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List of countries where Arabic is an official language
Arabic and its different dialects are spoken by around 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world as well as in the Arab diaspora making it one of the five most spoken languages in the world. Currently, 22 countries are member states of the Arab League (as well as 5 countries were granted an observer status) which was founded in Cairo in 1945. Arabic is a language cluster comprising 30 or so modern varieties.[1]
Nations in which Arabic is an official language (de facto or de jure). Arabic in countries with more than 50% Arabic-speakers is considered a majority language, otherwise it is a minority language.
  Official as majority language
  Official as minority language
  Co-official as majority language
  Co-official as minority language
  Not official as minority language
Arabic is the lingua franca of people who live in countries of the Arab world as well as of Arabs who live in the diaspora, particularly in Latin America (especially Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Chile and Colombia) or Western Europe (like France, Spain, Germany or Italy).
Cypriot Arabic is a recognized minority language in the EU member state of Cyprus and along with Maltese is one of only two extant European varieties of Arabic, though has its own standard literary form and has no diglossic relationship with Standard Arabic.[2] Maltese is one of the official languages of the EU. Arabic is a majority language of the native population in the United Arab Emirates as the majority of the population is composed of expatriates.[3]
Sovereign states where Arabic is an official language
As of 2018, there are 23 sovereign states where Modern Standard Arabic is an official language. The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Arabic is an official language.
Sovereign states where Arabic is an official language
No.Sovereign statePopulationNotesMember state of the Arab League
1.
 Algeria
41,701,000Co-official language, along with BerberYes
2. Bahrain1,343,000Official languageYes
3.
 Chad
10,329,208Co-official language, along with FrenchObserver status
4. Comoros798,000Co-official language, along with Comorian and FrenchYes
5.
 Djibouti
810,179Co-official language, along with FrenchYes
6.
 Egypt
102,442,939Official languageYes
7.
 Iraq
36,004,552Co-official language, along with KurdishYes
8. Jordan6,655,000Official languageYes
9. Kuwait2,789,000Official languageYes
10.
 Lebanon
4,965,914Official languageYes
11. Libya6,244,174Official languageYes a
12.
 Mauritania
3,359,185Official languageYes
13.
 Morocco
35,250,000Co-official language, along with BerberYes
14. Oman4,055,418Official languageYes
15. Palestineb4,484,000Official language in the Palestinian territoriescYes
16. Qatar2,155,446Official languageYes
17.
 Saudi Arabia
30,770,375Official languageYes
18.
 Somalia
10,428,043Co-official language, along with SomaliYes
19. Sudan40,235,000Co-official language, along with EnglishYes
20.
 Syria d
20,956,000Official languageYes e
21.
 Tunisia
10,982,754Official languageYes
22. United Arab Emirates9,346,129Official languageYes
23.
 Yemen
23,833,000Official languageYes f
Σ 23TotalΣ 395,979,000Arabic Language International CouncilArab League
a. Libya's seat is taken by the House of Representatives (Libya) (which is disputed by the Muslim Brotherhood-led General National Congress and Government of National Accord).
b. Out of the 193 member states of the United Nations, 136 member states currently recognize the State of Palestine.
c. The Palestinian territories (also called the Israeli-occupied territories) are occupied by Israel but do not legally belong to the State of Israel according to the Supreme Court of Israel and the International Court of Justice of the United Nations (UN).
d. The Syrian National Coalition is partially recognized as the sole legitimate government of the state Syrian Arab Republic.
e. Syria's seat currently occupied by the Syrian National Coalition,[4] while Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic suspended on 16 November 2011.[5][6]
f. Yemen's seat is taken by the Cabinet of Yemen (which is disputed by the Houthi Supreme Revolutionary Committee).
States with limited recognition and territories where Arabic is an official language
The following is a list of states with limited recognition as well as territories where Arabic is an official or de facto official language.
States/territories where Arabic is an official language
No.State/TerritoryPopulationNotesMember state of the Arab League
1. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic502,585Co-official language, along with SpanishNo
2. Somaliland4,500,000Co-official language, along with Somali and EnglishNo
3.
 Zanzibara
1,303,569Co-official language, along with Swahili and EnglishNo
a. A semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
Countries where Arabic is a national/working language or a recognized minority language
As of 2016, there are 7 independent countries where Arabic is a national/working language or a recognized minority language, but not primary language. The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Arabic is a national language or a recognized minority language.
Dispersion of native Arabic speakers as the majority (green) or minority (chartreuse) population
Countries where Arabic is a national/working language
or a recognized minority language
No.CountryPopulationNational/Working language
or minority language
Continent
1.
