en.m.wikipedia.org
List of countries by GDP (nominal)
For countries by GDP based on purchasing power parity, see List of countries by GDP (PPP).
Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2021[1]
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]
Countries by nominal GDP in 2019[n 1]
  >$20 trillion
  $10–$20 trillion
  $5–$10 trillion
  $1–$5 trillion
  $750 billion–$1 trillion
  $500–$750 billion
  $250–$500 billion
  $100–$250 billion
  $50–$100 billion
  $25–$50 billion
  $5–$25 billion
  <$5 billion
Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[6]
The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population,[7] capital investment, low unemployment,[8] high consumer spending,[9] a relatively young population,[10] and technological innovation.[11] Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $45 million, because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems (overpopulation and paradoxical "brain drain"),[12] and low average incomes.[13]
Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[14][15] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation,[16][17] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth, in 1978, to second, in 2016. Economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[15][1] Among others, India has also experienced an economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[18]
The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list where they appear in the sources. These are marked in italics.
Lists
Per the International Monetary Fund
(2021 estimates)[1]
Per the World Bank (2019)[19]
Per the United Nations (2019)[20]

RankCountry/TerritoryGDP
(US$million)
  World[21]93,889,577
1 United States22,675,271
2
 China[n 2]
16,642,318
3
 Japan
5,378,136
4 Germany4,319,286
5 United Kingdom3,124,650
6
 India
3,049,704
7
 France
2,938,271
8
 Italy
2,106,287
9 Canada1,883,487
10
 South Korea
1,806,707
11
 Russia
1,710,734
12 Australia1,617,543
13
 Brazil
1,491,772
14
 Spain
1,461,552
15 Mexico1,192,480
16
 Indonesia
1,158,783
17
 Netherlands
1,012,598
18
  Switzerland
824,734
19
 Saudi Arabia
804,921
20
 Turkey
794,530
 Taiwan[n 3]
759,104
21 Iran682,859
22 Poland642,121
23 Sweden625,948
24
 Belgium
578,996
25
 Thailand
538,735
26 Nigeria514,049
27
 Austria
481,796
28 Ireland476,663
29
 Israel
446,708
30
 Norway
444,519
31 Argentina418,150
32 Philippines402,638
33 United Arab Emirates401,513
34
 Egypt
394,284
35
 Denmark
392,570
36 Malaysia387,093
37 Bangladesh378,634
38
 Singapore
374,394
 Hong Kong[n 4]
368,633
39
 Vietnam
354,868
40
 South Africa
329,529
41
 Chile
307,938
42 Finland300,484
43
 Colombia
295,610
44
 Romania
289,130
45
 Czech Republic
276,109
46
 Pakistan (2020)
262,799
47
 Portugal
257,391
48 New Zealand243,332
49
 Peru
225,918
50
 Greece
209,857
51
 Iraq
190,733
52 Kazakhstan187,836
53 Hungary176,543
54 Qatar166,031
55
 Ukraine[n 5]
164,593
56
 Algeria
151,459
57 Kuwait126,930
58
 Morocco
124,003
59
 Slovakia
117,664
60
 Kenya
106,041
61
 Puerto Rico
100,684
62
 Ecuador
100,595
63 Ethiopia93,966
64 Sri Lanka84,532
65 Luxembourg84,077
66
 Dominican Republic
83,917
67 Guatemala81,402
68 Bulgaria77,782
69
 Myanmar
76,195
70
 Ghana
74,260
71 Oman74,115
72
 Ivory Coast
70,991
73
 Angola
66,493
74
 Tanzania
65,919
75 Croatia65,217
76 Lithuania62,198
77 Uzbekistan61,203
78 Costa Rica61,178
79 Belarus60,725
80
 Serbia
60,435
81
 Syria (2010)
60,043
82
 Panama
59,377
83 Slovenia59,132
84
 Uruguay
55,459
85
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
55,088
86
 Turkmenistan
54,218
87 Azerbaijan49,914
88 Jordan44,979
89
 Cameroon
44,893
90
 Tunisia
44,265
91
 Bolivia
43,110
92
 Venezuela
42,530
93
 Uganda
41,271
 Macau[n 6]
39,449
94 Paraguay37,836
95 Latvia37,720
96 Bahrain37,503
97
   Nepal
36,084
98 Sudan35,827
99
 Estonia
35,187
100
 Senegal
27,927
101
 Cambodia
27,239
102
 Cyprus
26,479
103 El Salvador26,277
104 Honduras26,161
105 Zimbabwe26,085
106
 Yemen
25,095
107
 Papua New Guinea
24,536
108 Libya24,267
109
 Iceland
24,155
110 Haiti22,431
111 Trinidad and Tobago22,161
112 Bosnia and Herzegovina21,953
113
 Laos
20,440
114
 Afghanistan
19,938
115
 Mali
19,912
116
 Lebanon (2020)
19,126
117
 Zambia
18,955
118
 Burkina Faso
18,853
119
 Botswana
18,726
120
 Gabon
18,362
121
 Benin
17,327
122
 Albania
17,138
123 Palestine[n 7]16,481
124
 Malta
16,476
125
 Guinea
16,339
126
 Georgia
16,163
127
 Niger
15,899
128 Brunei15,278
129
 Madagascar
14,746
130 Jamaica14,600
131 Mongolia14,233
132
 Mozambique
13,957
133 North Macedonia13,821
134
 Chad
12,531
135 Nicaragua12,283
136 Armenia12,251
137
 Mauritius
12,212
138
 Republic of the Congo
12,022
139 Moldova[n 8]11,998
140
 Equatorial Guinea
11,726
141 Bahamas11,706
142
 Namibia
11,381
143
 Rwanda
10,633
144
 Malawi
9,268
145
 Mauritania
9,239
146
 Kosovo
8,810
147 Togo8,627
148 Tajikistan7,825
149 Kyrgyzstan7,470
150 Guyana7,255
151 Montenegro5,651
152
 Somalia
5,367
153
 Barbados
4,628
154 Fiji4,586
155
 Maldives
4,536
156 South Sudan4,461
157
 Sierra Leone
4,420
158
 Eswatini
4,226
159
 Djibouti
3,663
160 Liberia3,370
161 Burundi3,244
162
 Central African Republic
2,718
163
 Aruba
2,582
164
 Bhutan
2,480
165
 Suriname
2,465
166
 Lesotho
2,458
167 Eritrea2,250
168
 Gambia
2,078
169 Cape Verde2,003
170 Saint Lucia1,787
171 Timor-Leste1,726
172 Belize1,700
173
 San Marino
1,688
174 Guinea-Bissau1,647
175 Solomon Islands1,644
176
 Antigua and Barbuda
1,376
177 Comoros1,309
178 Grenada1,041
179 Seychelles948
180 Vanuatu912
181
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
831
182
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
798
183 Samoa752
184 Dominica523
185 Tonga508
186 São Tomé and Príncipe485
187 Federated States of Micronesia401
188 Marshall Islands234
189 Kiribati231
190 Palau229
191 Nauru133
192 Tuvalu57
RankCountry/TerritoryGDP
(US$million)
  World87,813,420
1 United States21,433,226
2
 China[n 9]
14,342,903
3
 Japan
5,081,770
4 Germany3,861,124
5
 India
2,868,929
6 United Kingdom2,829,108
7
 France
2,715,518
8
 Italy
2,003,576
9
 Brazil
1,839,758
10 Canada1,736,426
11
 Russia
1,699,877
12
 South Korea
1,646,739
13 Australia1,396,567
14
 Spain
1,393,491
15 Mexico1,268,871
16
 Indonesia
1,119,191
17
 Netherlands
907,051
18
 Saudi Arabia
792,967
19
 Turkey
761,425
20
  Switzerland
703,082
21 Poland595,858
22
 Taiwan (2017)
574,905
23
 Thailand
543,549
24
 Belgium
533,097
25 Sweden530,884
26 Nigeria448,120
27 Argentina445,445
28
 Austria
445,075
29 Iran (2017)445,345
30 United Arab Emirates421,142
31
 Norway
403,336
32
 Israel
394,652
33 Ireland388,699
34 Philippines376,796
35
 Singapore
372,063
36
 Hong Kong (PRC)
365,712
37 Malaysia364,681
38
 South Africa
351,432
39
 Denmark
350,104
40
 Colombia
323,616
41 Bangladesh317,465
41
 Egypt
303,092
43
 Chile
282,318
44
 Pakistan
278,222
45 Finland269,296
46
 Vietnam
261,921
47
 Czech Republic
250,681
48
 Romania
250,077
49
 Portugal
238,785
50
 Iraq
234,094
51
 Peru
226,848
52
 Greece
209,853
53 New Zealand206,929
54 Kazakhstan181,666
55 Qatar175,838
56
 Algeria
171,091
57 Hungary163,469
58
 Ukraine [n 5]
153,781
59 Kuwait134,629
60
 Morocco[n 10]
119,700
61
 Ecuador
107,436
62
 Slovak Republic
105,080
63 Cuba (2018)100,023
64 Ethiopia95,913
65
 Kenya
95,503
66
 Dominican Republic
88,941
67
 Angola
88,816
68 Sri Lanka84,009
69 Guatemala76,710
70 Oman76,332
71
 Myanmar
76,086
72 Luxembourg71,105
73 Bulgaria68,559
74
 Ghana
66,984
75
 Panama
66,801
76
 Tanzania[n 11]
63,177
77 Belarus63,080
78 Costa Rica61,801
79 Croatia60,753
80
 Cote d'Ivoire
58,539
81 Uzbekistan57,921
82
 Uruguay
56,046
83 Lithuania54,627
84 Slovenia54,174
85
 Macau (PRC)
53,859
86 Libya52,091
87
 Lebanon
51,992
88
 Serbia
51,475
89
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
50,401
90 Azerbaijan48,048
91 Jordan44,503
92
 Bolivia
40,895
93
 Turkmenistan (2018)
40,761
94
 Cameroon
39,007
95
 Tunisia
38,797
96 Bahrain38,574
97 Paraguay38,145
98
 Uganda
35,165
99 Latvia34,103
100
 Estonia
31,471
101
   Nepal
30,641
102 Sudan30,513
103
 Cambodia
27,089
104 El Salvador27,023
105 Honduras25,095
106
 Cyprus[n 12]
24,949
107
 Papua New Guinea
24,829
106 Trinidad and Tobago24,270
107
 Iceland
24,188
108
 Senegal
23,578
109
 Zambia
23,310
110 Zimbabwe21,441
111 Bosnia and Herzegovina20,164
112
 Afghanistan
19,291
113
 Botswana
18,340
114
 Laos
18,174
115
 Georgia[n 13]
17,477
116
 Mali
17,280
117
 Gabon
16,874
118 Jamaica16,458
119
 Burkina Faso
15,991
120
 Mozambique
15,291
121
 Albania
15,279
122
 Malta
14,989
123 Palestine (2018)[n 7]14,616
124
 Benin
14,391
125 Haiti14,332
126
 Madagascar
14,115
127
 Mauritius
14,048
128 Mongolia13,997
129 Armenia13,673
130 Bahamas, The13,579
131 Brunei13,469
132
 Niger
12,912
133 North Macedonia12,547
134 Nicaragua12,521
135
 Namibia
12,367
136
 Guinea
12,297
137
 Congo, Republic of the
12,267
138 Moldova[n 8]11,969
139
 Chad
11,315
140
 Equatorial Guinea
11,027
141
 Rwanda
10,354
142 Kyrgyzstan8,455
143 Tajikistan8,117
144
 Kosovo
7,926
145
 Malawi
7,667
146
 Mauritania
7,601
147
 Maldives
5,642
148 Montenegro5,543
149 Fiji5,496
150 Togo5,490
151
 Barbados
5,209
152 Guyana5,174
153
 Eswatini
4,472
154
 Sierra Leone
4,122
155
 Suriname
3,697
156
 Djibouti
3,325
157 Andorra3,154
158 Liberia3,071
159 Burundi3,012
160
 Bhutan
2,531
161
 Lesotho
2,376
162
 Central African Republic
2,220
163 Saint Lucia2,122
164 Timor-Leste2,018
165 Cabo Verde1,982
166 Belize1,880
167
 Gambia, The
1,826
168 Seychelles1,703
169
 Antigua and Barbuda
1,662
170
 San Marino (2018)
1,638
171 Solomon Islands1,590
172 Guinea-Bissau1,339
173 Grenada1,211
174 Comoros1,166
175
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
1,053
176 Vanuatu934
177 Samoa852
178
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
825
179 Dominica582
180 Tonga512
181 Sao Tome and Principe419
182 Micronesia, Federated States of (2018)402
183 Palau268
184 Marshall Islands (2018)221
185 Kiribati195
186 Nauru118
187 Tuvalu47
RankCountry/TerritoryGDP
(US$million)
  World[22]87,461,674
1 United States21,433,226
2
 China[n 9]
14,342,933
3
 Japan
5,082,465
4 Germany3,861,123
5
 India
2,891,582
6 United Kingdom2,826,441
7
 France
2,715,518
8
 Italy
2,003,576
9
 Brazil
1,847,795
10 Canada1,741,496
11
 Russia
1,692,930
12
 South Korea
1,646,539
13
