Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society
(ACS), who believed black people would face better chances for freedom and prosperity in Africa
than in the United States
The country declared its independence on July 26, 1847. The U.S. did not recognize
Liberia's independence until February 5, 1862, during the American Civil War
. Between January 7, 1822, and the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, more than 15,000 freed and free-born people of color who faced social and legal oppression in the United States, as well as 3,198 Afro-Caribbeans
, relocated to the settlement.
The settlers carried their culture and tradition with them. The Liberian constitution and flag were modeled after those of the U.S. On January 3, 1848, Joseph Jenkins Roberts
, a wealthy, free-born African American from Virginia
who settled in Liberia, was elected Liberia's first president
after the people proclaimed independence.
The Americo-Liberian settlers did not relate well to the indigenous peoples they encountered, especially those in communities of the more isolated "bush
". The colonial settlements were raided by the Kru
from their inland chiefdoms. Americo-Liberians developed as a small elite that held on to political power,
and indigenous tribesmen were excluded from birthright citizenship in their own land until 1904.
Americo-Liberians promoted religious organizations to set up missions and schools to educate the indigenous peoples.
became common by the Mid-Holocene
, coupled with an apparent intensification of wild food exploitation. Between ~4–3.5ka, these societies gradually transformed into food producers, possibly through contact with northern pastoralists and agriculturalists, as the environment became more arid. However, hunter-gatherers have survived in the more forested parts of West Africa until much later, attesting to the strength of ecological boundaries in this region.
A European map of West Africa and the Grain Coast
, 1736. It has the archaic mapping designation of Negroland
The Pepper Coast
, also known as the Grain Coast, has been inhabited by indigenous peoples of Africa at least as far back as the 12th century. Mande
-speaking people expanded westward from the Sudan
, forcing many smaller ethnic groups southward toward the Atlantic Ocean. The Dei
, and Kissi
were some of the earliest documented peoples in the area.
This influx of these groups was compounded by the decline of the Western Sudanic Mali Empire
in 1375 and the Songhai Empire
in 1591. As inland regions underwent desertification
, inhabitants moved to the wetter coast. These new inhabitants brought skills such as cotton spinning
, cloth weaving
, iron smelting
cultivation, and social and political institutions from the Mali and Songhai empires.
Shortly after the Mane
conquered the region, the Vai people
of the former Mali Empire immigrated into the Grand Cape Mount County
region. The ethnic Kru opposed the influx of Vai, forming an alliance with the Mane to stop further influx of Vai.
People along the coast built canoes
and traded with other West Africans from Cap-Vert
to the Gold Coast
. Arab traders entered the region from the north, and a long-established slave trade took captives to north and east Africa.
Between 1461 and the late 17th century, Portuguese
, and British
traders had contacts and trading posts in the region. The Portuguese named the area Costa da Pimenta
("Pepper Coast") but it later came to be known as the Grain Coast
, due to the abundance of melegueta pepper
grains. European traders would barter commodities and goods with local people.
In the United States there was a movement to settle free people of color
, both free-born and formerly enslaved, in Africa. This was because they faced racial discrimination in the form of political disenfranchisement and the denial of civil, religious, and social rights.
Formed in 1816, the American Colonization Society
(ACS) was made up mostly of Quakers
and slaveholders. Quakers believed blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the U.S.
While slaveholders opposed freedom for enslaved people, they viewed "repatriation" of free people of color as a way to avoid slave rebellions
In 1822, the American Colonization Society began sending free people of color to the Pepper Coast voluntarily to establish a colony. Most were transported on Black-owned barques
(see Mendi (barque)
). Mortality from tropical diseases was high — of the 4,571 emigrants who arrived in Liberia between 1820 and 1843, only 1,819 were alive in 1843.
By 1867 the ACS (and state-related chapters) had assisted in the migration of more than 13,000 people of color from the United States and the Caribbean to Liberia.
These free African Americans and their descendants married within their community and came to identify as Americo-Liberians
. Many were of mixed race and educated in American culture; they did not identify with the indigenous natives of the tribes they encountered. They intermarried largely within the colonial community, developing an ethnic group that had a cultural tradition infused with American notions of political republicanism and Protestant Christianity.
Map of Liberia Colony in the 1830s, created by the ACS, and also showing Mississippi Colony and other state-sponsored colonies.
