en.m.wikipedia.org
List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
Not to be confused with List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita.
This article is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2020 according to the IMF
  >50,000
  35,000–50,000
  20,000–35,000
  10,000–20,000
  5,000–10,000
  2,000–5,000
  <2,000
  Data unavailable
As of 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is Int$18,381.[n 1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.
Method
The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.
Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)
Lists of countries and dependencies
All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.
Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.
International Monetary Fund (2021 estimates)[5]
World Bank (2019)[6]
Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2017)[7]

RankCountry/TerritoryInt$
1 Luxembourg122,740
2
 Singapore
102,742
3 Ireland99,239
4 Qatar97,262
 Macau
90,606
5
  Switzerland
75,880
6
 Norway
69,171
7 United States68,309
8 Brunei64,405
 Hong Kong
62,839
9
 San Marino
61,508
10
 Denmark
61,478
11
 Netherlands
60,461
12 United Arab Emirates59,844
 Taiwan
59,398
13
 Iceland
58,151
14
 Austria
57,891
15 Germany56,956
16 Sweden55,566
17 Australia54,891
18
 Belgium
53,973
19 Finland51,867
20 Canada51,713
21 Bahrain50,284
22
 France
49,492
23
 Saudi Arabia
48,099
24 United Kingdom47,089
25
 South Korea
47,027
 European Union
46,888
26
 Malta
45,042
27
 Japan
44,585
28 New Zealand44,226
29
 Italy
43,376
30
 Czech Republic
42,956
31
 Israel
42,570
32
 Cyprus
41,595
33
 Spain
41,546
34 Kuwait41,507
35 Slovenia40,820
36 Lithuania40,784
37
 Estonia
39,729
38
 Portugal
36,079
39 Poland35,957
 Puerto Rico
35,943
40 Hungary35,088
41
 Slovakia
34,815
42 Bahamas34,046
43 Latvia33,394
44
 Romania
32,950
45
 Turkey
32,278
 Aruba
30,972
46
 Greece
30,495
47 Oman30,404
48
 Panama
30,388
49 Croatia29,777
50
 Russia
29,485
51 Malaysia29,340
52 Kazakhstan27,560
53 Seychelles26,119
54 Trinidad and Tobago25,883
55 Bulgaria25,471
56
 Chile
24,928
57
 Uruguay
23,474
58
 Maldives
23,343
59 Guyana23,258
60 Argentina22,141
61
 Mauritius
22,030
62 Montenegro21,355
63
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
20,730
64 Costa Rica20,667
65 Belarus20,578
66
 Serbia
20,545
67 Mexico20,266
68
 Dominican Republic
19,799
69
 Thailand
19,004
70
 China
18,931
71
 Equatorial Guinea
18,236
72
 Antigua and Barbuda
18,125
73
 Botswana
18,113
74 North Macedonia17,663
75
 Turkmenistan
17,415
76
 Gabon
16,244
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina15,935
78
 Georgia
15,709
79
 Brazil
15,643
80 Grenada15,385
81
 Albania
15,225
82
 Colombia
15,184
83 Azerbaijan14,856
84
 Suriname
