List of countries by system of government
This is a list of countries
by system of government
. There is also a political mapping
of the world that shows what form of government each country has, as well as a brief description of what each form of government entails. The list is colour-coded according to the type of government, for example: blue represents a republic with an executive head of state
, and pink is a constitutional monarchy with a ceremonial head of state
. The color-coding also appears on the following map, representing the same government categories. The legend
of what the different colours represent is found just below the map.
List of countries
- Presidential republic: Head of state is the head of government and is independent of legislature
- Semi-presidential republic: Head of state has some executive powers and is independent of legislature; remaining executive power is vested in ministry that is subject to parliamentary confidence
- Republic with an executive presidency nominated by or elected by the legislature: President is both head of state and government; ministry, including the president, may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence
- Parliamentary republic with a ceremonial presidency: Head of state is ceremonial; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
- Constitutional monarchy: Head of state is executive; Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
- Constitutional parliamentary monarchy: Head of state is ceremonial; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
- Absolute monarchy: Head of state is executive; all authority vested in absolute monarch
- One-party state: Head of state is executive or ceremonial; power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
- Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorships)
- No constitutionally defined basis to current regime (e.g. transitional governments)
- Dependencies without a government
Note: this chart represent de jure
systems of government, not the de facto
degree of democracy. Several states that are constitutional republics are in practice ruled as authoritarian states
UN member states and observers
Western Europe and Others
Partially recognized states
The following states control their territory and are recognized by at least one UN member state.
The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member state.
Systems of governance
Italics indicate states with limited recognition.
In full presidential systems
, the president is both head of state and head of government. There is generally no prime minister, although if one exists, in most cases, he or she serves purely at the discretion of the president.
The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:
Presidential systems without a prime minister
Presidential systems with a prime minister
In semi-presidential systems
, there is always both a president and a head of government, commonly but not exclusively styled Prime Minister
. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but the role of a head of government may be exercised by the prime minister
The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The president does not have the right to dismiss the prime minister or the cabinet.
The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet without the confidence vote
from the parliament, but must have the support of the parliament majority for their choice. In order to remove a prime minister or the whole cabinet from power, the president can dismiss them or the assembly can remove them by a vote of no confidence
Parliamentary and related systems
In a parliamentary republic
, the head of government is selected by, or nominated by, the legislature and is also accountable to it. The head of state is ordinarily called president, and in most parliamentary republics is separate from the head of government and serves as a largely apolitical, ceremonial figure. In these systems, the head of government is usually called prime minister, chancellor or premier. In mixed republican systems and directorial republican systems, the head of government also serves as head of state and is usually titled president.
Full parliamentary republican systems
In some full parliamentary systems, the head of state is directly elected by voters. Under some classification systems, however, these systems may instead be classed as semi-presidential systems, despite their weak presidency.
Full parliamentary systems that do not have a directly elected head of state usually use either an electoral college
or a vote in the legislature to appoint the head of state.
Directly elected head of state
Indirectly elected head of state
Nations with limited recognition are in italics.
Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency
A combined head of state and government in the form of an executive president
is either elected by the legislature or by the voters after a few candidates are nominated for the post by the legislature (in the case of Kiribati
), and they must maintain the confidence of the legislature to remain in office.
Assembly-independent republican systems
A combined head of state and head of government (usually titled "president") is elected by the legislature but is immune from a vote of no confidence (as is their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
They may or may not hold a seat in the legislature.
Directorial republican systems
In the directorial system
, a council jointly exercises the powers of both head of state and head of government. The council is elected by the parliament, but it is not subject to parliamentary confidence
during its term which has a fixed duration.
These are systems in which the head of state
is a constitutional monarch
; the existence of their office and their ability to exercise their authority is established and restrained or held back by constitutional law.
Constitutional monarchies with ceremonial/non-executive monarchs
Systems in which a prime minister
is the active head of the executive branch
of government. In some cases the prime minister is also leader of the legislature
, in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence
.[dubious – discuss]
The head of state
is a constitutional monarch
who normally only exercises his or her powers (some monarchs are given a limited number of discretionary 'reserve' powers, only to be used in certain circumstances; many monarchs are given the responsibility to defend the nation's constitution) with the consent of the government, the people and/or their representatives (except in emergencies, e.g. a constitutional crisis or a political deadlock).
Constitutional monarchies with active monarchs
The prime minister is the nation's active executive, but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at their own discretion.
