Domestic responses to the Libyan Civil War (2011)
  (Redirected from List of Libyan officials who protested or resigned during 2011 protests)
During the early stages of the Libyan Civil War of 2011, the Gaddafi regime was still in power: but there was widespread withdrawal of support from that regime by influential persons and organisations within the country. Among those who no longer supported the regime, the main concern they expressed was what they regarded as its use of excessive force against peaceful protestors. There were many resignations by ministers of the governing council and other senior officials, diplomats posted abroad, and senior military officers. Islamic clerics, tribal leaders, and members of the former royal family expressed their opposition, while the two leading Libyan oil companies also withdrew support for the regime.
The Libyan flag used between 1951 and 1969 was used by protesters as an opposition flag.[1][2] It was readopted as the national flag after the rebels' victory.
Government resignations
This is a list of officials who resigned or refused to take orders from the Gaddafi regime during the 2011 Libyan civil war.
Main article: General People's Committee of Libya
Other officials
Nuri al-Mismari at the 12th African Union summit
Diplomatic service
See also: List of diplomatic missions of Libya
Host Country/
 Arab League
Ambassador Abdulmoneim al-Honi[17]20 February 2011The reason for his resignation was the "oppression against protesters".[18]
The Libyan delegation to the Arab League in Cairo has renounced Gaddafi and now represents 'the people'[19]25 February 2011They condemned his attack on "unarmed citizens".[20]
 United Nations
Ambassador Abdel Rahman Shalgham25 February 2011Did not resign, but denounced Gaddafi in a speech before the Security Council and no longer supports the regime.[21]
Deputy Ambassador Ibrahim Dabbashi21 February 2011Did not resign, but no longer supports government.[22][23] On 26 February 2011, he stated that he supported "in principle" the alternative government being formed in Benghazi.[24]
Delegation to the Human Rights Council
Entire mission to the UN in Geneva[20]
25 February 2011
UNESCOAmbassador Abdoulsalam El Qallali25 February 2011[25]
 AustraliaMusbah Allafi[citation needed]20 February 2011
Embassy staff23 February 2011The Libyan Embassy in Austria condemned 'excessive violence against peaceful demonstrators', stated that they represent the Libyan people and offered condolences to the families of the victims.[26]
 BangladeshAmbassador AH Elimam20 February 2011[17]
Ambassador21 February 2011[27]
 CanadaCounsellor Ihab Al-Mismari23 February 2011Son of Gaddafi's former protocol chief Nuri Al-Mismari told the Toronto Star he resigned because embassy's chargé d'affaires was "hiding" the gravity of the deadly crackdown back home. “...killing the friends with whom I grew up, they are killing my brothers and sisters.”[28]
Second Secretary to the ambassador Hussein Sadiq al Musrati20 February 2011He also called on the army to intervene and called for all Libya's diplomats to resign[29]
Consular employees in Alexandria22 February 2011Staff at the Libyan consulate in Alexandria removed the Gaddafi-era green flag and joined protestors outside[30]
Consul in Cairo Faraj Saeed al-Aribi12 May 2011The consul in Cairo said that he had quit his job and joined the rebels[31][32]
 European Union and Benelux
Ambassador Hadeiba Alhadi and Embassy staff25 May 2011[33]
Ambassador Mohamed Salaheddine Zarem25 February 2011[25]
 HungaryEmbassy staff (undefined)22 February 2011Two members of the staff left the embassy to join the protesters in front of the building.[34] On 21 March, the Libyan embassy in Budapest is seen flying the old tricolor flag which indicates that they have officially changed sides in favor of the National Transitional Council.[35]
Ambassador Ali al-Essawi21 February 2011[36]
Ambassador Salaheddin M. El Bishari21 February 2011[36][37]
 JordanAmbassador Mohammed Hassan Al Barghathi24 February 2011[citation needed]
 MalaysiaEmbassy staff22 February 2011Distanced themselves from the government and called the protests a "massacre."[38]
Consul general Musa Al-Koni (later referred as "Musa Kuni")5 March 2011Later accused by Malian officials of being an "impostor" who initially recruited Tuareg mercenaries before fleeing to Paris with the money entrusted to him for that purpose.[39]
Embassy staff22 February 2011Left the embassy to join the protestors in front of it. The embassy is now flying the flag of the protestors.[citation needed]
Embassy staff23 February 2011Staff destroyed images of Muammar Gaddafi and destroyed the Gaddafi-era flag.[citation needed]
Second-highest ranking diplomat Saad Bakar3 March 2011The second-highest ranking diplomat in Namibia, Saad Bakar, his wife and four children has left for a Mediterranean country to join the opposition movement.[citation needed]
Embassy staff8 March 2011Replacement of the Gaddafi-era flag with the Libyan 1951–1969 flag as used by the 2011 protesters; no further comments were made.[40]
 PolandAmbassador22 February 2011[41]
Ambassador Ali Ibrahim Emdored25 February 2011[42]
Ambassador Issa Ashur26 February 2011Announced he is "joining the revolution", and would continue to carry out his duties "as a representative of the Libyan people"[43]
Deputy Ambassador Abdelmagid Buzrigh;
non-diplomatic staff
23 February 2011After days of protests, the embassy announced on 23 February that they no longer support Gaddafi and lifted the former Libyan flag[44][45]
Embassy staff11 March 2011"The members of the embassy no longer have any link to the regime of Muammar Gaddafi, and call on all countries to follow the example set by the Republic of France in recognising the National Transitional Council which represents the interests of the Libyan people".[46]
 United States of AmericaAmbassador Ali Suleiman Aujali;22 February 2011However, he resigned on 22 February saying he does not serve the "dictatorship."[47] On 26 February 2011, he stated that he supported the efforts to form an alternative government in Benghazi.[48]
Contrary to previous reports, the Ambassador of Libya to the United Kingdom has not resigned, but did not want to discuss his support for Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.[36]
According to the Toronto Star, the Ambassador of Libya to Canada is on "sick leave".[citation needed] According to the CNN Library, which was updated on March 29, 2017 "Libyan diplomats at the United Nations, including Libyan Deputy Ambassador Ibrahim Dabbashi, took the side of the opposition and demanded the removal of "the tyrant Moammar Gadhafi."
