List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2020 according to the IMF
The gross domestic product
(GDP) per capita
figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF
and the World Bank
. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.
Lists of countries and dependencies
that are not considered to be sovereign states
(such as various dependent territories
) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics
. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.
Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens
There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens
, or corporate tax havens
, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.
It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists
An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.
A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.
In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics
), also known as BEPS
actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income
(or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens
Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.
The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.
There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF
have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.
- ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
- ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"[dead link]
- ^ "World Economic Outlook - GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- ^ a b "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
- ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
- ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
- ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
- ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
- ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
- ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
Last edited on 1 May 2021, at 18:25
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