14,703
85
 Barbados
14,329
86
 Ukraine
13,943
87 Saint Lucia13,942
88 Sri Lanka13,909
89 Moldova13,879
90 Libya13,723
91 Armenia13,638
92 Iran13,513
93 Paraguay13,454
94
 Egypt
13,083
95
 Peru
12,985
96
 Indonesia
12,882
97 Palau12,862
98
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
12,811
99
 South Africa
12,442
100 Mongolia12,431
101 Fiji12,298
 Kosovo
11,949
102
 Bhutan
11,928
103
 Vietnam
11,677
104
 Lebanon (2020)
11,564
105
 Algeria
11,433
106
 Ecuador
11,331
107 Dominica11,231
108
 Tunisia
10,594
109 Jordan10,590
110 Jamaica10,294
111
 Iraq
10,038
112 Nauru9,995
113
 Namibia
9,542
114
 Eswatini
9,152
115 Philippines9,061
116 El Salvador8,891
117
 Bolivia
8,832
118 Guatemala8,648
119
 Laos
8,519
120
 Morocco
8,027
121 Uzbekistan7,830
122
 India
7,333
123
 Angola
6,878
124 Cape Verde6,837
125
 Syria (2010)
6,373
126 Tonga6,156
127 Belize6,133
128
 Mauritania
5,993
129
 Ghana
5,968
130 Bangladesh5,812
131 Honduras5,698
 Palestine5,664
132 Nicaragua5,648
133
 Ivory Coast
5,642
134 Kyrgyzstan5,323
135
 Djibouti
5,300
136 Nigeria5,280
137
 Kenya
5,274
138 Samoa5,260
139
 Pakistan
5,224
140
 Venezuela (2020)
5,178
141
 Cambodia
4,930
142
 Myanmar
4,831
143 Tuvalu4,674
144
   Nepal
4,199
145
 Republic of the Congo
4,169
146 Sudan4,082
147
 Papua New Guinea
3,956
148 São Tomé and Príncipe3,926
149 Tajikistan3,856
150 Marshall Islands3,767
151
 Cameroon
3,745
152
 Senegal
3,625
153
 Benin
3,573
154 Federated States of Micronesia3,372
155
 Zambia
3,322
156 Timor-Leste3,119
157 Comoros3,022
158 Ethiopia2,973
159 Haiti2,962
160
 Tanzania
2,863
161
 Lesotho
2,829
162
 Guinea
2,731
163
 Uganda
2,706
164 Zimbabwe2,698
165 Vanuatu2,646
166 Solomon Islands2,483
167
 Afghanistan
2,474
168
 Mali
2,469
169
 Rwanda
2,458
170 Guinea-Bissau2,409
171
 Gambia
2,384
172
 Burkina Faso
2,334
173 Togo2,261
174 Kiribati2,242
175
 Yemen
1,924
176 Eritrea1,862
177
 Sierra Leone
1,771
178
 Madagascar
1,639
179
 Chad
1,621
180 Liberia1,602
181
 Niger
1,320
182
 Mozambique
1,293
183
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
1,132
184
 Central African Republic
1,013
185
 Malawi
1,005
186
 Somalia
941
187 South Sudan825
188 Burundi772
RankCountry/TerritoryInt$
 Macau
129,451
1 Luxembourg124,591
2
 Singapore
101,649
3 Qatar94,029
4 Ireland89,684
 Bermuda85,418
 Cayman Islands (2018)73,292
5
  Switzerland
72,376
6 United Arab Emirates70,089
7
 Norway
70,006
8 United States65,298
9 Brunei64,848
 Hong Kong
62,496
11
 Denmark
62,090
13
 Netherlands
61,285
12
 San Marino (2018)
60,887
13
 Austria
60,418
14
 Iceland
60,133
15 Germany57,530
16 Sweden56,632
17
 Belgium
56,349
 Taiwan
55,078
18 Australia53,381
19 Finland53,172
20 Kuwait52,060
21 Canada51,669
22
 France
50,993
23 United Kingdom49,932
24
 Saudi Arabia
49,040