The ACS, supported by prominent American politicians such as Abraham Lincoln
, Henry Clay
, and James Monroe
, believed "repatriation" was preferable to having emancipated slaves remain in the United States.
Similar state-based organizations established colonies in Mississippi-in-Africa
, Kentucky in Africa
, and the Republic of Maryland
, which Liberia later annexed. However, Lincoln in 1862 described Liberia as only "in a certain sense...a success", and proposed instead that free people of color be assisted to emigrate to Chiriquí
, today part of Panama.
The Americo-Liberian settlers did not relate well to the indigenous peoples they encountered, especially those in communities of the more isolated "bush
". The colonial settlements were raided by the Kru
from their inland chiefdoms. Encounters with tribal Africans in the bush often became violent confrontations. Believing themselves different from and culturally and educationally superior to the indigenous peoples, the Americo-Liberians developed as an elite minority that held on to political power.
Indigenous tribesmen did not enjoy birthright citizenship in their own land until 1904.
Americo-Liberians encouraged religious organizations to set up missions and schools to educate the indigenous peoples.
The leadership of the new nation consisted largely of the Americo-Liberians
, who initially established political and economic dominance in the coastal areas that the ACS had purchased; they maintained relations with U.S. contacts in developing these areas and the resulting trade. Their passage of the 1865 Ports of Entry Act prohibited foreign commerce with the inland tribes, ostensibly to "encourage the growth of civilized values" before such trade was allowed in the region.
African Americans depart for Liberia, 1896. The ACS sent its last emigrants to Liberia in 1904.
By 1877, the True Whig Party
was the country's most powerful political entity.
It was made up primarily of Americo-Liberians, who maintained social, economic and political dominance well into the 20th century, repeating patterns of European colonists in other nations in Africa. Competition for office was usually contained within the party; a party nomination virtually ensured election.
Pressure from the United Kingdom, which controlled Sierra Leone
to the northwest, and France
, with its interests in the north and east, led to a loss of Liberia's claims to extensive territories. Both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast annexed territories.
Liberia struggled to attract investment to develop infrastructure and a larger, industrial economy.
There was a decline in production of Liberian goods in the late 19th century, and the government struggled financially, resulting in indebtedness on a series of international loans.
On July 16, 1892, Martha Ann Erskine Ricks
met Queen Victoria
at Windsor Castle and presented her a handmade quilt, Liberia's first diplomatic gift. Born into slavery in Tennessee, Ricks said, "I had heard it often, from the time I was a child, how good the Queen had been to my people—to slaves—and how she wanted us to be free."
Early 20th century
American and other international interests emphasized resource extraction, with rubber production a major industry in the early 20th century.
In 1914 Imperial Germany
accounted for three quarters of the trade of Liberia. This was a cause for concern among the British colonial authorities of Sierra Leone
and the French colonial authorities of French Guinea
and the Ivory Coast
as tensions with Germany increased.
First World War
Middle 20th century
In 1927, The country's elections again showed the power of the True Whig Party, with electoral proceedings that have been called some of the most rigged ever; the winning candidate was declared to have received votes amounting to more than 15 times the number of eligible voters. (The loser actually received around 60% of the eligible vote.)
In the mid-20th century Liberia gradually began to modernize with American assistance. During World War II
the United States made major infrastructure improvements to support its military efforts in Africa and Europe against Germany. It built the Freeport of Monrovia
and Roberts International Airport
under the Lend-Lease
program before its entry into the Second World War.
After the war President William Tubman
encouraged foreign investment in the country. Liberia had the second-highest rate of economic growth in the world during the 1950s.
Late 20th-century political instability
On April 12, 1980, a military coup led by Master Sergeant Samuel Doe
of the Krahn
ethnic group overthrew and killed President William R. Tolbert, Jr.
Doe and the other plotters later executed a majority of Tolbert's cabinet and other Americo-Liberian government officials and True Whig Party members.
The coup leaders formed the People's Redemption Council
(PRC) to govern the country.
A strategic Cold War
ally of the West, Doe received significant financial backing from the United States while critics condemned the PRC for corruption and political repression.
The United Nations Mission in Liberia
began arriving in September 2003 to provide security and monitor the peace accord,
and an interim government took power the following October.
The subsequent 2005 elections
were internationally regarded as the most free and fair in Liberian history. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
, a US-educated economist and former Minister of Finance, was elected as the first female president in Africa.
