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List of countries by Human Development Index
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) compiles the Human Development Index (HDI) of 189 countries in the annual Human Development Report. The index considers the health, education and income in a given country to provide a measure of human development which is comparable between countries and over time.[1][2]
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2019 data, published in 2020)
  Very high (≥ 0.800)
  High (0.700–0.799)
  Medium (0.550–0.699)
  Low (≤ 0.549)
  Data unavailable
World map of countries or territories by Human Development Index scores in increments of 0.050 (based on 2019 data, published in 2020)
  ≥ 0.900
  0.850–0.899
  0.800–0.849
  0.750–0.799
  0.700–0.749
  0.650–0.699
  0.600–0.649
  0.550–0.599
  0.500–0.549
  0.450–0.499
  0.400–0.449
  ≤ 0.399
  Data unavailable
The HDI was first published in 1990 with the goal of being a more comprehensive measure of human development than purely economic measures such as gross domestic product. The index incorporates three dimensions of human development, a long and healthy life, knowledge, and decent living standards. Various indicators are used to quantify how countries perform on each dimension. The indicators used in the 2020 report were life expectancy at birth; expected years of schooling for children; mean years of schooling for adults; and gross national income per capita. The indicators are used to create a health index, an education index and an income index each with a value between 0 and 1. The geometric mean of the three indices, the cube root of the product of the indices, is the human development index. A value above 0.800 is classified as very high, between 0.700 and 0.799 high, 0.550 to 0.699 as medium and below 0.550 as low.[1][3][4]
The data used to calculate HDI comes mostly from United Nations agencies and international institutions such as United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Rarely, when one of the indicators is missing, cross-country regression models are used. Due to improved data and methodology updates, HDI values are not comparable across human development reports, instead each report recalculates the HDI for some previous years.[4][5]
The HDI has several limitations in measuring the human development of countries. There are dimensions of human development that it does not consider, such as inequality and participation in governance. It is also an average of large groups of people and cannot show more granular development statistics for different regions, ethnic groups or genders.[6][7] To resolve one of the limitations the inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI) was introduced in the 2010 report which stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)" and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".[8] To reflect developmental differences within countries a Subnational HDI (SHDI) was introduced in 2018 by the Global Data Lab at Radboud University in the Netherlands where the human development index is calculated in an internationally comparable way for over 1600 regions.[9]
Countries
Average annual HDI growth from 2010 to 2019 (published in 2020)
  ≥ 1.4%
  1.2%–1.4%
  1%–1.2%
  0.8%–1%
  0.6%–0.8%
  0.4%–0.6%
  0.2%–0.4%
  0%–0.2%
  −0.5%–0%
  −1%–−0.5%
  < −1%
  No data
The Human Development Report includes the 193 United Nations member states as well as Palestine and Hong Kong, however the HDI is not available for North Korea, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia and Tuvalu. In total, the HDI is available for 189 countries.[2]
RankCountry or TerritoryHDI
2019 data (2020 report)​[2]Change over 5 years (2014)​[10]2019 data (2020 report)​[2]Average annual growth (2010–2019)​[10]
1
 Norway
0.9570.20%
2(7) Ireland0.9550.65%
2
  Switzerland
0.9550.16%
4(7)
 Hong Kong
0.9490.54%
4(4)
 Iceland
0.9490.62%
6(3) Germany0.9470.24%
7(3) Sweden0.9450.41%
8(2) Australia0.9440.17%
8(1)
 Netherlands
0.9440.32%
10(6)
 Denmark
0.9400.28%
11(2) Finland0.9380.26%
11
 Singapore
0.9380.35%
13 United Kingdom0.9320.24%
14(1)
 Belgium
0.9310.25%
14(3) New Zealand0.9310.30%
16(1) Canada0.9290.34%
17(3) United States0.9260.12%
18
 Austria
0.9220.22%
19(1)
 Israel
0.9190.29%
19(2)
 Japan
0.9190.39%
19 Liechtenstein0.9190.18%
22(2) Slovenia0.9170.35%
23 Luxembourg0.9160.22%
23(1)
 South Korea
0.9160.33%
25(1)
 Spain
0.9040.40%
26(1)
 France
0.9010.28%
27(1)
 Czechia
0.9000.38%
28(2)
 Malta
0.8950.54%
29(2)
 Estonia
0.8920.51%
29(1)
 Italy
0.8920.16%
31(6) United Arab Emirates0.8900.91%
32(3)
 Greece
0.8880.29%
33
 Cyprus
0.8870.40%
34 Lithuania0.8820.66%
35 Poland0.8800.52%
36(4)
 Andorra
0.8680.40%
37(3) Latvia0.8660.55%
38(1)
 Portugal
0.8640.46%
39(2)
 Slovakia
0.8600.38%
40(1) Hungary0.8540.30%
40(4)
 Saudi Arabia
0.8540.60%
42(6) Bahrain0.8520.70%
43
 Chile
0.8510.65%
43(2) Croatia0.8510.48%
45 Qatar0.8480.19%
46(2) Argentina0.8450.21%
47(6) Brunei0.8380.15%
48(2) Montenegro0.8290.37%
49(2)
 Romania
0.8280.31%
50(3) Palau0.8260.55%
51(7) Kazakhstan0.8250.86%
52(1)
 Russia
0.8240.60%
53(4) Belarus0.8230.39%
54(5)
 Turkey
0.8201.16%
55(1)
 Uruguay
0.8170.49%
56(2) Bulgaria0.8160.39%
57(5)
 Panama
0.8150.58%
58(3) Bahamas0.8140.12%
58(6)
 Barbados
0.8140.23%
60(3) Oman0.8130.43%
61(7)
 Georgia
0.8120.87%
62(3) Costa Rica0.8100.64%
62(1) Malaysia0.8100.54%
64(5) Kuwait0.8060.25%
64(3)
 Serbia
0.8060.57%
66(2)
 Mauritius
0.8040.76%
67(2) Seychelles0.7960.46%
67(1) Trinidad and Tobago0.7960.17%
69(4)
 Albania
0.7950.72%
70(5) Cuba0.7830.03%
70(1) Iran0.7830.60%
72 Sri Lanka0.7820.41%
73(8) Bosnia and Herzegovina0.7800.88%
74(2) Grenada0.7790.36%
74(4) Mexico0.7790.45%
74
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
0.7790.48%
74(1)
 Ukraine
0.7790.35%
78(1)
 Antigua and Barbuda
0.7780.22%
79
 Peru
0.7770.83%
79(8)
 Thailand
0.7770.79%
81(4) Armenia0.7760.42%
82(2) North Macedonia0.7740.46%
83(2)
 Colombia
0.7670.57%
84(2)
 Brazil
0.7650.57%
85(12)
 China
0.7610.95%
86(4)
 Ecuador
0.7590.50%
86(6) Saint Lucia0.7590.43%
88(1) Azerbaijan0.7560.45%
88(10)
 Dominican Republic
0.7560.76%
90 Moldova0.7500.56%
91
 Algeria
0.7480.41%
92(6)
 Lebanon
0.7440.32%
93(1) Fiji0.7430.43%
94(6) Dominica0.7420.03%
95(8)
 Maldives
0.7400.86%
95(7)
 Tunisia
0.7400.37%
97(3)
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
0.7380.31%
97(5)
 Suriname
0.7380.43%
99(3) Mongolia0.7370.64%
100(5)
 Botswana
0.7351.15%
101(2) Jamaica0.7340.03%
102(3) Jordan0.7290.12%
103(1) Paraguay0.7280.50%
104(2) Tonga0.7250.41%
105(4) Libya0.7241.08%
106(4) Uzbekistan0.7200.82%
107(6)
 Bolivia
0.7180.82%
107(6)
 Indonesia
0.7180.86%
107(3) Philippines0.7180.76%
110(3) Belize0.7160.33%
111(3) Samoa0.7150.27%
111(4)
 Turkmenistan
0.7150.79%
113(44)
 Venezuela
0.7110.69%
114(2)
 South Africa
0.7090.73%
115(6) Palestine0.7080.38%
116(1)
 Egypt
0.7070.63%
117NA[a] Marshall Islands0.704NA[a]
117(1)
 Vietnam
0.7040.70%
119
 Gabon
0.7030.84%
120(4) Kyrgyzstan0.6970.57%
121(2)
 Morocco
0.6861.20%
122(2) Guyana0.6820.55%
123(4)
 Iraq
0.6740.65%
124(3) El Salvador0.6730.08%
125(2) Tajikistan0.6680.51%
126(4) Cape Verde0.6650.57%
127(1) Guatemala0.6631.00%
128(3) Nicaragua0.6600.66%
129(1)
 Bhutan
0.6541.46%
130(2)
 Namibia
0.6461.03%
131(1)
 India
0.6451.21%
132 Honduras0.6340.43%
133(8) Bangladesh0.6321.41%
134(3) Kiribati0.6300.67%
135(1) Sao Tome and Principe0.6251.21%
136(2) Micronesia0.6200.35%
137(1)
 Laos
0.6131.17%
138(5)
 Eswatini
0.6112.03%
138(1)
 Ghana
0.6110.87%
140(5) Vanuatu0.6090.35%
141(12) East Timor0.6060.40%
142
   Nepal
0.6021.28%
143(3)
 Kenya
0.6010.97%
144
 Cambodia
0.5941.09%
145(6)
 Equatorial Guinea
0.5920.30%
146
 Zambia
0.5841.15%
147(3)
 Myanmar
0.5831.39%
148(4)
 Angola
0.5811.31%
149(2)
 Congo, Republic of the
0.5741.10%
150(1) Zimbabwe0.5711.90%
151(3) Solomon Islands0.5670.61%
151(2)
 Syria
0.5671.87%
153(1)
 Cameroon
0.5631.22%
154(2)
 Pakistan
0.5570.94%
155(2)
 Papua New Guinea
0.5550.68%
156(4) Comoros0.5540.68%
157(2)
 Mauritania
0.5460.87%
158(1)
 Benin
0.5451.10%
159(2)
 Uganda
0.5440.99%
160(1)
 Rwanda
0.5431.10%
161(3) Nigeria0.5391.25%
162(7)
 Ivory Coast
0.5381.56%
163(1)
 Tanzania
0.5291.06%
164(4)
 Madagascar
0.5280.36%
165(2)
 Lesotho
0.5271.52%
166(3)
 Djibouti
0.5241.61%
