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List of countries by system of government
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This is a list of countries by system of government. There is also a political mapping of the world that shows what form of government each country has, as well as a brief description of what each form of government entails. The list is colour-coded according to the type of government, for example: blue represents a republic with an executive head of state, and pink is a constitutional monarchy with a ceremonial head of state. The color-coding also appears on the following map, representing the same government categories. The legend of what the different colours represent is found just below the map.
It is noteworthy that some scholars in People's Republic of China claim that the country's system of government is a "Semi-presidential system combining party and government in actual operation".[1] Under China's constitution, the Chinese President is a largely ceremonial office with limited power.[2] However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Communist Party, the top leader in the one-party system who heads the Politburo Standing Committee.[3]
List of countries
Map
Legend
Note: this chart represent de jure systems of government, not the de facto degree of democracy. Several states that are constitutional republics are in practice ruled as authoritarian states
UN member states and observers
Africa
NameConstitutional formHead of stateBasis of executive legitimacy
 Algeria
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Angola
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Benin
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Botswana
RepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Burkina Faso
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 BurundiRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Cabo VerdeRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cameroon
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Central African Republic
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Chad
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 ComorosRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Congo, Republic of the
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Côte d'Ivoire
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Djibouti
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Egypt
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Equatorial Guinea
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 EritreaRepublicExecutivePower constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Eswatini
Absolute monarchyExecutiveAll authority vested in absolute monarch
 EthiopiaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Gabon
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Gambia, The
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Ghana
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea-BissauRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Kenya
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Lesotho
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 LiberiaRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 LibyaProvisionaln/aNo constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Madagascar
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Malawi
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Mali
Provisionaln/aNo constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Mauritania
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritius
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Morocco
Constitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mozambique
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Namibia
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Niger
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 NigeriaRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Rwanda
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 São Tomé and PríncipeRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Senegal
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 SeychellesRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Sierra Leone
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Somalia
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Africa
RepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 South SudanRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 SudanProvisionaln/aNo constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Tanzania
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 TogoRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Tunisia
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Uganda
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Zambia
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 ZimbabweRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
Asia-Pacific
NameConstitutional formHead of stateBasis of executive legitimacy
 Afghanistan
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 BahrainConstitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 BangladeshRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bhutan
Constitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 BruneiAbsolute monarchyExecutiveAll authority vested in absolute monarch
 Cambodia
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 China, People's Republic of
RepublicCeremonialPower constitutionally linked to a single political movement[note 1]
 Federated States of MicronesiaRepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 FijiRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 India
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Indonesia
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Iran, Islamic Republic ofRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Iraq
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Japan
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 JordanConstitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 KazakhstanRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 KiribatiRepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Korea, NorthRepublicExecutivePower constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Korea, South
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 KuwaitConstitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 KyrgyzstanRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Laos
RepublicExecutivePower constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Lebanon
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 MalaysiaConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Maldives
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Marshall IslandsRepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 MongoliaRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Myanmar
Provisionaln/aNo constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 NauruRepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
   Nepal
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 OmanAbsolute monarchyExecutiveAll authority vested in absolute monarch
 Pakistan
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 PalauRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 PalestineRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Papua New Guinea
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 PhilippinesRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 QatarConstitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 SamoaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saudi Arabia
Absolute monarchyExecutiveAll authority vested in absolute monarch
 Singapore
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Solomon IslandsConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sri LankaRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Syrian Arab Republic
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 TajikistanRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Thailand
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Timor-LesteRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 TongaConstitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Turkmenistan
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 TuvaluConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United Arab EmiratesConstitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 UzbekistanRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 VanuatuRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Vietnam
RepublicExecutivePower constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Yemen
Provisionaln/aNo constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
Eastern Europe
NameConstitutional formHead of stateBasis of executive legitimacy
 Albania
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 ArmeniaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 AzerbaijanRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 BelarusRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 BulgariaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 CroatiaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Czech Republic
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Estonia