Upon her inauguration, Sirleaf requested the extradition of Taylor from Nigeria and transferred him to the SCSL
for trial in The Hague
Following the 2017 Liberian general election
, former professional football striker George Weah
, one of the greatest African players of all time,
was sworn in as president on 22 January 2018, becoming the 4th youngest serving president in Africa.
The inauguration marked Liberia's first fully democratic transition in 74 years.
Weah cited fighting corruption, reforming the economy, combating illiteracy and improving life conditions as the main targets of his presidency.
A map of Liberia
Liberia map of Köppen climate classification.
Liberia is situated in West Africa
, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean to the country's southwest. It lies between latitudes 4°
, and longitudes 7°
The landscape is characterized by mostly flat to rolling coastal plains that contain mangroves
, which rise to a rolling plateau and low mountains in the northeast.
cover the hills, while elephant grass and semi-deciduous
forests make up the dominant vegetation in the northern sections.
The equatorial climate, in the south of the country, is hot year-round with heavy rainfall from May to October with a short interlude in mid-July to August.
During the winter months of November to March, dry dust-laden harmattan
winds blow inland, causing many problems for residents.
Liberia's watershed tends to move in a southwestern pattern towards the sea as new rains move down the forested plateau off the inland mountain range of Guinée Forestière
, in Guinea
. Cape Mount
near the border with Sierra Leone
receives the most precipitation in the nation.
Liberia's main northwestern boundary is traversed by the Mano River while its southeast limits are bounded by the Cavalla River
Liberia's three largest rivers are St. Paul
exiting near Monrovia
, the river St. John
, and the Cestos River
, all of which flow into the Atlantic. The Cavalla is the longest river in the nation at 515 kilometers (320 mi).
Liberia is divided into fifteen counties
, which, in turn, are subdivided into a total of 90 districts
and further subdivided into clans
. The oldest counties are Grand Bassa and Montserrado, both founded in 1839 prior to Liberian independence. Gbarpolu is the newest county, created in 2001. Nimba is the largest of the counties in size at 11,551 km2
(4,460 sq mi), while Montserrado is the smallest at 1,909 km2
(737 sq mi).
Montserrado is also the most populous county with 1,144,806 residents as of the 2008 census.
The fifteen counties are administered by superintendents appointed by the president. The Constitution calls for the election of various chiefs
at the county and local level, but these elections have not taken place since 1985 due to war and financial constraints.
Parallel to the administrative divisions of the country are the local and municipal divisions. Liberia currently does not have any constitutional framework or uniform statutes which deal with the creation or revocation of local governments.
All existing local governments – cities, townships, and a borough – were created by specific acts of the Liberian government, and thus the structure and duties/responsibilities of each local government varies greatly from one to the other.
Bushmeat is widely eaten in Liberia, and is considered a delicacy.
A 2004 public opinion survey found that bushmeat ranked second behind fish amongst residents of the capital Monrovia as a preferred source of protein.
Of households where bushmeat was served, 80% of residents said they cooked it "once in a while," while 13% cooked it once a week and 7% cooked bushmeat daily.
The survey was conducted during the last civil war, and bushmeat consumption is now believed to be far higher.
Loggers and logging truck, early 1960s
agriculture is one of the human activities eroding Liberia's natural forests.
A 2004 UN report estimated that 99% of Liberians burned charcoal and fuel wood for cooking and heating, resulting in deforestation
has increased in Liberia since the end of the Second Civil War in 2003
In 2012, President Sirleaf granted licenses to companies to cut down 58% of all the primary rainforest left in Liberia.
After international protests, many of those logging permits were canceled.
In September 2014, Liberia and Norway
struck an agreement whereby Liberia ceased all logging in exchange for $150 million in development aid.
Pollution is a significant issue in Monrovia
Since 2006, the international community has paid for all garbage collection and disposal in Monrovia via the World Bank
is expected to severely impact the Economy of Liberia
, especially agriculture, fisheries, and forestry.
Liberia has been an active participant in international and local policy changes related to climate change.
Liberia's highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court, made up of five members and headed by the Chief Justice of Liberia
. Members are nominated to the court by the president and are confirmed by the Senate, serving until the age of 70. The judiciary is further divided into circuit
and speciality courts
courts and justices of the peace
The judicial system is a blend of common law
, based on Anglo-American law, and customary law.