 European Union
47,828
25
 Malta
47,578
26 Bahrain47,003
27
 Italy
45,723
28 New Zealand45,382
29
 Czech Republic
44,296
30
 South Korea
44,011
31
 Japan
43,594
32
 Spain
43,496
33
 Israel
42,898
34 Slovenia42,431
35
 Cyprus
41,254
36 Lithuania40,016
37
 Estonia
39,986
38 The Bahamas38,743
 Aruba (2017)
38,442
39
 Portugal
37,918
 Sint Maarten (2018)36,203
 Puerto Rico
36,045
40 Poland35,165
41 Hungary34,966
42
 Slovakia
33,516
43
 Romania
33,340
44 Latvia33,021
45
 Panama
32,851
46
 Greece
32,506
47 Croatia31,131
 Turks and Caicos Islands30,548
48 Seychelles30,517
49 Malaysia29,620
50
 Russia
29,181
51 Oman28,508
52
 Turkey
28,133
53
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
27,608
54 Kazakhstan27,518
55 Trinidad and Tobago27,334
56
 Chile
27,002
 Curaçao25,563
57 Bulgaria25,312
58 Montenegro24,036
59
 Mauritius
23,882
60 Argentina23,040
61
 Antigua and Barbuda
22,880
62
 Uruguay
22,515
63 Costa Rica21,738
64 Mexico20,944
65
 Maldives
20,396
66 Belarus19,997
67
 Serbia
19,495
68
 Equatorial Guinea
19,379
69
 Thailand
19,277
70
 Dominican Republic
19,228
71
 Botswana
18,553
72 Palau18,357
73 North Macedonia18,108
World17,811
74 Grenada17,793
75
 Venezuela (2011)
17,527
76
 Suriname
17,256
77
 China
16,804
78
 Barbados
16,331
79 Bosnia and Herzegovina16,289
80 Saint Lucia16,132
81
 Colombia
16,012
82 Libya15,846
83
 Georgia
15,656
84
 Gabon
15,612
85
 Brazil
15,300
86
 Turkmenistan
15,207
87
 Lebanon
15,196
88 Azerbaijan15,041
89
 Albania
14,648
90 Fiji14,290
91 Armenia14,258
92 Guyana13,661
93 Sri Lanka13,657
94 Moldova13,627
95
 Peru
13,416
96
 Ukraine
13,341
97 Paraguay13,247
98
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
13,038
99
 South Africa
13,034
100 Iran12,938
101 Mongolia12,862
102 Dominica12,444
103
 Bhutan
12,356
104
 Indonesia
12,335
105
 Egypt
12,284
106 Nauru12,095
107
 Algeria
12,020
108
 Ecuador
11,879
 Kosovo
11,871
109
 Iraq
11,363
110
 Tunisia
11,232
111 Jordan10,517
112 Jamaica10,194
113
 Namibia
10,064
114 Philippines9,302
115 El Salvador9,164
116
 Bolivia
9,111
117 Guatemala9,020
118
 Eswatini
9,003
119
 Vietnam
8,397
120
 Laos
8,173
121
 Morocco
7,826
122 Cape Verde7,489
123 Belize7,315
124 Uzbekistan7,308
125
 India
6,997
126
 Angola
6,966
127 Samoa6,796
128 Tonga6,666
 West Bank and Gaza (2018)6,495
129 Honduras5,982
130
 Djibouti
5,780
131
 Ghana
5,652
132 Nicaragua5,646
133 Kyrgyzstan5,486
134
 Côte d'Ivoire
5,443
135
 Mauritania
5,427
136
 Myanmar
5,370
137 Nigeria5,363
138 Bangladesh4,964
139
 Pakistan
4,898
140
 Cambodia
4,583
141
 Papua New Guinea
4,548
142
 Kenya
4,522
143 Tuvalu4,471
144 São Tomé and Príncipe4,145
145 Sudan4,123
146 Marshall Islands3,983
147
 Republic of the Congo
3,836
148
 Cameroon
3,804
149 Timor-Leste3,710
150
 Yemen (2013)