Specifically, monarchies in which the monarch's exercise of power is unconstrained by any substantive constitutional law.
Traditional absolute monarchies
Absolute monarchies with democratically elected legislature
The nation's military control the organs of government and all high-ranking political executives are also members of the military hierarchy.
States that have a system of government that is in transition or turmoil and are classified with the current direction of change.
Systems of internal structure
governed as a single power in which the central government
is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions
(sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states
, 154 are governed as centralized unitary states, and an additional 12 are regionalized unitary states.
Centralized unitary states
States in which most power is exercised by the central government. What local authorities do exist have few powers.
Regionalized unitary states
States in which the central government
has delegated some of its powers to regional authorities, but where constitutional authority ultimately remains entirely at a national level.
- Bolivia (9 regions, of which 9 are autonomous)
- People's Republic of China (22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 province-level municipalities, 2 special administrative regions, and 1 claimed province)
- Republic of China (Taiwan) (2 provinces, 6 special municipalities, 33 claimed provinces, 3 claimed special administrative regions, 2 claimed areas, 12 claimed special municipalities, 14 claimed leagues, and 4 claimed special banners)
- France (18 regions, of which 6 are autonomous)
- Indonesia (34 provinces, of which 5 provinces have special status)
- Italy (20 regions, of which 5 are autonomous)
- Kingdom of the Netherlands (4 constituent countries)
- Philippines (one autonomous region subdivided into 5 provinces and 113 other provinces and independent cities grouped into 17 other non-autonomous regions)
- Portugal (2 autonomous regions)
- Spain (17 autonomous communities, 15 communities of common-regime, 1 community of chartered regime, 3 chartered provinces, 2 autonomous cities)
- Tanzania (21 mainland regions and Zanzibar)
- Ukraine (24 oblasts, 2 cities with special status, and Crimea)
- United Kingdom (4 constituent countries, of which 3 have devolved administrations)
States in which the federal government
shares power with regional governments with which it has legal or constitutional parity
. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments.
- Argentina (23 provinces and one autonomous city: Buenos Aires)
- Australia (six states and ten territories)
- Austria (nine states)
- Belgium (three regions and three linguistic communities)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina (two entities and one district)
- Brazil (26 states and the Federal District)
- Canada (ten provinces and three territories)
- Comoros (Anjouan, Grande Comore, Mohéli)
- Ethiopia (10 regions and 2 chartered cities)
- Germany (16 states)
- India (28 states and 8 union territories)
- Iraq (18 governorates and one region: Kurdistan)
- Malaysia (13 states and three federal territories)
- Mexico (31 states and one federal district: Mexico City)
- Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap)
- Nepal (seven provinces)
- Nigeria (36 states and one federal territory: Federal Capital Territory)
- Pakistan (4 provinces, 2 autonomous territories and 1 federal territory)
- Russia (46 oblasts, 22 republics (one of which is disputed), nine krais, four autonomous okrugs, three federal cities, one autonomous oblast)
- Saint Kitts and Nevis (Saint Kitts, Nevis)
- Somalia (six federal member states)
- South Sudan (ten states)
- Sudan (17 states)
- Switzerland (26 cantons)
- United Arab Emirates (seven emirates)
- United States (50 states, one incorporated territory, and one federal district: District of Columbia)
- Venezuela (23 states, one capital district and one federal dependency)
Notes and references
- ^ The President of China is legally a ceremonial office without considering the presidency held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
- ^ Iran combines the forms of a presidential republic, with a president elected by universal suffrage, and a theocracy, with a Supreme Leader who is ultimately responsible for state policy, chosen by the elected Assembly of Experts. Candidates for both the Assembly of Experts and the presidency are vetted by the appointed Guardian Council.
- ^ Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
- ^ The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence (but not their cabinet), unlike a prime minister. Although, if a vote of no confidence is successful and they do not resign, it triggers the dissolution of the legislature and new elections (per section 92 of the Constitution).
- ^ Holds a parliamentary seat.
- ^ Their two-person head of state and head of government, the Captains Regent, serve for six month terms, although they are not subject to parliamentary confidence during that time.
- ^ The President of Switzerland serves in a primus inter pares capacity amongst the Swiss Federal Council, the seven-member executive council which constitutes both the presidency and the government.
- ^ The Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who have their interests known through a representative.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r One of sixteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General (GG) to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister (PM) is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms".