An informal system of traditional courts still exists within the rural areas of the country, with trial by ordeal
remaining common despite being officially outlawed.
From 1877 to 1980 the government was dominated by the True Whig Party
Today over 20 political parties are registered in the country, based largely around personalities and ethnic groups.
Most parties suffer from poor organizational capacity.
The 2005 elections marked the first time that the president's party did not gain a majority of seats in the Legislature.
The Armed Forces of Liberia
(AFL) are the country's armed forces. Founded as the Liberian Frontier Force in 1908, the military was renamed in 1956. For virtually all of its history, the AFL has received considerable material and training assistance from the United States. For most of the 1941–89 period, training was largely provided by U.S. advisors, with combat experience in the Second World War also playing a role in training. After UN Security Council Resolution 1509 in September 2003, the United Nations Mission in Liberia
arrived to referee the ceasefire with units from Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, and China with the view to assist the National Transitional Government of Liberia in forming the new Liberian military.
After the turmoil following the First
and Second Liberian Civil Wars
, Liberia's internal stabilization in the 21st century brought a return to cordial relations with neighboring countries and much of the Western world. As in other African countries, China is an important part of the post-conflict reconstruction.
In the past, both of Liberia's neighbors, Guinea
and Sierra Leone
, have accused Liberia of backing rebels in their countries.
Law enforcement and crime
The Liberian National Police
is the country's national police
force. As of October 2007 it has 844 officers in 33 stations in Montserrado County
, which contains Monrovia
The National Police Training Academy is in Paynesville City
A history of corruption among police officers diminishes public trust and operational effectiveness. The internal security is characterized by a general lawlessness coupled with the danger that former combatants in the late civil war might reestablish militias to challenge the civil authorities.
and sexual assault
are frequent in the post-conflict era in Liberia. Liberia has one of the highest incidences of sexual violence against women in the world. Rape is the most frequently reported crime, accounting for more than one-third of sexual violence
cases. Adolescent girls are the most frequently assaulted, and almost 40% of perpetrators are adult men known to victims.
Corruption is endemic at every level of the Liberian government.
When President Sirleaf took office in 2006, she announced that corruption was "the major public enemy."
In 2014 the US ambassador to Liberia said that corruption there was harming people through "unnecessary costs to products and services that are already difficult for many Liberians to afford".
Liberia scored a 3.3 on a scale from 10 (highly clean) to 0 (highly corrupt) on the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index
. This gave it a ranking 87th of 178 countries worldwide and 11th of 47 in Sub-Saharan Africa.
This score represented a significant improvement since 2007, when the country scored 2.1 and ranked 150th of 180 countries.
When dealing with public-facing government functionaries, 89% of Liberians say they have had to pay a bribe, the highest national percentage in the world according to the organization's 2010 Global Corruption Barometer.
A proportional representation of Liberian exports. The shipping related categories reflect Liberia's status as an international flag of convenience
– there are 3,500 vessels registered under Liberia's flag accounting for 11% of ships worldwide.
Following a peak in growth in 1979, the Liberian economy began a steady decline due to economic mismanagement after the 1980 coup.
This decline was accelerated by the outbreak of civil war in 1989; GDP was reduced by an estimated 90% between 1989 and 1995, one of the fastest declines in history.
Upon the end of the war in 2003, GDP growth began to accelerate, reaching 9.4% in 2007.
The global financial crisis
slowed GDP growth to 4.6% in 2009,
though a strengthening agricultural sector led by rubber and timber exports increased growth to 5.1% in 2010 and an expected 7.3% in 2011, making the economy one of the 20 fastest-growing in the world.
Following a decrease in inflation
beginning in 2003, inflation spiked in 2008 as a result of worldwide food
and energy crises
reaching 17.5% before declining to 7.4% in 2009.
Liberia's external debt
was estimated in 2006 at approximately $4.5 billion, 800% of GDP.
As a result of bilateral, multilateral and commercial debt relief from 2007 to 2010, the country's external debt fell to $222.9 million by 2011.
While official commodity exports declined during the 1990s as many investors fled the civil war, Liberia's wartime economy featured the exploitation of the region's diamond wealth.
The country acted as a major trader in Sierra Leonian blood diamonds
, exporting over US$300 million in diamonds in 1999.