 Cyprus[note 1]
875,900Minority languageAsia, Europe
2. Eritrea6,380,803Working languageAfrica
3. Iran83,145,546Minority languageAsia
4.
 Mali
19,973,000National languageAfrica
5.
 Niger
22,314,743National languageAfrica
6.
 Senegal
16,209,125National languageAfrica
7.
 Turkey
82,003,882Minority languageAsia, Europe
Σ 7TotalΣ 230,027,000
Cyprus
See also: Languages of Cyprus
Cypriot Arabic (alongside Armenian) is one of the two recognized minority languages of Cyprus, since 2008.[7] It is spoken by the Maronite community, which is a minority in Cyprus especially in the cities Nicosia, Limassol and Larnaca.
Cypriot Arabic (also known as Cypriot Maronite Arabic) is taught at the Elementary School of St. Maron, which is located in Anthoupolis southern of Nicosia, Cyprus.[8]
Eritrea
See also: Languages of Eritrea
Eritrea no longer has official languages, but now instead has recognised national/working languages. Tigrinya, English and Arabic are the three most well known throughout the country and were the three former official languages.[9][circular reference] Eritrea is also an observe state for the Arab League due to their close relationship with Arabic and the Arab world.
Iran
See also: Languages of Iran
Arabic is a recognized minority language of Iran. In addition, the constitution recognizes the Arabic language as the language of Islam, giving it a formal status as the language of religion, and regulates its spreading within the Iranian national curriculum. After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Arabic (as the language of Quran) became mandatory for pupils in Iran. Arabic courses are mandatory starting from 6th year of schooling (1st year of Middle School) until the 11th year (penultimate year of High School).
The local dialects of Arabic spoken by Arab minorities in Iran (like Ahwazi Arabs, Khamseh Arabs, Marsh Arabs as well as Arabs in Khorasan) are Khuzestani Arabic and Mesopotamian Arabic, (also known as Iraqi Arabic) mainly in Khuzestan Province as well as Khorasani Arabic especially in Khorasan Province.
There are several TV channels in Arabic language broadcasting from Iran, namely, Al-Alam, Al-Kawthar TV, IFilm, Ahwazna TV, Al Ahwaz TV and Al Ahvaz TV. Currently, the sole newspaper in Arabic language published in Iran is Kayhan Al Arabi out of 23 Persian dailies and three English dailies newspapers in Iran.
In 2008, the public university Payame Noor University declared that Arabic will be the "second language" of the university, and that all its services will be offered in Arabic, concurrent with Persian.[10]
Mali
See also: Languages of Mali
Arabic is one of the recognized national languages in Mali. Hassaniya Arabic (a variety of Maghrebi Arabic) is spoken by a minority in Mali especially by the Azawagh Arabs (also known as nomadic Moors) nomadic ethnic Arab-ancestry tribes who are settling mainly in the area of Azawagh which is a dry basin covering what is today northwestern Niger, as well as parts of northeastern Mali and southern Algeria.[11]
Niger
See also: Languages of Niger
Arabic is one of the recognized national languages in Niger. Arabic is spoken by a minority in Niger especially by the Diffa Arabs (also known as Mahamid Arabs) an Arab nomadic tribespeople who is living in eastern Niger, mostly in the Diffa Region.
Senegal
See also: Languages of Senegal
Arabic is one of the recognized national languages in Senegal. Hassaniya Arabic is spoken by a minority in Senegal.[12]
Turkey
See also: Languages of Turkey
There is an Arab minority in Turkey who speak Arabic as their native language. Therefore, Arabic is a recognized minority language in Turkey.
Historically Arabic was the official language (in the territory which form nowadays the state of Turkey) during the time when this region was a part of the Umayyad Caliphate between 661 and 750 and later when it belonged to the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258).
The national public broadcaster of Turkey the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (also known as TRT) broadcasts TRT Al Arabiya a 24 hours a day TV channel in Arabic language (launched in April 2010).
The Arab Christian (Antiochian Greek Christians) minority has the right to teach Arabic under the Treaty of Lausanne, however they tend to refrain from doing so in order to avoid sectarian tensions as the treaty does not apply to the Muslim majority.[13]
In 2015, the Turkey’s Ministry of Education announced that as of the 2016-17 academic year, Arabic language courses (as a second language) will be offered to students in elementary school starting in second grade. The Arabic courses will be offered as an elective language course like German, French and English which are already being offered to elementary school students for a long time. According to a prepared curriculum, second and third graders will start learning the Arabic language by listening-comprehension and speaking, while introduction to writing will join these skills in fourth grade and after fifth grade students will start learning the language in all its four basic skills.[14][15]
Countries where Arabic has a special status according to the constitution
As of 2018, there are 4 independent countries where Arabic has a special status according to the constitution. The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Arabic has a special status according to the constitution.