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Georgia
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 HungaryRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 LatviaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 LithuaniaRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 MontenegroRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 North MacedoniaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 PolandRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Republic of MoldovaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Romania
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Russian Federation
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Serbia
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovakia
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 SloveniaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ukraine
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Latin America
NameConstitutional formHead of stateBasis of executive legitimacy
 Antigua and Barbuda
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 ArgentinaRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Bahamas, TheConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Barbados
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 BelizeConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bolivia
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Brazil
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Chile
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Colombia
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Costa RicaRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 CubaRepublicExecutivePower constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 DominicaRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Dominican Republic
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Ecuador
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 El SalvadorRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 GrenadaConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 GuatemalaRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 GuyanaRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 HaitiRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 HondurasRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 JamaicaConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 MexicoRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 NicaraguaRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Panama
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 ParaguayRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Peru
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint LuciaConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Suriname
RepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Trinidad and TobagoRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Uruguay
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Venezuela
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
Western Europe and Others
NameConstitutional formHead of stateBasis of executive legitimacy
 Andorra
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 AustraliaConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Austria
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belgium
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 CanadaConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cyprus
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Denmark
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 FinlandRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 France
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 GermanyRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Greece
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Iceland
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 IrelandRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Israel
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Italy
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 LiechtensteinConstitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 LuxembourgConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Malta
RepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Monaco
Constitutional monarchyExecutiveMonarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Netherlands
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 New ZealandConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Norway
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Portugal
RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 San Marino
RepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Spain
Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 SwedenConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Switzerland
RepublicExecutivePresidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Turkey
RepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 United KingdomConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United StatesRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
  Vatican City
Absolute monarchyExecutiveAll authority vested in absolute monarch
Partially recognized states
The following states control their territory and are recognized by at least one UN member state.
NameConstitutional formHead of stateBasis of executive legitimacy
 AbkhaziaRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 Cook IslandsConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 KosovoRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 NiueConstitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Northern CyprusRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Republic of ChinaRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicRepublicExecutivePower constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 South OssetiaRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Unrecognized states
The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member state.
NameConstitutional formHead of stateBasis of executive legitimacy
 ArtsakhRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 SomalilandRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislature
 TransnistriaRepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Systems of governance
Italics indicate states with limited recognition.
Presidential systems
These are systems in which a president is the active head of the executive branch of government, and is elected and remains in office independently of the legislature.
In full presidential systems, the president is both head of state and head of government. There is generally no prime minister, although if one exists, in most cases, he or she serves purely at the discretion of the president.
The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:
Presidential systems without a prime minister
Presidential systems with a prime minister
Semi-presidential systems
In semi-presidential systems, there is always both a president and a head of government, commonly but not exclusively styled Prime Minister. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but the role of a head of government may be exercised by the prime minister.
Premier-presidential systems
The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The president does not have the right to dismiss the prime minister or the cabinet.
President-parliamentary systems
The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet without the confidence vote from the parliament, but must have the support of the parliament majority for their choice. In order to remove a prime minister or the whole cabinet from power, the president can dismiss them or the assembly can remove them by a vote of no confidence.
Parliamentary and related systems
In a parliamentary republic, the head of government is selected by, or nominated by, the legislature and is also accountable to it. The head of state is ordinarily called president, and in most parliamentary republics is separate from the head of government and serves as a largely apolitical, ceremonial figure. In these systems, the head of government is usually called prime minister, chancellor or premier. In mixed republican systems and directorial republican systems, the head of government also serves as head of state and is usually titled president.
Full parliamentary republican systems
In some full parliamentary systems, the head of state is directly elected by voters. Under some classification systems, however, these systems may instead be classed as semi-presidential systems, despite their weak presidency.[6] Full parliamentary systems that do not have a directly elected head of state usually use either an electoral college or a vote in the legislature to appoint the head of state.
Directly elected head of state
Indirectly elected head of state
Nations with limited recognition are in italics.
Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency
A combined head of state and government in the form of an executive president is either elected by the legislature or by the voters after a few candidates are nominated for the post by the legislature (in the case of Kiribati), and they must maintain the confidence of the legislature to remain in office.