This led to a United Nations
ban on Liberian diamond exports in 2001, which was lifted in 2007 following Liberia's accession to the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme
In 2003, additional UN sanctions were placed on Liberian timber exports, which had risen from US$5 million in 1997 to over US$100 million in 2002 and were believed to be funding rebels in Sierra Leone.
These sanctions were lifted in 2006.
Due in large part to foreign aid and investment inflow following the end of the war, Liberia maintains a large account deficit
, which peaked at nearly 60% in 2008.
Liberia gained observer status with the World Trade Organization
in 2010 and became an official member in 2016.
Liberia has the highest ratio of foreign direct investment to GDP in the world, with US$16 billion in investment since 2006.
Following Sirleaf's inauguration in 2006, Liberia signed several multi-billion-dollar concession agreements in the iron ore
and palm oil
industries with numerous multinational corporations
, including BHP Billiton
, and Sime Darby
Palm oil companies like Sime Darby (Malaysia) and Golden Veroleum (USA) have been accused of destroying livelihoods and displacing local communities, enabled by government concessions.
Since 1926 The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
has operated the world's largest rubber plantation
, Margibi County. As of 2015 it had more than 8,000 mostly Liberian employees, making it the country's largest private employer.
Shipping flag of convenience
Young boy grinding sugar cane near Flumpa, Nimba County, 1968.
Agriculture in Liberia
is a major sector of the country's economy
worth 38.8% of GDP, employing more than 70% of the population and providing a valuable export for one of the world’s least developed countries (as defined by the UN).
Liberia has a climate favourable to farming, vast forests, and an abundance of water, yet low yields mean that over half of foodstuffs are imported, with net agricultural trade at -$73.12 million in 2010.
This was dismissed as a "misconception" by Liberia’s Minister of Agriculture.
The major crops are natural rubber
and palm oil
is also a major export at $100 million annually, although much of this is the product of unsustainable habitat destruction
, with Asian corporations criticised for their role.
Although agricultural activity occurs in most rural locations, it is particularly concentrated in coastal plains (subsistence crops) and tropical forest (cash crops). The sector is very important for women as they are widely employed in it in comparison to the economy as a whole.
Iron ore mining
The mining industry of Liberia has witnessed a revival after the civil war
which ended in 2003.
Gold, diamonds, and iron ore form the core minerals of the mining sector with a new Mineral Development Policy and Mining Code being put in place to attract foreign investments.
In 2013, the mineral sector accounted for 11% of GDP in the country and the World Bank
has projected a further increase in the sector by 2017.
Mining sector is considered the prime mover for the economic growth of the country and its exploitation has to be appropriately balanced with sustainable environmental preservation of its rich biodiversity.
Apart from iron ore extractions, cement, diamond, gold, and petroleum resources have also been given due importance to enrich the economy of the country.
There are six major newspapers in Liberia, and 45% of the population has a mobile phone service. Much of Liberia's communications infrastructure was destroyed or plundered during the two civil wars
(1989–1996 and 1999–2003).
With low rates of adult literacy and high poverty rates, television and newspaper use is limited, leaving radio as the predominant means of communicating with the public.
The streets of downtown Monrovia
, March 2009
Public electricity services are provided solely by the state-owned Liberia Electricity Corporation, which operates a small grid almost exclusively in the Greater Monrovia District
The vast majority of electric energy services is provided by small, privately owned generators
. At $0.54 per kWh, the cost of electricity in Liberia is among the highest in the world. Total capacity in 2013 was 20 MW, a sharp decline from a peak of 191 MW in 1989 before the wars.
Liberia has begun exploration for offshore oil; unproven oil reserves may be in excess of one billion barrels.
The government divided its offshore waters into 17 blocks
and began auctioning off exploration licenses for the blocks in 2004, with further auctions in 2007 and 2009.
An additional 13 ultra-deep offshore blocks were demarcated in 2011 and planned for auction.
Among the companies to have won licenses are Repsol YPF
, Chevron Corporation
, and Woodside Petroleum
Liberia's population from 1961 to 2013, in millions.
Liberia's population tripled in 40 years.
As of the 2017 national census, Liberia was home to 4,694,608 people.
Of those, 1,118,241 lived in Montserrado County
, the most populous county in the country and home to the capital of Monrovia. The Greater Monrovia District
has 970,824 residents. Nimba County
is the next most populous county, with 462,026 residents.
As revealed in the 2008 census, Monrovia is more than four times more populous than all the county capitals combined.
