Catalino Ortiz Brocka
(April 3, 1939 – May 22, 1991) was a Filipino
film director. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential and significant Filipino filmmakers in the history of Philippine cinema
. He co-founded the organization Concerned Artists of the Philippines (CAP), dedicated to helping artists address issues confronting the country, and the Free the Artist Movement.[better source needed]
He was a member of the Coalition for the Restoration of Democracy.
The following year, he directed Maynila sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag
("Manila in the Claws of Light"), which is considered by many critics, including British film critic and historian Derek Malcolm
to be the greatest Philippine film ever made. The film tells the allegorical tale of a young provincial named Julio Madiaga who goes to Manila
looking for his lost love, Ligaya Paraiso. The episodic plot has him careering from one adventure to another until he finally finds Ligaya. Much of the film's acclaim is directed towards the excellent cinematography
by Mike de Leon
, who would later on direct landmark films such as Kisapmata
and Batch '81
. The film won the FAMAS Awards for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, and Best Supporting Actor in 1976.
(1976) was the first Philippine film ever shown at the Cannes Film Festival
It is considered to be one of Brocka's best films — some say his masterpiece. The film centers on a young woman named Insiang who lives in the infamous Manila slum
. It is a Shakespearean
tragedy that deals with Insiang's rape by her mother's lover, and her subsequent revenge.
In 1981, Brocka returned to the Cannes' Director's Fortnight with his third entry, Bona
, a film about obsession.
In 1983, Brocka created the organization Concerned Artists of the Philippines (CAP),
which he led for two years. His stand was that artists were first and foremost citizens and, as such, must address the issues confronting the country. His group became active in anti-government rallies after the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr.
, eventually becoming one of the progressive organizations representing artists and cultural workers in the country. On January 28, 1985, Brocka and fellow filmmaker Behn Cervantes
were arrested at a nationwide transport strike organized by public transportation drivers.
They were charged for organizing illegal assembly and denied bail. Both directors denied being leaders of the strike, stating they were attending in sympathy with the drivers.
They were released after 16 days,
following public pressure for President Ferdinand Marcos
to release the directors. He joined the Coalition for the Restoration of Democracy after his release.
In 1984, Bayan Ko
("My Country") was deemed subversive by the government of Ferdinand Marcos
, and underwent a legal battle to be shown in its uncut form. At the 1984 Cannes Film Festival
however, it was nominated for the Palme d'Or. It garnered four honors at the 1986 Gawad Urian Awards, including Best Picture.
Brocka directed over forty films. Macho Dancer
(1988) was screened in the Philippines at the time of its release, but it was heavily censored due to its political and sexual content.
Brocka secretly smuggled an uncensored 35mm print
of the film out of the country to evade government censorship; the print is now in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art
Other notable works include Orapronobis
(international title: Fight for Us
) (1989) and Gumapang Ka sa Lusak
For his opposition against the Marcos regime, Brocka, in 1986, was appointed by President Corazon Aquino
as a member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission
to draft a new constitution for the country. He eventually resigned.
On May 22, 1991, Brocka and actor William Lorenzo
left the Spindle Music Lounge, where they watched a show starring Malu Barry
, in a 1991 Toyota Corolla being driven by Lorenzo, heading home to Tandang Sora in Quezon City
, Metro Manila
. At around 1:30 a.m., the car crashed into an electric pole made of concrete along East Avenue, after Lorenzo tried to avoid a tricycle suddenly swerving towards their path. Both Brocka and Lorenzo were rushed to the East Avenue Medical Center, where Brocka was declared dead on arrival, with Lorenzo in critical condition but declared out of danger by doctors.
In 1997, Brocka was given the posthumous distinction of National Artist for Film
Brocka was also recognized by the University of the Philippines
(U.P.), his alma mater, for his involvement in the fight against martial law in the Philippines.
At the recognition ceremonies held at U.P., then university president Emerlinda Roman
lamented how the "dictatorship had crushed [U.P. students' and alumni's] dreams for the future." Roman said the recognition was held to "remember their extraordinary valor." Former Senator Jovito Salonga
also noted the sacrifices made by the honorees. In his address to the audience, Salonga said, "We promise their relatives that we will never forget their sacrifices so that the light of justice may never be extinguished in this country whose fertile soil was washed by their blood."
The Development Council of the Philippines organized a retrospective of Brocka's films on September 20–25, 2016, "in remembrance of the proclamation of Martial Law 44 years ago."
Screenings of Brocka's films and of the documentary Signed: Lino Brocka
were held at Cinemateque Manila. A symposium, a panel discussion with martial law survivors, and a film editing workshop were also held as part of the retrospective.
Contestable Nation-Space Cinema, Cultural Politics, and Transnationalism in the Marcos-Brocka Philippine
s, a book by University of the Philippines Professor Rolando B. Tolentino, focuses on Brocka's engagement with society and dictatorship in the Philippines. The book explores "Brocka's filmic engagement and critique of the Marcos politics provide the condition of possibility that allows for the dictatorship to cohere and fragment, and for 1970s and 1980s Philippine cinema to be an important receptacle and symptom of negotiations with the dictatorship, the latter allowing for the foregrounding of subversions to the state and its order."