On February 25, 2011 the full Libyan delegation to the Arab League resigned.[6][49]
A growing number of Libyan embassies around the world have started to fly the former flag of Libya used between 1951 and 1969.[50]
Business actions
The Arabian Gulf Oil Company, the second largest state-owned oil company in Libya, announced plans to use oil funds to support anti-Gaddafi forces.[57] On April 6, 2011 an oil tanker led by Libyan opposition was captured and sent to Qatar. The head of the National Oil Corporation and former prime minister, Shokri Ghanem, defected in Italy.[6]
By 27 February, Libya's biggest oil company, Agaco, turned against the Gaddafi government.[58]
Other leaders
Islamic leaders and clerics in Libya, notably the Network of Free Ulema – Libya urged all Muslims to rebel against Gaddafi.[59][60]
The Warfalla, Tuareg and Magarha tribes have announced their support of the protesters.[16][61] The Zuwayya tribe, based in eastern Libya, have threatened to cut off oil exports from fields in their part of the country if Libyan security forces continued attacking demonstrators.[62]
A young Benghazian carrying King Idris' photo. Support of the royal Senussi dynasty has traditionally been strong in Cyrenaica.[63]
Former royals
Libyan-throne claimant, Mohammed El Senussi, sent his condolences "for the heroes who have laid down their lives, killed by the brutal forces of Gaddafi" and called on the international community "to halt all support for the dictator with immediate effect."[64] Senussi said that the protesters would be "victorious in the end" and calls for international support to end the violence.[65]
On 24 February, Senussi gave an interview to Al Jazeera English where he called upon the international community to help remove Gaddafi from power and stop the ongoing "massacre".[66] He has dismissed talk of a civil war saying "The Libyan people and the tribes have proven they are united".
Questioned about what shape a new government could take, and whether the 1951 royal constitution could be revived, Senussi said that such questions are "premature and are issues that are to be decided by the Libyan people," adding that for now the priority is to stop the "killing of innocent people." On whether he desires to return to Libya he says "The Senussi family considers itself as in the service of the Libyan people."[67] When asked about reestablishing the monarchy, he stated that he "is a servant to Libyan people, and they decide what they want".[68]
The White House said it will not specify which individuals and groups it is working and reaching out with, when asked if it supports Senussi's calls for international support.[69]
In an interview with Asharq Al-Awsat, he stated that it is too early to answer if the monarchy in Libya could be restored and if he will be active in Libyan politics. He also says the main objective is to end the violence on the streets in Libya.[citation needed]
On 3 March, it was announced that he planned to return to Libya.[70] On 4 March, he called the West to use airstrikes against Gaddafi after his contacts in Libya told him they need airstrikes. He also argued that a no-fly zone would be insufficient but later calls for the no-fly zone.[71]
He later stated that international community needs "less talk and more action" to stop the violence.[72] He has asked for a no-fly zone over Libya but does not support foreign ground troops.[73] He has also stated that a no-fly zone is the only way to stop Gaddafi who he has said is relying completely on the air force.[74]
In an interview with Adnkronos, a rival claimant to the throne, Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi, announced he was ready to return to the country once change had been initiated.[75] On 21 February 2011, Idris made an appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight to discuss the uprising.[76]
On 24 February, his brother Hashem called on Gaddafi "to have mercy" on the demonstrators, just as he did with members of the former Royal Family in 1969 when he allowed them to leave the country unharmed after the coup that overthrew the monarchy.[77]
On 3 March, it was reported that Prince Al Senussi Zouber Al Senussi had fled Libya with his family and was seeking asylum in Totebo, Sweden.[78]
On 17 March, Prince Mohamed Hilal El Senussi returned to Libya after 41 years in exile.[79]
Public reaction
During the Battle of Sirte, residents of Sirte expressed condemnation against the rebels and NATO. According to one resident, "The rebels are worse than rats. NATO is the same as Osama bin Laden." According to another local woman, "We lived in democracy under Muammer Gaddafi, he was not a dictator. I lived in freedom, Libyan women had full human rights. It isn't that we need Muammer Gaddafi again, but we want to live just as we did before." A local elderly woman stated "They are killing our children. Why are they doing this? For what? Life was good before!"[80]
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Last edited on 31 March 2021, at 21:23
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