Prior to the 2008 census, the last census had been taken in 1984 and listed the country's population as 2,101,628.
The population of Liberia was 1,016,443 in 1962 and increased to 1,503,368 in 1974.
As of 2006, Liberia had the highest population growth rate in the world
(4.50% per annum).
In 2010 some 43.5% of Liberians were below the age of 15.
The population includes 16 indigenous ethnic groups
and various foreign minorities. Indigenous peoples comprise about 95 percent of the population. The 16 officially recognized ethnic groups include the Kpelle
or Dan, Kru
, Mandingo or Mandinka
or Dewoin, Belleh
, and Americo-Liberians
or Congo people.
comprise more than 20% of the population and are the largest ethnic group in Liberia, residing mostly in Bong County
and adjacent areas in central Liberia.
Americo-Liberians, who are descendants of African American
and West Indian
, mostly Barbadian
, make up 2.5%. Congo people, descendants of repatriated Congo
and Afro-Caribbean slaves who arrived in 1825, make up an estimated 2.5%.
These latter two groups established political control in the 19th century which they kept well into the 20th century.
Numerous immigrants have come as merchants and become a major part of the business community, including Lebanese
, and other West African nationals. There is a high percentage of interracial marriage between ethnic Liberians and the Lebanese, resulting in a significant mixed-race
population especially in and around Monrovia
. A small minority of Liberians who are White Africans of European descent
reside in the country.[better source needed]
The Liberian constitution exercises jus sanguinis
, restricting its citizenship to "Negroes or persons of Negro descent."
According to the 2008 National Census, 85.6% of the population practices Christianity
, while Muslims represent a minority of 12.2%.
A multitude of diverse Protestant confessions
such as Lutheran
, United Methodist
, African Methodist Episcopal
(AME) and African Methodist Episcopal Zion
(AME Zion) denominations form the bulk of the Christian population, followed by adherents of the Roman Catholic Church
and other non-Protestant Christians. Most of these Christian denominations were brought by African Americansettlers
moving from the United States
into Liberia via the American Colonization Society, while some are indigenous—especially Pentecostal
and evangelical Protestant
ones. Protestantism was originally associated with Black American settlers and their Americo-Liberian
descendants, while native peoples held to their own animist
forms of African traditional religion
. Indigenous people were subject to Christian missionary
, as well as Americo-Liberian efforts to close the cultural gap by means of education. This proved successful, leaving Christians a majority in the country.
In 2010, the literacy rate
of Liberia was estimated at 60.8% (64.8% for males and 56.8% for females).
In some areas primary and secondary education is free and compulsory from the ages of 6 to 16, though enforcement of attendance is lax.
In other areas children are required to pay a tuition fee to attend school. On average, children attain 10 years of education (11 for boys and 8 for girls).
The country's education sector is hampered by inadequate schools and supplies, as well as a lack of qualified teachers.
Higher education is provided by a number of public and private universities. The University of Liberia
is the country's largest and oldest university. Located in Monrovia, the university opened in 1862. Today it has six colleges, including a medical school and the nation's only law school, Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law
Due to student protests late in October 2018, newly elected president George M. Weah abolished tuition fees for undergraduate students in the public universities in Liberia.
- Cuttington University was established by the Episcopal Church of the USA in 1889 in Suakoko, Bong County, as part of its missionary education work among indigenous peoples. It is the nation's oldest private university.
- Stella Maris Polytechnic, a post-secondary, private institution of higher learning. Founded in 1988, the school is owned and operated by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Monrovia. Located on Capitol Hill, the school has approximately 2,000 students.
- Adventist University of West Africa, a post-secondary learning environment that is situated in Margibi County, on the Roberts International Airport.
- United Methodist University, a private Christian university located in Liberia, West Africa, it is commonly known amongst locals as UMU. As of 2016, it had approximately 9,118 students. This institution was founded in 1998.
- African Methodist Episcopal University, a private higher education institution that was founded in 1995.
- St. Clements University- University College (Liberia), a private higher education institution that was founded in 2008, Home
Liberia imports 90% of its rice, a staple food, and is extremely vulnerable to food shortages.
In 2007, 20.4% of children under the age of five were malnourished.
In 2008, only 17% of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities.
Approximately 95% of the country's healthcare facilities had been destroyed by the time civil war ended in 2003.
In 2009, government expenditure on health care per capita was US$22,
accounting for 10.6% of total GDP.