Assembly-independent republican systems
A combined head of state and head of government (usually titled "president") is elected by the legislature but is immune from a vote of no confidence (as is their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.[23] They may or may not hold a seat in the legislature.
Directorial republican systems
In the directorial system, a council jointly exercises the powers of both head of state and head of government. The council is elected by the parliament, but it is not subject to parliamentary confidence during its term which has a fixed duration.
  Switzerland[note 7]
Constitutional monarchies
These are systems in which the head of state is a constitutional monarch; the existence of their office and their ability to exercise their authority is established and restrained or held back by constitutional law.
Constitutional monarchies with ceremonial/non-executive monarchs
Systems in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government. In some cases the prime minister is also leader of the legislature, in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence​.​[26]​[27]​[​dubious discuss] The head of state is a constitutional monarch who normally only exercises his or her powers (some monarchs are given a limited number of discretionary 'reserve' powers, only to be used in certain circumstances; many monarchs are given the responsibility to defend the nation's constitution) with the consent of the government, the people and/or their representatives (except in emergencies, e.g. a constitutional crisis or a political deadlock).
Constitutional monarchies with active monarchs
The prime minister is the nation's active executive, but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at their own discretion.
Absolute monarchies
Specifically, monarchies in which the monarch's exercise of power is unconstrained by any substantive constitutional law.
Traditional absolute monarchies
Absolute monarchies with democratically elected legislature
One-party states
States in which political power is by law concentrated within one political party whose operations are largely fused with the government hierarchy (as opposed to states where the law establishes a multi-party system but this fusion is achieved anyway through electoral fraud or simple inertia). However, some do ostensibly hold elections.
Military dictatorships
The nation's military control the organs of government and all high-ranking political executives are also members of the military hierarchy.
Transitional governments
States that have a system of government that is in transition or turmoil and are classified with the current direction of change.
Systems of internal structure
Unitary states
Main article: Unitary state
A state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states, 154 are governed as centralized unitary states, and an additional 12 are regionalized unitary states.
Centralized unitary states
States in which most power is exercised by the central government. What local authorities do exist have few powers.
Regionalized unitary states
Main article: Regional state
States in which the central government has delegated some of its powers to regional authorities, but where constitutional authority ultimately remains entirely at a national level.
Federation
Main article: Federation
States in which the federal government shares power with regional governments with which it has legal or constitutional parity. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments.
European Union
Main article: List of European Union member states by political system
The exact political character of the European Union is debated, some arguing that it is sui generis (unique), but others arguing that it has features of a federation or a confederation. It has elements of intergovernmentalism​, with the European Council acting as its collective "president", and also elements of supranationalism, with the European Commission acting as its executive and bureaucracy.[34] But it is not easily placed in any of the above categories.[citation needed]
See also
Notes and references
Notes
  1. ^ The President of China is legally a ceremonial office without considering the presidency held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.[3]
  2. ^ Iran combines the forms of a presidential republic, with a president elected by universal suffrage, and a theocracy, with a Supreme Leader who is ultimately responsible for state policy, chosen by the elected Assembly of Experts. Candidates for both the Assembly of Experts and the presidency are vetted by the appointed Guardian Council.
  3. ^ Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
  4. ^ The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence (but not their cabinet), unlike a prime minister. Although, if a vote of no confidence is successful and they do not resign, it triggers the dissolution of the legislature and new elections (per section 92 of the Constitution).
  5. ^ Holds a parliamentary seat.
  6. ^ Their two-person head of state and head of government, the Captains Regent, serve for six month terms, although they are not subject to parliamentary confidence during that time.
  7. ^ The President of Switzerland serves in a primus inter pares capacity amongst the Swiss Federal Council, the seven-member executive council which constitutes both the presidency and the government.
  8. ^ The Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who have their interests known through a representative.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r One of sixteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General (GG) to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister (PM) is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms".
