List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita
The figures presented here do not take into account differences in the cost of living
in different countries, and the results vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates
of the country's currency
. Such fluctuations change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference to the standard of living of its population.
Comparisons of national income are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity
(PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. (See List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
.) PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem but not others; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade
, and it also requires more estimation than GDP per capita. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are more narrowly spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.
Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories
) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo
) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics
Note that several leading GDP-per-capita (nominal) jurisdictions may be considered tax havens
, and their GDP data subject to material distortion by the tax planning
List of per capita nominal GDP for countries and dependencies
Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens
Many of leading GDP-per-capita (nominal) jurisdictions are tax havens
whose economic data is artificially inflated by tax-driven corporate accounting entries.
For instance, the Irish GDP data above is subject to material distortion by the tax planning
activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland
created "modified GNI
" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.
A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.
- ^ O'Sullivan, Arthur
- ^ French President seeks alternatives to GDP, The Guardian 14-09-2009.
"European Parliament, Policy Department Economic and Scientific Policy: Beyond GDP Study" (PDF). (1.47 MB)
- ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- ^ Data refer mostly to the year 2018. Selecting all countries, GDP per capita (current US$), World Bank. Accessed on 1st of July 2020.
- ^ , (Select all countries, "GDP, Per Capita GDP - US Dollars", and 2019 to generate table), United Nations Statistics Division. Accessed on 1 December 2020.
- ^ "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
Based on the IMF data. If no data was available for a country from IMF, data from the World Bank is used
Last edited on 1 May 2021, at 18:22
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