3,689
151
 Zambia
3,624
152
   Nepal
3,568
153 Federated States of Micronesia3,548
154
 Senegal
3,545
155 Tajikistan3,529
156
 Benin
3,433
157 Vanuatu3,293
158 Comoros3,195
159 Haiti3,034
160 Zimbabwe2,961
161
 Lesotho
2,824
162 Solomon Islands2,781
163
 Tanzania
2,771
164
 Guinea
2,676
165
 Mali
2,424
166 Kiribati2,373
167
 Rwanda
2,325
168
 The Gambia
2,321
169 Ethiopia2,320
170
 Uganda
2,284
171
 Burkina Faso
2,275
172
 Afghanistan
2,156
173 Guinea-Bissau2,077
174
 Sierra Leone
1,794
175
 Madagascar
1,720
176 Togo1,667
177
 Chad
1,650
178 Eritrea (2011)1,626
179 Liberia1,491
180
 Mozambique
1,338
181
 Niger
1,279
182 South Sudan (2015)1,235
183
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
1,147
184
 Malawi
1,107
185
 Central African Republic
987
186 Burundi785
RankCountry/TerritoryInt$Year
1 Liechtenstein139,1002009 est.
2 Qatar124,9002017 est.
3 Monaco115,7002015 est.
 Macau
114,4002017 est.
4 Luxembourg109,1002017 est.
 Falkland Islands96,2002012 est.
5
 Singapore
90,5002017 est.
 Bermuda85,7002013 est.
 Isle of Man84,6002014 est.
6 Brunei76,7002017 est.
7 Ireland72,6002017 est.
8
 Norway
70,6002017 est.
9 Kuwait69,7002017 est.
10 United Arab Emirates68,2002017 est.
 Sint Maarten66,8002014 est.
 Gibraltar61,7002014 est.
11
  Switzerland
61,4002017 est.
 Hong Kong
61,0002017 est.
12
 San Marino
59,5002017 est.
13 United States59,5002017 est.
14
 Saudi Arabia
55,3002017 est.
15
 Netherlands
53,6002017 est.
 Guernsey52,5002014 est.
16
 Iceland
52,1002017 est.
17 Bahrain51,8002017 est.
18 Sweden51,3002017 est.
19 Germany50,2002017 est.
20 Australia49,9002017 est.
21 Andorra49,9002015 est.
 Taiwan
49,8002017 est.
22
 Denmark
49,6002017 est.
 Jersey49,5002015 est.
23
 Austria
49,2002017 est.
24 Canada48,1002017 est.
25
 Belgium
46,3002017 est.
26 Oman45,5002017 est.
27 Finland44,0002017 est.
 Cayman Islands43,8002004 est.
28
 France
43,6002017 est.
29 United Kingdom43,6002017 est.
30
 Japan
42,7002017 est.
31
 Malta
42,5002017 est.
 British Virgin Islands42,3002010 est.
 European Union
40,9002017 est.
 Faroe Islands40,0002014 est.
32
 South Korea
39,4002017 est.
33 New Zealand38,9002017 est.
34
 Spain
38,3002017 est.
35
 Italy
38,1002017 est.
 Greenland37,6002015 est.
 Puerto Rico
37,3002017 est.
36
 Cyprus
36,6002017 est.
37
 Israel
36,2002017 est.
 U.S. Virgin Islands36,1002013 est.
38
 Czech Republic
35,2002017 est.
39
 Equatorial Guinea
34,9002017 est.
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon
34,9002006 est.
40 Slovenia34,1002017 est.
41
 Slovakia
32,9002017 est.
42 Lithuania31,9002017 est.
43
 Estonia
31,5002017 est.
44 Trinidad and Tobago31,2002017 est.
 New Caledonia31,1002015 est.
 Guam30,5002013 est.
45
 Portugal
30,3002017 est.
46 Poland29,3002017 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands29,1002007 est.
47 Seychelles28,9002017 est.
48 Hungary28,9002017 est.
49 Malaysia28,9002017 est.
50
 Russia
27,9002017 est.
51
 Greece
27,8002017 est.
52 Latvia27,3002017 est.
53
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
26,8002017 est.
54
 Turkey
26,5002017 est.
55
 Antigua and Barbuda
26,3002017 est.
56 Kazakhstan26,1002017 est.
 Aruba
25,3002011 est.
57 The Bahamas25,1002017 est.
58
 Chile
24,6002017 est.
59
 Panama
24,3002017 est.