    In many cases, the Governor-General or monarch has a lot more theoretical, or constitutional, powers than they actually exercise, except on the advice of elected officials, per constitutional convention. For example, the Constitution of Australia makes the GG the head of the executive branch (including commander-in-chief of the armed forces), although they seldom ever use this power, except on the advice of elected officials, especially the PM, which makes the PM the de facto head of government.
  10. ^ a b c The Cook Islands and Niue are under the sovereignty of the Monarch of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
  11. ^ The Vatican is an elective absolute monarchy and a Roman Catholic theocracy; its monarch, the Pope, is the head of the global Roman Catholic Church. His power within the Vatican City State is unlimited by any constitution; however, as all its citizens and its residents are ordained Catholic clergy, members of the Swiss Guard, or their immediate family, they arguably have consented to obey the Pope or are minors. (Citizenship is jus officii, on the grounds of appointment to work in a certain capacity in the service of the Holy See and usually ceases upon cessation of the appointment. Citizenship is also extended to the spouse and children of a citizen, provided they are living together in the city; in practice, these are few in number, since the bulk of Vatican citizens are celibate Catholic clerics or religious. Some individuals are also authorized to reside in the city but do not qualify or choose not to request citizenship.)[30]
References
  1. ^ Chen Hang (2018). "The New Development of the National President System in China——The Semi-Presidential System Combining Party and Government in the Actual Operation". Journal of Xinxiang University. 35 (1).
  2. ^ "How the Chinese government works". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in China's political system, and his influence mainly comes from his position as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
  3. ^ a b Chris Buckley and Adam Wu (10 March 2018). "Ending Term Limits for China's Xi Is a Big Deal. Here's Why. - Is the presidency powerful in China?". New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019. In China, the political job that matters most is the general secretary of the Communist Party. The party controls the military and domestic security forces, and sets the policies that the government carries out. China’s presidency lacks the authority of the American and French presidencies.
  4. ^ Kudelia, Serhiy (4 May 2018). "Presidential activism and government termination in dual-executive Ukraine". Post-Soviet Affairs. 34 (4): 246–261. doi​:​10.1080/1060586X.2018.1465251​. S2CID 158492144.
  5. ^ a b Zaznaev, Oleg (2005). "Атипичные президентские и полупрезидентские системы" [Atypical presidential and semi-presidential systems]. Uchenyye Zapiski Kazanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta (in Russian). 147 (1): 62–64. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  6. ^ Elgie, Robert (2 January 2013). "Presidentialism, Parliamentarism and Semi-Presidentialism: Bringing Parties Back In"(PDF). Government and Opposition. 46 (3): 392–409. doi​:​10.1111/j.1477-7053.2011.01345.x​. S2CID 145748468.
  7. ^ "Austria's Constitution of 1920, Reinstated in 1945, with Amendments through 2009" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  8. ^ "Bulgaria's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2015" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  9. ^ "Croatia's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2010" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  10. ^ "Czech Republic 1993 (rev. 2013)". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  11. ^ "Iceland's Constitution of 1944 with Amendments through 2013" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  12. ^ "Ireland's Constitution of 1937 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  13. ^ "Moldova (Republic of) 1994 (rev. 2016)". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  14. ^ "Montenegro 2007". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Serbia 2006". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  16. ^ "Singapore 1963 (rev. 2016)". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  17. ^ "Slovakia 1992 (rev. 2017)". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Slovenia 1991 (rev. 2013)". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  19. ^ "Kiribati's Constitution of 1979 with Amendments through 1995" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  20. ^ "Marshall Islands 1979 (rev. 1995)". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  21. ^ "Nauru 1968 (rev. 2015)". www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  22. ^ "South Africa's Constitution of 1996 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  23. ^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns". French Politics. 3 (3): 323–351. doi​:​10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087​.
  24. ^ "Micronesia (Federated States of)'s Constitution of 1978 with Amendments through 1990" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org​. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  25. ^ "Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino"(PDF) (in Italian). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri. July 2012. p. 5.
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  28. ^ Stewart, Dona J. (2013). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 978-0415782432.
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  34. ^ For more detailed discussion, see John McCormick, European Union Politics (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), Chapters 1 and 2.
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