The Lebanon–Syria border
is 394 km (245 m) in length and runs from the Mediterranean coast in the north to the tripoint with Israel
in the south.
Map of Lebanon
In 1920 France split its mandate into several political entities, one of which was an expanded Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate referred to as 'Greater Lebanon
', set up chiefly so as to provide a national polity for the generally pro-French Maronite Christians
The process leading to the precise delineation of the frontier is unclear, though it appears to have been based on a map stemming from the 1860s French expedition to the region which was championed by Lebanese nationalist Bulus Nujaym.
Many Syrian nationalists opposed the new entity, seeing Lebanon as an integral part of Greater Syria
The remaining Syrian states were eventually merged into one Syrian polity in 1930s, minus Lebanon (and also Hatay
, which became part of the new Republic of Turkey
). Both Lebanon and Syria gained full independence in the period 1943-46.
Relations between the two new states were often tense, and a precise border has never been fixed officially with any precision, in spite of Lebanese demands to this effect and some preliminary conducted in the 1950-60s.
Many Lebanese feared that its larger neighbour harboured designs to annex the country. In 1975 long-standing sectarian tensions within Lebanon erupted into civil war
, prompting Syria to occupy
the country the following year; Syrian troops were to remain in Lebanon until 2005.
- ^ CIA World Factbook – Syria, retrieved 3 April 2020
- ^ Golan Heights profile 25 March 2019 BBC
- ^ Kaufman, Asher (2004). "Understanding the Sheeba Farms dispute". Palestine-Israel Journal. 11 (1). Retrieved 22 July 2006.
- ^ Cleveland, William L. (2009). A History of the Modern Middle East (4th ed.). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8133-4374-7.
- ^ Emmanuel Brunet-Jailly (28 July 2015). Border Disputes: A Global Encyclopedia [3 volumes]: A Global Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 353–. ISBN 978-1-61069-024-9.
- ^ Marwan R. Buheiry (1 June 1981). "Bulus Nujaym and the Grand Liban Ideal, 1908–1919". Intellectual Life in the Arab East, 1890 to 1930. Syracuse University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8156-6086-6.
- ^ Meir Zamir (1988). The formation of modern Lebanon. Cornell University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-8014-9523-6. Nujaym’s formulation was to become the basis for Lebanese Christian arguments in favor of a Greater Lebanon. It stressed the national rather than economic aspects of that goal. Only extended boundaries would enable Lebanon to exist as an independent state. Nujaym told the European public that the Lebanese question required a definite solution: the establishment of an independent Christian state.
- ^ Cleveland, William L. (2009). A history of the modern Middle East (4th ed.). Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-8133-4374-7.
- ^ Traboulsi, Fawwaz (2007). A history of modern Lebanon (1. publ. ed.). London: Pluto Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7453-2438-8.
- ^ Chaitani, Youssef (2006). Post-colonial Syria and Lebanon : the decline of Arab nationalism and the triumph of the state (Reprinted. ed.). London: I.B. Tauris. p. 159. ISBN 9781845112943.
- ^ "Lebanon-Syria Border" (PDF). Now Lebanon. 2009. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- ^ see United Nations Security Council Resolution 1680 (2006)
- ^ Stout, Theodore (2002). "THE SYRIAN INTERVENTION IN LEBANON 1975-76:A FAILURE OF STRATEGY" (PDF). aiswest.com. p. 26.
- ^ "Retrait syrien total fin avril au plus tar" (in French).
- ^ a b c Paul Doyle, (2012) Bradt Travel Guide - Lebanon, pgs. 51-2
Last edited on 7 April 2021, at 02:54
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