60 Croatia24,1002017 est.
61
 Romania
24,0002017 est.
62
 Uruguay
22,4002017 est.
63 Bulgaria21,6002017 est.
64
 Mauritius
21,6002017 est.
65 Argentina20,7002017 est.
66 Iran20,0002017 est.
67 Mexico19,5002017 est.
68
 Lebanon
19,5002017 est.
69
 Gabon
19,3002017 est.
 Saint Martin
19,3002005 est.
70
 Maldives
19,2002017 est.
71
 Turkmenistan
18,7002017 est.
72 Belarus18,6002017 est.
73
 Botswana
18,1002017 est.
74
 Thailand
17,8002017 est.
75
 Barbados
17,5002017 est.
76 Azerbaijan17,4002017 est.
77 Montenegro17,4002017 est.
78 Costa Rica17,2002017 est.
79
 Iraq
17,0002017 est.
 French Polynesia17,0002015 est.
80
 Dominican Republic
17,0002017 est.
81 Palau16,7002017 est.
82
 China
16,6002017 est.
83
 Brazil
15,5002017 est.
84
 Serbia
15,2002017 est.
85 North Macedonia15,2002017 est.
86
 Algeria
15,1002017 est.
 Curaçao15,0002004 est.
87 Grenada14,7002017 est.
88
 Colombia
14,5002017 est.
89
 Suriname
13,9002017 est.
90 Saint Lucia13,5002017 est.
91
 South Africa
13,4002017 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands13,3002013 est.
92
 Peru
13,3002017 est.
93
 Egypt
13,0002017 est.
 American Samoa13,0002013 est.
94 Sri Lanka13,0002017 est.
95 Mongolia12,6002017 est.
96 Jordan12,5002017 est.
97
 Albania
12,5002017 est.
98
 Indonesia
12,4002017 est.
99
 Venezuela
12,4002017 est.
 Cook Islands12,3002010 est.
100 Nauru12,2002017 est.
 Anguilla12,2002008 est.
101 Dominica12,0002017 est.
102
 Tunisia
12,0002017 est.
103 Cuba11,9002016 est.
104
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
11,6002017 est.
105
 Namibia
11,5002017 est.
106 Bosnia and Herzegovina11,4002017 est.
107
 Ecuador
11,2002017 est.
108
 Georgia
10,6002017 est.
 Kosovo
10,4002017 est.
109 Fiji9,9002017 est.
110
 Eswatini
9,9002017 est.
111 Paraguay9,8002017 est.
112 Libya9,8002017 est.
113 Jamaica9,2002017 est.
114 Armenia9,1002017 est.
115 El Salvador8,9002017 est.
116
 Ukraine
8,7002017 est.
117
 Bhutan
8,7002017 est.
118
 Morocco
8,6002017 est.
 Montserrat8,5002006 est.
119 Guyana8,3002017 est.
120 Belize8,3002017 est.
121 Guatemala8,2002017 est.
122 Philippines8,2002017 est.
 Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,8002010 est.
123
 Bolivia
7,5002017 est.
124
 Laos
7,4002017 est.
125
 India
7,2002017 est.
126 Uzbekistan7,0002017 est.
127
 Vietnam
6,9002017 est.
128 Cape Verde6,9002017 est.
129
 Angola
6,8002017 est.
130
 Republic of the Congo
6,7002017 est.
131
 Myanmar
6,3002017 est.
132 Nigeria5,9002017 est.
133 Nicaragua5,8002015 est.
 Niue5,8002003 est.
134 Moldova5,7002017 est.
135 Samoa5,7002017 est.
136 Tonga5,6002017 est.
137 Honduras5,5002017 est.
138
 Pakistan
5,4002017 est.
139 Timor-Leste5,0002017 est.
140
 Ghana
4,6002017 est.
141 Sudan4,6002017 est.
142
 Mauritania
4,5002017 est.
 West Bank4,3002014 est.