Countries where Arabic has a special status according to the constitution
No.CountryPopulationOfficial language(s)Other recognized
language(s)
Continent
1. Iran83,145,546PersianArabic aAsia
2.
 Israel b
9,149,960HebrewArabic cAsia
3.
 Pakistan
218,396,000Urdu, EnglishArabic dAsia
4. Philippines100,981,437Filipino, EnglishArabic eAsia
Σ 4TotalΣ 411,672,943
a. ^ The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran recognizes the Arabic language as the language of Islam, giving it a formal status as the language of religion, and regulates its spreading within the Iranian national curriculum. The constitution declares in Chapter II: (The Official Language, Script, Calendar, and Flag of the Country) in Article 16 "Since the language of the Qur`an and Islamic texts and teachings is Arabic, ..., it must be taught after elementary level, in all classes of secondary school and in all areas of study."[16]
b. Out of the 193 member states of the United Nations, 162 member states currently recognize the State of Israel.
c. ^ The Basic Law: Israel as the Nation-State of the Jewish People (an Israeli Basic Law which specifies the nature of the State of Israel as the nation-state of the Jewish People) states in No. 4 (B) that "The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law." The law declares in No. 4 (C): "This clause does not harm the status given to the Arabic language before this law came into effect." The law was adopted by the Knesset 62 in favor, 55 against and two abstentions on 19 July 2018.[17]
d. ^ The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan states in Article 31 No. 2 that "The State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan (a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language ..."[18]
e. ^ The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."[19]
Iran
See also: Languages of Iran
The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran recognizes the Arabic language as the language of Islam, giving it a formal status as the language of religion, and regulates its spreading within the Iranian national curriculum. The constitution declares in Chapter II: (The Official Language, Script, Calendar, and Flag of the Country) in Article 16 "Since the language of the Qur`an and Islamic texts and teachings is Arabic, ..., it must be taught after elementary level, in all classes of secondary school and in all areas of study."[20]
Israel
See also: Languages of Israel
Arabic was an official language of Mandatory Palestine and was retained as an official language when the State of Israel was founded in 1948. In 2018, the Knesset upgraded the status of Hebrew from official to State language of Israel, and gave Arabic a special status in the State by adopting the relevant Basic Law. The Basic Law: Israel as the Nation-State of the Jewish People (an Israeli Basic Law which specifies the nature of the State of Israel as the nation-state of the Jewish People) states in No. 4 (B) that "The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law." The law declares in No. 4 (C): "This clause does not harm the status given to the Arabic language before this law came into effect." The law was adopted by the Knesset 62 in favor, 55 against and two abstentions on 19 July 2018.[17]
Arabic is an indigenous language in the territory which form nowadays the state of Israel and which is still the lingua franca of Arab citizens of Israel as well as of Arab foreigners (especially Palestinians who have only a Palestinian Authority passport, not recognized by many countries. Thus, they consider Palestinians stateless). In addition, Arabic is spoken by Arab Jews in Israel who immigrated from different Arab countries to Israel (as Aliyah) and got the Israeli citizenship according to the Israeli Nationality Law of 1952.
Arabic name is shown on some Arabic majority cities seal.
It is semi-official and used in ethnically mixed cities including Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv-Yafo, as well as on most highway signage, official websites, and public buildings in areas with significant Arabic-speaking populations.
Pakistan
See also: Languages of Pakistan
Historically Arabic was the official language (in the territory which form nowadays the state Islamic Republic of Pakistan) during the time when this region was a part of the Umayyad Caliphate between 651 and 750.
According to the Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 the two languages Urdu (which is very close to Hindi, both also called Hindustani language which were two of the lingua franca of North India and Pakistan that time[21][22]) as well as Bengali (at that time the lingua franca in the territory which is today the independent state Bangladesh) became the national languages in the new founded state Islamic Republic of Pakistan. General Ayub Khan the second President of Pakistan advocated the institution of Arabic language teaching as part of national planning.[23] "Ayub`s educational plan emphasized Urdu and English as the primary language of Pakistan, but additionally recommended that Arabic be a secondary language of instruction along with English."[24]
The Arabic language is mentioned in the constitution of Pakistan. It declares in article 31 No. 2 that "The State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan (a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language ..."[25]
There is also an Arab minority in Pakistan. In addition, a remarkable number of Pakistanis are able to speak Arabic as they were living in the rich GCC Countries for working reasons (in Saudi Arabia around 2.5 million; in UAE around 1.5 million; in Qatar around 650,000; in Kuwait around 430,000; in Oman around 300,000; in Bahrain around 180,000) for a very long time. These overseas Pakistanis who are living in countries of the Arab world are also named Arab Pakistanis or Pakistani Arabs.
The National Education Policy 2017 declares in article 3.7.4 that: “Arabic as compulsory part will be integrated in Islamiyat from Middle to Higher Secondary level to enable the students to understand the Holy Quran.“ Furthermore, it specifies in article 3.7.6: “Arabic as elective subject shall be offered properly at Secondary and Higher Secondary level with Arabic literature and grammar in its course to enable the learners to have command in the language.“ This law is also valid for private schools as it defines in article 3.7.12: “The curriculum in Islamiyat, Arabic and Moral Education of public sector will be adopted by the private institutions to make uniformity in the society.[26]
In 2021, Pakistan’s upper house of parliament approved the ‘Compulsory Teaching of the Arabic Language Bill 2020’ which makes the teaching of Arabic mandatory at all primary and secondary schools in the capital, Islamabad.[27] The text of the bill says that Arabic should be taught from the first to the fifth grade and Arabic grammar should be taught from the sixth grade to the eleventh grade.[28][29] The main reasons are Arabic would open up more job opportunities for Pakistanis in the Middle East and lead to lower unemployment and increased remittances[30] as well as Arabic is the language of the Quran. Making it compulsory at school level will help to improve the understanding of the Holy Quran in its true spirit.[31]
Philippines
See also: Languages of the Philippines
The Arabic language is mentioned in the Philippine constitution of 1986. It specifies that "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."[19]
Arabic is mainly used by some Filipino Muslims in both a liturgical and instructional capacity since the arrival of Islam and establishment of several Sultanates (like Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu and Sultanate of Ranaw) and during Bruneian Empire in the present-day state Philippines. Along with Malay, Arabic was the lingua franca of the Malay Archipelago among Muslim traders and the Malay aristocracy in the history. Arabic is taught for free and is promoted in some Islamic centres predominantly in the southernmost parts of Philippines.
Non-sovereign entities and territories where Arabic is an official or de facto official language
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The following is a list of non-sovereign entities and autonomous regions as well as territories where Arabic is an official or de facto official language.
Non-sovereign entities and territories where Arabic is an official or de facto official language
No.Non-sovereign entity/TerritoryPopulationNotesContinent
1. Azawad,
Arab Movement of Azawad
1,300,000Co-official language, along with TuaregAfrica
2. Galmudug1,230,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
3.Hirshabelle1,800,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
4.
 Iraqi Kurdistan
5,300,000Co-official language, along with KurdishAsia
5.
 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
4,800,000Official languageAsia
6.
 Jubaland
1,000,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
7. Khatumo2,000,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
8.
 Puntland
1,285,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
9.
 Rojava (also called Democratic Federation of Northern Syria)
4,600,000Co-official language, along with Kurdish and SyriacAsia
10.
South West State of Somalia
2,000,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
11.
 Syrian opposition a
3,500,000Official languageAsia
Σ 11TotalΣ 28,835,000
a. The Syrian National Coalition is partially recognized as the sole legitimate government of the state Syrian Arab Republic.
History
Main article: Arab world § History
Umayyad Caliphate
The expansion of the first Caliphates:
  Expansion under Islamic prophet Muhammad,
622–632 AD/ 1-11 AH
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate,
632–661 AD/ 11-40 AH
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate,
661–750 AD/ 40-129 AH
Expansion of the Omani Empire: 1696–1856 AD
The Muslim conquests (Arabic: الفتوحات الإسلامية‎‎, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) and the following Expansion of Islam (Arabic: انتشار الإسلام‎‎, Intishar al-Islām) led to the expansion of the Arabic language in Northern Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, the Caucasus, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. Along with the religion of Islam, the Arabic language, Arabic number system and Arab customs spread throughout the entire Arab caliphate. The caliphs of the Arab dynasty established the first schools inside the empire which taught Arabic language and Islamic studies for all pupils in all areas within the caliphate. The result was (in those areas which belonged to the Arab empire) the creation of the society that was mostly Arabic-speaking because of the assimilation of native inhabitants.