In many cases, the Governor-General or monarch has a lot more theoretical, or constitutional, powers than they actually exercise, except on the advice of elected officials, per constitutional convention. For example, the Constitution of Australia makes the GG the head of the executive branch (including commander-in-chief of the armed forces), although they seldom ever use this power, except on the advice of elected officials, especially the PM, which makes the PM the de facto head of government.
- ^ a b c The Cook Islands and Niue are under the sovereignty of the Monarch of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
- ^ The Vatican is an elective absolute monarchy and a Roman Catholic theocracy; its monarch, the Pope, is the head of the global Roman Catholic Church. His power within the Vatican City State is unlimited by any constitution; however, as all its citizens and its residents are ordained Catholic clergy, members of the Swiss Guard, or their immediate family, they arguably have consented to obey the Pope or are minors. (Citizenship is jus officii, on the grounds of appointment to work in a certain capacity in the service of the Holy See and usually ceases upon cessation of the appointment. Citizenship is also extended to the spouse and children of a citizen, provided they are living together in the city; in practice, these are few in number, since the bulk of Vatican citizens are celibate Catholic clerics or religious. Some individuals are also authorized to reside in the city but do not qualify or choose not to request citizenship.)
- ^ Chen Hang (2018). "The New Development of the National President System in China——The Semi-Presidential System Combining Party and Government in the Actual Operation". Journal of Xinxiang University. 35 (1).
- ^ "How the Chinese government works". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in China's political system, and his influence mainly comes from his position as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
- ^ a b Chris Buckley and Adam Wu (10 March 2018). "Ending Term Limits for China's Xi Is a Big Deal. Here's Why. - Is the presidency powerful in China?". New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019. In China, the political job that matters most is the general secretary of the Communist Party. The party controls the military and domestic security forces, and sets the policies that the government carries out. China’s presidency lacks the authority of the American and French presidencies.
- ^ Kudelia, Serhiy (4 May 2018). "Presidential activism and government termination in dual-executive Ukraine". Post-Soviet Affairs. 34 (4): 246–261. doi:10.1080/1060586X.2018.1465251. S2CID 158492144.
- ^ a b Zaznaev, Oleg (2005). "Атипичные президентские и полупрезидентские системы" [Atypical presidential and semi-presidential systems]. Uchenyye Zapiski Kazanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta (in Russian). 147 (1): 62–64. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
- ^ Elgie, Robert (2 January 2013). "Presidentialism, Parliamentarism and Semi-Presidentialism: Bringing Parties Back In"(PDF). Government and Opposition. 46 (3): 392–409. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.2011.01345.x. S2CID 145748468.
- ^ "Austria's Constitution of 1920, Reinstated in 1945, with Amendments through 2009" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Bulgaria's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2015" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Croatia's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2010" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Czech Republic 1993 (rev. 2013)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Iceland's Constitution of 1944 with Amendments through 2013" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Ireland's Constitution of 1937 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Moldova (Republic of) 1994 (rev. 2016)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Montenegro 2007". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Serbia 2006". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Singapore 1963 (rev. 2016)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Slovakia 1992 (rev. 2017)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Slovenia 1991 (rev. 2013)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Kiribati's Constitution of 1979 with Amendments through 1995" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ "Marshall Islands 1979 (rev. 1995)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- ^ "Nauru 1968 (rev. 2015)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- ^ "South Africa's Constitution of 1996 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- ^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns". French Politics. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087.
- ^ "Micronesia (Federated States of)'s Constitution of 1978 with Amendments through 1990" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- ^ "Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino"(PDF) (in Italian). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri. July 2012. p. 5.
- ^ "The Constitution". Stortinget. 4 September 2019.
- ^ "Europe :: Norway — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- ^ Stewart, Dona J. (2013). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 978-0415782432.
- ^ Day, Alan John (1996). Political Parties of The World. Stockton. p. 599. ISBN 1561591440.
- ^ "Law on citizenship, residence and access" (in Italian). Vatican City State. 11 February 2011.
- ^ Tofa, Moses (16 May 2013). "Swaziland: Wither absolute monarchism?". Pambazuka News (630). Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- ^ "Swaziland: Africa′s last absolute monarchy". Deutsche Welle. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- ^ "Q&A: Elections to Oman's Consultative Council". BBC News.
- ^ For more detailed discussion, see John McCormick, European Union Politics (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), Chapters 1 and 2.
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 05:26
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