143 Bangladesh4,2002017 est.
144
 Cambodia
4,0002017 est.
145
 Zambia
4,0002017 est.
146
 Lesotho
3,9002017 est.
147
 Côte d'Ivoire
3,9002017 est.
148 Tuvalu3,8002017 est.
149
 Papua New Guinea
3,8002017 est.
 Wallis and Futuna
3,8002004 est.
150 Kyrgyzstan3,7002017 est.
151
 Djibouti
3,6002017 est.
152
 Kenya
3,5002017 est.
153
 Cameroon
3,4002017 est.
154 Marshall Islands3,4002017 est.
155 Federated States of Micronesia3,4002017 est.
156
 Tanzania
3,3002017 est.
157 São Tomé and Príncipe3,2002017 est.
158 Tajikistan3,1002017 est.
159
 Syria
2,9002015 est.
160 Vanuatu2,8002017 est.
161
   Nepal
2,7002017 est.
162
 Senegal
2,7002017 est.
 Western Sahara2,5002007 est.
163
 Chad
2,4002017 est.
164
 Uganda
2,4002017 est.
165 Zimbabwe2,3002017 est.
166
 Yemen
2,3002017 est.
167
 Mali
2,2002017 est.
168
 Benin
2,2002017 est.
169
 Rwanda
2,1002017 est.
170 Ethiopia2,1002017 est.
171 Solomon Islands2,1002017 est.
172
 Guinea
2,0002017 est.
173
 Burkina Faso
1,9002017 est.
174 Kiribati1,9002017 est.
175
 Afghanistan
1,9002017 est.
176
 Sierra Leone
1,8002017 est.
177 Guinea-Bissau1,8002017 est.
178 Haiti1,8002017 est.
179 North Korea1,7002015 est.
180
 The Gambia
1,7002017 est.
181 Togo1,6002017 est.
182
 Madagascar
1,6002017 est.
183 Comoros1,6002017 est.
184 South Sudan1,5002017 est.
185 Eritrea1,4002017 est.
186
 Mozambique
1,3002017 est.
187
 Niger
1,2002017 est.
188
 Malawi
1,2002017 est.
 Tokelau1,0001993 est.
189 Liberia9002017 est.
190
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
8002017 est.
191 Burundi8002017 est.
192
 Central African Republic
7002017 est.
193
 Somalia
N/A2017 est.
Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens
Main articles: Corporate haven § GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy, and Corporate haven § Distorted GDP/GNP
There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]
A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.
— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]
In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.
Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.
— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]
The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.
— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]
A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):
International Monetary Fund (2017)
World Bank (2016)[6][13]
RankCountry/TerritoryType
1 QatarOil & Gas
 Macau
Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2 LuxembourgTop 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3
 Singapore
Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4 BruneiOil & Gas
5 IrelandTop 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6
 Norway
Oil & Gas
7 KuwaitOil & Gas
8 United Arab EmiratesOil & Gas
9
  Switzerland
Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
 Hong Kong
Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10
 San Marino
Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11 United States59,495
12
 Saudi Arabia
Oil & Gas
13
 Netherlands
Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14
 Iceland
52,150
15 BahrainOil & Gas
RankCountry/TerritoryType
1 QatarOil & Gas
2 LuxembourgTop 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
 Macau
Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3
 Singapore
Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4 BruneiOil & Gas
5 United Arab EmiratesOil & Gas
6 IrelandTop 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7
  Switzerland
Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8
 Norway
Oil & Gas
 Hong Kong
Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9 United States57,467
10
 Saudi Arabia
Oil & Gas
11
 Iceland
51,399
12
 Netherlands
Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13
 Austria
50,078
14
 Denmark
49,496
15 Sweden49,175
See also
Notes
^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]
References
  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"[dead link]
  5. ^ "World Economic Outlook - GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  6. ^ a b "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  7. ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  9. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi​:​10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005​. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  11. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  12. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
  13. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
Last edited on 1 May 2021, at 18:25
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit