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Liberation of Khorramshahr
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The Liberation of Khorramshahr (Persian: آزادسازی خرمشهر‎‎, romanizedÂzâdsâzī-ye Khorramshahr) refers to the Iranian recapture of the city of Khorramshahr on 24 May 1982, during the Iran–Iraq War. The city had been captured by the Iraqis earlier in the war on 26 October 1980, shortly after the Iraqi invasion of Iran.[1][2] The successful retaking of the city was part of Iran's Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas. It is perceived as a turning point in the war and the liberation of the city is celebrated in Iran annually on its anniversary, 24 May.[3]
Liberation of Khorramshahr
Part of the Iran–Iraq War

Iranian forces managing captured Iraqi Army prisoners following the city's return to Iranian control, 1982
Date24 April – 24 May 1982
(1 month)
LocationKhorramshahr, Khuzestan, Iran
30.434°N 48.178°E
ResultIranian victory
Territorial
changes
Iran retakes the southwestern port city of Khorramshahr and pushes Iraqi forces back to the international border
Belligerents
 Iran
Commanders and leaders
Strength
70,00070,000
Casualties and losses
  • 15,000 killed and/or wounded
  • 15,000–19,000 captured
  • 550 tanks and armoured vehicles destroyed
  • 105 tanks and armoured vehicles captured
30,000 killed and/or wounded
Khorramshahr
Location of Khorramshahr within Iran
Battle
Main article: Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas
Following its capture, the Iranian city of Khorramshahr remained under Iraqi control until April 1982, when the Iranians launched Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas to recapture the province of Khuzestan. The first assault (from 24 April to 12 May 1982) consisted of approximately 70,000 Iranian Army troops and Revolutionary Guards that succeeded in pushing the Iraqi forces out of the AhvazSusangerd area while sustaining heavy casualties. The Iraqis withdrew to Khorramshahr and, on 20 May, launched a heavy but unsuccessful counterattack against the Iranians. An all-out assault on Khorramshahr was then launched by Iran, which captured two Iraqi defense lines in the Pol-e Now and Shalamcheh region. The Iranians gathered near the Shatt al-Arab (known as the Arvand Rud in Iran) waterway, surrounded the city and began a second siege; the Iranians finally recaptured the city on 24 May 1982 after two days of intense fighting and heavy losses.[3][4]
Aftermath and legacy
2000 rial banknote of Iran, depicting Iranian forces after the liberation of Khorramshahr.
In retaking the city, the Iranians captured approximately 19,000 soldiers from a now-demoralized Iraqi Army. Saddam Hussein was shocked and infuriated by the defeat at Khorramshahr and at the fact that the Iranians had pushed on despite sustaining heavy casualties. The Iranians had even been forced to commit their reserves in order to keep on driving back the Iraqis. After the defeat at Khorramshahr, Saddam Hussein executed several of his top generals, such as the commander of the 9th Armoured Division.[3]
Calls for a United Nations-mandated ceasefire in the Iran–Iraq War were made three days[5] after the liberation of Khorramshahr, and officials of both countries began discussing such a possibility.[6]
The anniversary of the Liberation of Khorramshahr is observed in Iran annually.[2][7]
Sevom Khordad, an Iranian air defense system is named after the battle.[8]
In popular culture
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The Liberation of Khorramshahr is a subject of some war time films such as the Pasdaran Army Television Unit's recapturing Khorramshahr in 1983, Another Growth by Homayun Purmand in 1982, Forty witnesses and the second narrative:[9] liberation of Khorramshahr by Kiumarth Monazzah.[10]
A popular sad Persian song, "Mammad Naboodi" (ممد نبودی‎, meaning "Mammad [colloquial variant of Mohammad], you were not there [to see the city has been liberated]") by Gholam Koveitipoor is about Mohammad Jahanara, the Pasdaran commander who was one of the last few Iranians to leave Khorramshahr when it fell to the Iraqis. He went on to fight in the Siege of Abadan and lead Iranian forces to recapture Khorramshahr, but he died on May 24, in a plane crash, before the eventual liberation of the city.[11]
See also
References
  1. ^ Naraghi, Ehsan (193). From Palace to Prison: Inside the Iranian Revolution. Ivan R. Dee, publisher. ISBN 978-1566630337.
  2. ^ a b Staff, Writer. "Iran celebrates anniversary of liberating Khorramshahr". Alalam.
  3. ^ a b c Murray, Williamson; Woods, Kevin M. (2014). The Iran-Iraq War: A Military and Strategic History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-67392-2.
  4. ^ Razoux, Pierre; Elliott, Nicholas (2015). The Iran-Iraq War. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674088634.
  5. ^ Blight, James G.; Lang, Janet M.; Banai, Hussein; Byrne, Malcolm; Tirman, John (2014). Becoming Enemies: U.S.-Iran Relations and t. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4422-0831-5.
  6. ^ Sinkaya, Bayram (2015). The Revolutionary Guards in Iranian Politics: Elites and Shifting Relations. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-85364-5.
  7. ^ Staff, writer. "Iran-Iraq War off-limits to historians in Iran". al-monitor.
  8. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (13 July 2014). "IRGC unveils new tactical ballistic missiles developments - IHS Jane's 360". London. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  9. ^ Leaman, Oliver (2014). Companion Encyclopedia of Middle Eastern and North African Film. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415757553.
  10. ^ Naficy, Hamid (2012). A Social History of Iranian Cinema, Volume 4: The Globalizing Era, 1984–2010. Duke University Press Books. p. 664. ISBN 978-0822348788.
  11. ^ McLaurin, R. D. (July 1982). "Military Operations in the Gulf War: The Battle of Khorramshahr" (PDF). U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory: 24. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
External links
Khorramshahr Battle Continues (Video)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liberation of Khorramshahr.
Last edited on 16 May 2021, at 17:02
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