167(1) Togo0.5151.12%
168(3)
 Senegal
0.5121.00%
169(5)
 Afghanistan
0.5110.89%
170(1) Haiti0.5100.89%
170(5) Sudan0.5100.94%
172(1)
 Gambia
0.4960.87%
173(5) Ethiopia0.4851.58%
174
 Malawi
0.4831.27%
175
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
0.4801.10%
175(1) Guinea-Bissau0.4801.07%
175(3) Liberia0.4800.60%
178(1)
 Guinea
0.4771.53%
179(16)
 Yemen
0.4700.82%
180(3) Eritrea0.4590.57%
181(2)
 Mozambique
0.4561.44%
182(3)
 Burkina Faso
0.4521.83%
182(2)
 Sierra Leone
0.4521.40%
184
 Mali
0.4340.69%
185(5) Burundi0.4330.58%
185(3) South Sudan0.4330.61%
187(1)
 Chad
0.3980.84%
188(1)
 Central African Republic
0.3970.94%
189(1)
 Niger
0.3941.95%
Regions and groups
The Human Development Report also reports the HDI for various groups of countries. These include regional groupings based on the UNDP regional classifications,[11] HDI groups including the countries currently falling into a given HDI bracket, OECD members and various other UN groupings.[12] The aggregate HDI values are calculated in the same way as for individual countries with the input data being the weighted average for all countries with available data in the group.[13]
Region or group1990 data​[14]2000 data​[14]2010 data​[14]2014 data​[14]2015 data​[14]2017 data​[14]2018 data​[14]2019 data​[14]
OECD0.7860.8350.8740.8880.8910.8960.8980.900
Very high human development0.7820.8260.8700.8850.8890.8940.8960.898
Europe and Central Asia0.6620.6750.7390.7720.7750.7850.7870.791
Latin America and the Caribbean0.6320.6900.7360.7560.7590.7620.7640.766
High human development0.5670.6290.7050.7300.7350.7440.7480.753
East Asia and the Pacific0.5170.5950.6880.7180.7240.7350.7400.747
World0.6010.6440.6990.7200.7240.7320.7340.737
Small Island Developing States0.5990.6460.7060.7150.7200.7240.7260.728
Arab states0.5560.6140.6760.6870.6910.6990.7020.705
Developing countries0.5170.5710.6420.6680.6730.6830.6850.689
South Asia0.4370.5010.5800.6120.6200.6350.6370.641
Medium human development0.4330.4920.5710.6010.6090.6240.6270.631
Sub-Saharan Africa0.4040.4260.5010.5300.5350.5420.5440.547
Least developed countries0.3530.4030.4890.5130.5200.5310.5340.538
Low human development0.3450.3810.4680.4970.5000.5070.5090.513
See also
Notes
^ a b Data not available before 2017
References
  1. ^ a b "Human Development Index (HDI) | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-9-211-26442-5. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  3. ^ Human Development Report 1990 (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 1 May 1990. pp. iii, iv, 5, 9, 12. ISBN 0-1950-6481-X. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Human Development Report 2019 – Technical notes" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  5. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: Reader's Guide". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  6. ^ Jahan, Selim. "The Human Development Index – what it is and what it is not | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  7. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions | Why does the HDI not include dimensions of participation, gender and equality?". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  8. ^ Human Development Report 2010 (PDF). hdr.undp.org. New York: United Nations Development Programme. 2010. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-230-28445-6. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  9. ^ Iñaki, Permanyer; Jeroen, Smits. "The Subnational Human Development Index: Moving beyond country-level averages | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  10. ^ "Developing regions | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: Reader's Guide | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Human Development Report 2020 – Technical notes" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. p. 4. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. p. 350. ISBN 978-9-211-26442-5. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
External links
UN Development Programme Human Development Reports
Last edited on 11 May 2021, at 00:17
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