 Spain
1,393,490
14 Australia1,380,207
15 Mexico1,256,440
16
 Indonesia
1,119,190
17
 Netherlands
907,050
18
 Saudi Arabia
792,966
19
 Turkey
761,425
20
  Switzerland
731,425
21 Iran603,779
22 Poland595,862
23
 Thailand
542,016
24
 Belgium
533,097
25 Sweden530,883
26 Nigeria474,516
27 Argentina449,663
28
 Austria
445,075
29 United Arab Emirates421,142
30
 Norway
403,336
31 Ireland398,590
32
 Israel
395,098
33
 Singapore
372,073
34
 Hong Kong (PRC)
365,710
35 Malaysia364,684
36 Philippines359,354
37
 South Africa
351,430
38
 Denmark
350,104
39
 Colombia
323,802
40 Bangladesh317,465
41
 Egypt
317,359
42
 Chile
282,318
43 Finland269,296
44
 Vietnam
261,921
45
 Pakistan
256,996
46
 Czech Republic
250,680
47
 Romania
250,075
48
 Portugal
238,785
49
 Peru
226,850
50
 Iraq
225,232
51 New Zealand206,936
52
 Greece
205,326
53 Qatar183,466
54 Kazakhstan181,667
55
 Algeria
171,157
56 Hungary163,469
57
 Ukraine[n 5]
153,781
58
 Venezuela
134,960
59 Kuwait134,623
60
 Morocco
119,700
61
 Ecuador
107,435
62 Cuba105,354
63
 Slovakia
105,079
64
 Puerto Rico (United States)
104,988
65
 Kenya
95,501
66 Ethiopia92,750
67
 Dominican Republic
88,941
68
 Angola
85,000
69 Sri Lanka84,008
70
 Myanmar
76,784
71 Guatemala76,710
72 Oman76,331
73 Luxembourg71,104
74 Bulgaria67,925
75
 Ghana
66,999
76
 Panama
66,787
77 Belarus63,080
78 Costa Rica61,773
79
 Tanzania
61,136
80 Croatia60,415
81
 Côte d'Ivoire
58,539
82
 Lebanon
56,409
83
 Uruguay
56,045
84 Uzbekistan57,921
85 Lithuania54,627
86 Slovenia54,174
87
 Macau (PRC)
53,859
88
 Serbia
51,475
89
 Turkmenistan
48,276
90 Azerbaijan48,047
91
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
47,319
92 Jordan44,502
93
 Bolivia
40,895
94
 Cameroon
38,861
95
 Tunisia
38,797
96 Bahrain38,574
97 Paraguay38,086
98 Sudan34,895
99 Latvia34,102
100
 Uganda
32,609
101 Libya32,600
102
 Estonia
31,471
103
   Nepal
30,714
104
 Cambodia
27,097
105 El Salvador27,022
106 Honduras25,095
107
 Papua New Guinea
24,969
108
 Yemen
24,935
109
 Cyprus
24,565
110
 Iceland
24,188
111
 Senegal
23,664
112 Trinidad and Tobago23,208
113
 Zambia
23,085
114 Zimbabwe21,440
115
 Syria
20,379
116 Bosnia and Herzegovina20,164
117
 Laos
18,822
118
 Botswana
18,340
119
 Afghanistan
17,876
120
 Georgia
17,742
121
 Mali
17,432
122 Palestine17,058
123
 Gabon
16,887
124 Korea, North16,331
125
 Burkina Faso
15,990
126 Jamaica15,830
127
 Mozambique
15,296
128
 Albania
15,278
129
 Malta
14,863
130
 Benin
14,403
131
 Mauritius
14,180
132
 Madagascar
14,104
133 Mongolia13,852
134 Armenia13,672
135 Bahamas, The13,578
136 Brunei13,469
137
 Niger
12,927
138 North Macedonia12,694
139 Nicaragua12,520
140
 Congo, Republic of the
12,397
141
 Namibia
12,366
142
 Guinea
12,354
143 Moldova11,955
144
 Chad
11,271
145
 Equatorial Guinea
11,024
146
 Rwanda
10,355
147 New Caledonia (France)9,879
148 Kyrgyzstan8,454
149 Tajikistan8,333
150
 Malawi
8,099
151 Haiti8,051
152
 Kosovo
7,952
153
 Mauritania
7,593
154 Monaco7,423
155 Bermuda (United Kingdom)7,361
156 Togo7,270
157 Liechtenstein6,797
158 French Polynesia (France)6,023
159 Cayman Islands (UK)6,020
160
 Maldives
5,642
161 Montenegro5,542
162 Fiji5,504
163
 Barbados
5,209
164 Guyana5,173
165 South Sudan4,959
166
 Eswatini
4,594
167
 Sierra Leone
4,121
168
 Suriname
3,697
169
 Aruba (Netherlands)
3,293
170
 Djibouti
3,166
172 Andorra3,154
173 Curaçao (Netherlands)3,101
174 Greenland (Denmark)3,023
175 Burundi3,002