In 2008, Liberia had only one doctor and 27 nurses per 100,000 people.
In 2014, an outbreak of Ebola virus
in Guinea spread to Liberia
As of November 17, 2014, there were 2,812 confirmed deaths from the ongoing outbreak.
In early August 2014 Guinea
closed its borders to Liberia to help contain the spread of the virus, as more new cases were being reported in Liberia than in Guinea. On May 9, 2015, Liberia was declared Ebola free after six weeks with no new cases.
Liberia has a rich history in textile arts and quilting, as the settlers brought with them their sewing and quilting skills. Liberia hosted National Fairs in 1857 and 1858 in which prizes were awarded for various needle arts. One of the most well-known Liberian quilters was Martha Ann Ricks,
who presented a quilt featuring the famed Liberian coffee tree
to Queen Victoria
in 1892. When President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf moved into the Executive Mansion, she reportedly had a Liberian-made quilt installed in her presidential office.
One-third of married Liberian women between the ages of 15–49 are in polygamous marriages.
Customary law allows men to have up to four wives.
The Liberian government has begun transitioning away from use of United States customary units
to the metric system.
However, this change has been gradual, with government reports concurrently using both United States Customary and metric units.
In 2018, the Liberian Commerce and Industry Minister announced that the Liberian government is committed to adopting the metric system.
- ^ Metrication in the United States is ongoing. The 1988 Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act designated the metric system as "the preferred system of weights and measures for United States trade and commerce," but in practice the system is in mixed usage, with the population generally preferring customary units and industries either fully metric or mixed.
- ^ Myanmar made an official decision to metricate in 2013 and has been transitioning away from Imperial and Burmese units since.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Liberia". The Central Intelligence Agency side for Liberia. Central Intelligence Agency. 2021. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
- ^http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/liberia#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2020®ion_name=All%20Countries&restrictions_year=2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
- ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- ^ "GINI index". World Bank.
- ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- ^ Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2015). "Liberia". Ethnologue (18th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
- ^ a b c "Background on conflict in Liberia"Archived February 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Friends Committee on National Legislation, July 30, 2003
- ^ a b "July 26, 1847 Liberian independence proclaimed", This Day In History, History website.
- ^ a b Nelson, Harold D.; American University (Washington, D. C. ) Foreign Area Studies (January 24, 1984). "Liberia, a country study". Washington, D.C. : The Studies : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. – via Internet Archive.
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- Lang, Victoria, To Liberia: Destiny's Timing (Publish America, Baltimore, 2004, ISBN 1-4137-1829-9). A fast-paced gripping novel of the journey of a young Black couple fleeing America to settle in the African motherland of Liberia.
- Maksik, Alexander, A Marker to Measure Drift (John Murray 2013; Paperback 2014; ISBN 978-1-84854-807-7). A beautifully written, powerful & moving novel about a young woman's experience of and escape from the Liberian civil war.
- Merriam Webster's Geographical Dictionary: 3rd Edition (Paperback ed.). Merriam Webster Inc., Springfield. 1997. ISBN 0-87779-546-0.
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Military Coups in West Africa Since The Sixties, Chapter Eight: Liberia: 'The Love of Liberty Brought Us Here,' pp. 85–110, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Huntington, New York, 2001; Godfrey Mwakikagile, The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation, Chapter One: The Collapse of A Modern African State: Death and Rebirth of Liberia, pp. 1–18, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2001.
- Pham, John-Peter (April 4, 2001). Liberia: Portrait of a Failed State. Reed Press. ISBN 1-59429-012-1.
- Sankawulo, Wilton, Great Tales of Liberia. Dr. Sankawulo is the compiler of these tales from Liberia and about Liberian culture. Editura Universitatii "Lucian Blaga", Sibiu, Romania, 2004. ISBN 9789736518386.
- Sankawulo, Wilton, Sundown at Dawn: A Liberian Odyssey. Recommended by the Cultural Resource Center, Center for Applied Linguistics for its content concerning Liberian culture. ISBN 0-9763565-0-3
- Shaw, Elma, Redemption Road: The Quest for Peace and Justice in Liberia (a novel), with a Foreword by President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (Cotton Tree Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9800774-0-7)
- Williams, Gabriel I. H. (July 6, 2006). Liberia: The Heart of Darkness. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-55369-294-2.
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Liberia
Last edited on 16 June 2021, at 18:43
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