During the period of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), the 5th Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik (646–705) established Arabic instead of the local languages as the sole official state language of government across the entire caliphate.[32]
Abbasid Caliphate
While the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) originally gained power by exploiting the social inequalities against non-Arabs in the Umayyad Empire, during Abbasid rule the empire rapidly was Arabized. As knowledge was shared in the Arabic language throughout the empire, people of different nationalities and religions began gradually to speak Arabic in their everyday lives. Resources from other languages began to be translated into Arabic, and a unique Islamic identity began to form that fused previous cultures with Arab culture, creating a level of civilization and knowledge that was considered a marvel in Europe and the Western world.[33]
Fatimid Caliphate
The Arabic language remained the lingua franca of high culture under the Fatimids (909–1171), Spanish Umayyads (856–1031) in the Iberian Peninsula, and later Muslim dynasties in North Africa and Spain and of the Mamluks (1250–1517) in Egypt and Syria-Palestine.[34]
Al-Andalus
In the history, Andalusian Arabic was the official language in Spain and Portugal, formerly Al-Andalus for more than 700 years until the fall of the last Islamic state in Iberia at Granada in 1492.
Italy and Malta
Siculo-Arabic (or Sicilian Arabic) was a spoken language on the islands of Sicily and neighbouring Malta (at that time Emirate of Sicily (831–1091)) between the end of the ninth century and the end of the twelfth century.
Greece
A form of Arabic was spoken on the Mediterranean island of Crete (Emirate of Crete) from the late 820s (c. 824 or 827/828) until the Byzantine reconquest in 961.
Omani Empire
Arabic was the official language of the Omani Empire (1696–1856). Several Arabic dialects and languages were the lingua francas in the different areas of this emipre, like Omani Arabic, Yemeni Arabic, Persian, Balochi and Swahili.
South Sudan
Arabic (alongside English) was an official language in South Sudan from 1863 (these days a part of Egypt Eyalet (1517–1867)) until 2011 (that time the independent state Republic of South Sudan), when the former government canceled Arabic as an official language. Since 2011 English is the sole official language of South Sudan. The Arabic dialect Juba Arabic is still the lingua franca of the people in South Sudan.
The Gambia
In 2014, Gambian president Yahya Jammeh announced that The Gambia would drop English as the official language because it is a "colonial relic".[35][36] He replaced Gambia’s official language English with Arabic in 2014.[37] However, such change was not enacted.
Israel
The Arabic language (alongside Hebrew) also remained as an official language in the State of Israel for the first 70 years after the proclamation in 1948 until 2018. The Knesset canceled the status of Arabic as an official language by adopting the relevant Basic Law: Israel as the Nation-State of the Jewish People on 19 July 2018. This Israeli Basic Law states in No. 4 (A) that "The state’s language is Hebrew."[17]
Territories where Arabic was an official or de facto official language and later replaced or repealed
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There were several territories (which later became independent states) where Arabic was an official or de facto official language and where it has been replaced by other languages or repealed. The following is a list of territories (which later became independent states) where Arabic was an official or de facto official language in the history.
Territories where Arabic was an official or de facto official language and later replaced or repealed
No.Current countryCurrent
official language(s)
Current
spoken language(s)
Historically
belonged to
Historical
official language(s)
Historical
spoken language(s)
Time
period
Continent
1
 Afghanistan
Pashto, DariPashto, Dari, various othersUmayyad CaliphateArabicPashto, Dari, Uzbek, Turkmen, Central Asian Arabic661-750Asia
2 ArmeniaArmenianArmenian, various othersUmayyad CaliphateArabicArabic, Armenian661-750Asia
3 AzerbaijanAzeriAzeri, various othersUmayyad CaliphateArabicArabic, Azeri661-750Asia
4
 Cyprus
Greek, Co-official language, along with TurkishGreek, Turkish, various othersUmayyad CaliphateArabicSiculo-Arabic661-750Asia
5
 France
FrenchFrenchNarbonne and a part of Septimania belonged to the Umayyad CaliphateArabic in the part of France which belonged to the Umayyad CaliphateFrankish, Latin, Vulgar Latin (Gallo-Roman), Gaulish, Arabic719-759Europe
6
 Georgia
GeorgianGeorgianUmayyad CaliphateArabicArabic, Georgian661-750Asia
