar
: بحيرة الثرثار
), is an artificial lake
opened in 1956,
situated 100 kilometers northwest of Baghdad
between the Tigris
and the Euphrates
In 1956, the southern part of the Tharthar depression was turned into an artificial reservoir to collect floodwaters of the Tigris
River. The water flows via an artificial inlet canal, named Tharthar Canal. The canal diverts the excess water, by means of a regulator Samarra Barrage
. It merges with the lake in its southeastern bank.
The lake has an artificial outlet called Taksim Tharthar Canal, which drains to the Euphrates
River directly. The canal, after 28 km from its outlet, bifurcates to another canal called "Dhira'a Dijla" (arm of tigris) that returns water back to the Tigris River.
Lake Tharthar was the site of a raid
in 2005 against an insurgent training base in the region.
The Tharthar depression was formed during the Holocene
age, mainly by karstification
, due to dissolving of gypsum rocks of the Fatha (nearby area) Formation.
Tharthar covers roughly 2,050 km2
(790 sq mi), flows from the central and eastern parts of the Sinjar Mountains
and adjacent hills, with a floor of –3 m, above the sea level. The maximum length and width of the depression are 120 and 48 km, respectively. The eastern rim of the depression is higher than the western one, the heights of both rims are 90 metres (300 ft) and 75 metres (246 ft), respectively.
The main purpose of the Tharthar Lake is to collect excess water of the Tigris River during flood seasons and to recharge water to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers during dry seasons, when there is shortage of water in both rivers. Moreover, it aims to wash out the salts from the stored water in the lake by means of natural continuous draining of the stored water.
Flora and fauna
Tharthar lake and the surrounding areas are considered one of the most important grazing areas in Iraq, including the wide wheat and corn fields covering the area. The area harbors many species of animals and vegetation.
Tharthar lake and the surrounding area contains about 38 species of plants. Four main habitat types observed within the Al-Tharthar Lake and Al Dhebaeji Field area:
- ^ a b c d Lake Tharthar Archived 2008-05-06 at the Wayback Machine (Arabic) Republic of Iraq Ministry of Water Resources
- ^ a b c d "GENESIS AND AGE ESTIMATION OF THE THARTHAR DEPRESSION, CENTRAL WEST IRAQ".
- ^ "Al-Tharthar Lake and All-Dhebaeji Fields (SD2), (KBA XXX)" (PDF).
Last edited on 26 August 2020, at 21:15
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