176 Liberia2,582
177
 Bhutan
2,564
178
 Lesotho
2,460
179
 Central African Republic
2,220
180 Saint Lucia2,122
181 Timor-Leste2,017
182 Eritrea1,981
183 Cape Verde1,981
184 Belize1,906
185
 Gambia, The
1,822
186 Zanzibar (Tanzania)1,805
187 Seychelles1,698
188
 Antigua and Barbuda
1,661
189
 Somalia
1,626
190
 San Marino
1,602
191 Guinea-Bissau1,322
192 Solomon Islands1,302
193 British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom)1,296
194 Grenada1,211
195 Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom)1,197
196 Comoros1,165
197
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
1,050
198 Sint Maarten (Netherlands)1,009
199 Vanuatu906
200 Samoa844
201
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
825
202 Dominica582
203 Tonga508
204 São Tomé and Príncipe421
205 Micronesia, Federated States of414
206 Cook Islands (New Zealand)379
207 Anguilla (United Kingdom)379
208 Palau280
209 Marshall Islands237
210 Kiribati194
211 Nauru132
212 Montserrat (United Kingdom)67
213 Tuvalu47

See also
Notes
  1. ^ Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
  2. ^ Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. ^ The name used in IMF's report is "Taiwan Province of China".
  4. ^ The name used in IMF's report is "Hong Kong SAR".
  5. ^ a b c Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  6. ^ The name used in IMF's report is "Macao SAR".
  7. ^ a b The name used in IMF's an the World Bank's report is "West Bank and Gaza".
  8. ^ a b Excludes data for Transnistria.
  9. ^ a b Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  10. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
  11. ^ Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  12. ^ Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  13. ^ Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
References
  1. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  5. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  6. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  7. ^ Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". Planet Money. National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  8. ^ Burgen, Emily; et al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  9. ^ Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  10. ^ Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". BlackRock. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  11. ^ Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  12. ^​https://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Countries/Tuvalu/22.pdf
  13. ^ "Tuvalu". Europa. European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  14. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  15. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190239053.
  16. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform. Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781563242786. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  17. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  18. ^ Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  19. ^ "GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  20. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.
  21. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  22. ^ "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
Last edited on 11 May 2021, at 16:22
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