7
 Greece
GreekGreekEmirate of CreteArabicArabic, Greek, various others824-961Europe
8 IranPersianPersianUmayyad CaliphateArabicArabic, Persian661-750Asia
9
 Israel
HebrewHebrew, Arabic, English, Russian, various othersRashidun Caliphate, several other Muslim dynastiesArabicArabic, Hebrew636-2018Asia
10
 Sicily[note 2]
ItalianItalian, various othersEmirate of SicilyArabicSiculo-Arabic, Byzantine Greek, Vulgar Latin831-1091Europe
11
 Kenya
Swahili, Co-official language, along with EnglishSwahili, various othersOmani EmpireArabicOmani Arabic, Yemeni Arabic, Swahili1696-1856Africa
12 KyrgyzstanKyrgyzKyrgyz, UzbekUmayyad CaliphateArabicCentral Asian Arabic, Kyrgyz651-750Asia
13
 Malta
Maltese, Co-official language, along with EnglishMaltese, English, various othersEmirate of SicilyArabicSiculo-Arabic, Byzantine Greek, Vulgar Latin831-1091Europe
14
 Niger
FrenchArabic, Hausa, Zarma, various othersSokoto CaliphateArabicClassical Arabic, Hausa, Zarma1804-1908Africa
15 NigeriaEnglishEnglishSokoto CaliphateArabicClassical Arabic, Hausa, Fula1804-1908Africa
16
 Pakistan
Urdu, Co-official language, along with EnglishUrdu, various othersUmayyad CaliphateArabicUrdu, Central Asian Arabic661-750Asia
17
 Portugal
PortuguesePortuguese, various othersUmayyad CaliphateArabicAndalusian Arabic, Mozarabic, Medieval Hebrew711-1139Europe
18
 Spain
SpanishSpanish, various othersUmayyad CaliphateArabicAndalusian Arabic, Mozarabic, Medieval Hebrew711-1492Europe
19 South SudanEnglishJuba Arabic, various othersEgypt EyaletArabicJuba Arabic1863-2011Africa
20 TajikistanTajikTajikUmayyad CaliphateArabicCentral Asian Arabic, Tajik661-750Asia
21
 Tanzania
Swahili, Co-official language, along with English, Arabic in ZanzibarSwahili, various others; Omani Arabic in ZanzibarOmani EmpireArabicSwahili, Omani Arabic, Yemeni Arabic1696-1856Africa
22
 Turkey
TurkishTurkish, various othersUmayyad CaliphateArabicNorth Mesopotamian Arabic661-750Asia
23
 Turkmenistan
TurkmenTurkmenUmayyad CaliphateArabicCentral Asian Arabic, Turkmen661-750Asia
24 UzbekistanUzbekUzbekUmayyad CaliphateArabicCentral Asian Arabic, Uzbek661-750Asia
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Geographically a part of Asia, but geopolitically a part of Europe.
  2. ^ A part of
     Italy.
References
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  2. ^ Robert D Hoberman (2007). Morphologies of Asia and Africa, Alan S. Kaye (Ed.), Chapter 13: Maltese Morphology. Eisenbrown. ISBN 9781575061092. Maltese is the chief exception: Classical or Standard Arabic is irrelevant in the Maltese linguistic community and there is no diglossia.
  3. ^ "UAE Population Statistics".
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  7. ^ "Implementation of the Charter in Cyprus". Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research. Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  8. ^ Maronite Community of Cyprus: St Maron Elementary School, 11 December 2013, Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  9. ^ "Eritrea".
  10. ^ عربی دومین زبان دانشگاه پیام نور شد (in Persian). Radiozamaaneh.com. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  11. ^ Paris (1995): p. 250.
  12. ^ Ethnologue: Ethnologue Languages of the World – Senegal - Languages, Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  13. ^ For reasons out of our hands: A Community identifies the causes of language shift – Cultural Survival, June 2001, Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  14. ^ Al-Monitor: Turks divided over plans to introduce Arabic-language teaching, 2 November 2015, Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  15. ^ Hürriyet Daily News: Arabic to be offered as second language in Turkish elementary schools, 23 October 2015, Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  16. ^ Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran: Iran (Islamic Republic of)`s Constitution of 1979. - Article: 16 Official or national languages, 1979, retrieved 25 July 2018
  17. ^ a b c "Full text of Basic Law: Israel as the Nation State of the Jewish People". The Knesset: Press Releases. State of Israel. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
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  19. ^ a b Joselito Guianan Chan; Managing Partner. "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article XIV, Section 7". Chan Robles & Associates Law Firm. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
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Official languages by country
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List of countries where arab is official language with pictures and flags
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 15:38
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