The Cultural Center of the Philippines
commemorated Brocka's 70th birth anniversary in 2009 with "Remembering Brocka: Realities/Rarities," a series of screenings of Brocka's films and public fora following the screenings.
Law professor Tony La Viña noted the significance of the 1990 Philippine Supreme Court
decision in the Brocka vs. Enrile
case, which, for La Viña, "illustrates... what a difference democracy makes."
Brocka, Behn Cervantes
, and Howie Severino
were arrested by officers from the Northern Police District at a protest rally in 1985 while Ferdinand Marcos was still president.
Brocka, Cervantes, and Severino were subsequently charged with illegal assembly and inciting to sedition. In a decision issued after the EDSA People Power Revolution that ousted Marcos
, the Supreme Court ruled that the criminal proceedings against Brocka et al. amounted to persecution and were "undertaken by state officials in bad faith."
- ^ Lacaba, Jose F. (2010-05-22). "Lino Brocka and Freedom of Expression Day". Ka Pete. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
- ^ Sarmiento, Genevieve; Uy, Niña (February 20, 2016). "Lino Brocka: The Artist of the People – Pandayang Lino Brocka Political Film and New Media Festival". pandayanglinobrocka.com. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
- ^ a b c Manglinong, Dan (2018-04-03). "Nat'l artist, freedom fighter Lino Brocka inspires from heaven". Interaksyon. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
- ^ The Magsaysay Award XI, 1985-1987, Manila, The Magsaysay Award Foundation, 1989, online via this link
- ^ Hernando, Mario A. (1993). Lino Brocka: The Artist and His Times. Sentrong Pangkultura Ng Pilipinas. p. 78. ISBN 9789718546161. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- ^ Lanot, Marra Pl (1999). The Trouble with Nick and Other Profiles. University of the Philippines Press. p. 17. ISBN 9789715422253. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- ^ The National Artists of the Philippines. Cultural Center of the Philippines. 1998. p. 68. ISBN 9789712707834. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- ^ "Lino Brocka – Tinimbang ka ngunit kulang AKA You Have Been Weighed and Found Wanting (1974) | Cinema of the World". worldscinema.org.
- ^ Lino Brocka: Manila - In the Claws of Darkness
- ^ a b "Four classic Lino Brocka films you can livestream now". ABS-CBN. June 1, 2018. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
- ^ "Lino Brocka: The Philippines' Greatest Director". Culture Trip. November 16, 2016. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
- ^ "Director Lino Brocka: Stronger than Life". PEP.ph. September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
- ^ Dimaculangan, Jocelyn (May 9, 2008). "Raya Martin's "Now Showing" will compete in Cannes Directors' Fortnight". PEP.ph. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
- ^ Malcolm, Derek (2012-02-08). "From the archive, 8 February 1985: Marcos regime arrests outspoken Filipino film director". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
- ^ Lohr, Steve (1985-02-03). "MARCOS ORDERS REVIEW ON JAILING OF DIRECTOR". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
- ^ "BROCKA, Catalino O. – Bantayog ng mga Bayani". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. 2016-05-23. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
- ^ a b "Macho Dancer. 1988. Directed by Lino Brocka". www.moma.org. Retrieved 2020-01-26.
- ^ Malcolm, Derek. "Lino Brocka: Manila - In the Claws of Darkness". The Guardian. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- ^ "Lino Brocka: Biography". TV Guide. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- ^ Lo, Ricky (1991-05-22). "Lino Brocka killed in car accident". The Philippine Star. Philstar Daily Inc. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
- ^ "Martyrs and Heroes". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- ^ "UP pays tribute to 72 martyrs and heroes". GMA News Online. November 29, 2008. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
- ^ a b Choudhury, Pinky (January 2, 2009). "UP honors alumni who died for motherland". Philippine Reporter. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
- ^ a b "Lino Brocka retrospective opens at Cinematheque Manila". GMA News Online. September 20, 2016. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- ^ "Contestable Nation-Space Cinema, Cultural Politics, and Transnationalism in the Marcos-Brocka Philippines". University of the Philippines Press. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- ^ "Remembering Brocka at CCP". Philippine Star. April 20, 2009. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- ^ "Films in context". Kidlat Tahimik. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
- ^ Dody, Lacuna (April 7, 2017). "Remembering PETA and Lino Brocka". Malaya. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- ^ "Lino Brocka Hall". PETA - Philippine Educational Theater Association. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- ^ a b La Viña, Tony (February 20, 2016). "The Ilagan and Brocka Cases". Manila Standard. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- ^ "'Litrato' (Documentary by Howie Severino)". GMA News Online. September 24, 2012. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
- ^ "Metro Manila Film Festival:1979". IMDB. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
Last edited on 5 April 2021, at 23:41
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