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List of language regulators
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism and prestige, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also have a more descriptive approach, however, while maintaining and promoting (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate and codify the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors (see also: pluricentric language).
Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere, outside of private productions such as the Oxford Dictionary.
Natural languages
LanguageTerritoryRegulator(s)
Amis
 Republic of China
Council of Indigenous Peoples
Afrikaans
 South Africa
 Namibia
Die Taalkommissie (The Language Commission)
Akan
 Ghana
Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian
 Albania
 Kosovo
Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana
Arabic
 Arab League
Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Arabic Language International Council
 Algeria
Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria
 Egypt
Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo
 Iraq
Iraqi Academy of Sciences
 JordanJordan Academy of Arabic
 LibyaAcademy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
 Morocco
Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco
 Saudi Arabia
Academy of the Arabic Language in Riyadh
 Somalia
Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu
 SudanAcademy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
 Syria
Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus
 Tunisia
Beit Al-Hikma Foundation
 Israel
 Palestine
Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Aragonese
 Aragon
Academia de l'Aragonés (Academy of the Aragonese)
Armenian ArmeniaArmenian National Academy of Sciences (Հայաստան)
Assamese
Assam
Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturian
 Asturias
Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azerbaijani Azerbaijan
 Iran
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyası)
BasqueBasque Country
Navarre
French Basque Country
Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language
Belarusian BelarusThe Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Bengali (Bangla) BangladeshBangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি)
 India
Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Berber
 Morocco
Royal Institute of Amazight Culture
 Algeria
Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité
Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language
Central Bikol PhilippinesAcademia Bicolana defunct
Bosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sandžak
University of Sarajevo
Bulgarian BulgariaInstitute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Burmese
 Myanmar
Myanmar Language Commission
Catalan
 Catalonia
Institute for Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
 Valencian Community
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Language Academy)
Cebuano PhilippinesVisayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)
Cherokee Cherokee NationCouncil of the Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ)[3]
Standard Chinese
 China
State Language Work Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)
 Republic of China
National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
 Singapore
Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
 MalaysiaChinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish
 Cornwall
Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian CroatiaInstitute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech
 Czech Republic
Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky))
Danish
 Denmark
Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
DalecarlianDalarna CountyUlum Dalska
Divehi
 Maldives
Dhivehi Academy
Dutch
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Suriname
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha
 Bhutan
Dzongkha Development Commission (​རྫོང་ཁ་གོང་འཕེལ་ལྷན་ཚོགས​)
EnglishNone official, but the Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language.
Estonian
 Estonia
Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese
 Faroe Islands
Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)
Filipino PhilippinesCommission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)
Finnish FinlandInstitute for the Languages of Finland
French
 France
Académie française (French Academy)
General Delegation for the French language and the languages of France (Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France)
 Belgium
Académie royale de langue et de littérature françaises de Belgique (Royal Academy of French Language and Literature of Belgium)
 Quebec
Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician
 Galicia
Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega)
German Germany
 Austria
  Switzerland
 South Tyrol
 Belgium
 Liechtenstein
 Namibia
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenlandic
 Greenland
The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Greek
 Greece
 Cyprus
Center for the Greek Language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Guarani ParaguayGuarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe’ ẽ Rerekuapavẽ)
Gujarati
 India
Gujarat Sahitya Akademi (ગુજરાત સાહિત્ય અકાદમી)
Hakka
 Republic of China
Hakka Affairs Council (客家委員會)
Haitian Creole HaitiAkademi Kreyòl Ayisyen (Haitian Creole Academy)
Hebrew
 Israel
Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi
 India
Central Hindi Directorate (केन्द्रीय हिन्दी निदेशालय)
Hmar
 India
Hmar Literature Society[citation needed]
Hungarian HungaryResearch Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic
 Iceland
Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo NigeriaSociety for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian
 Indonesia
Language and Book Development Agency (Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan)
Irish Ireland
 Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge (Irish Institute)
Italian
 Italy
 San Marino
  Switzerland
  Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese
 Japan
National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (国立国語研究所)
Kannada
Karnataka
Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian PolandCommission of the Kashubian Language [1]
Kazakh KazakhstanMinistry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Khmer
 Cambodia
Royal Academy of Cambodia (រាជបណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា)
Korean
 South Korea
National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원/國立國語院)
 North KoreaThe Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science (사회과학원 어학연구소)
 China
China Korean Language Regulatory Commission (중국조선어규범위원회/中国朝鲜语规范委员会)
Kven
 Norway
Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt
Kurdish
 Kurdistan
Kurdish Academy (ئەکادیمیای کوردی)
Kyrgyz KyrgyzstanNational Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Latin
  Holy See
Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (ecclesiastical Latin)[4]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian LatviaLatvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian LithuaniaCommission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga
 Uganda
Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Luxembourgish LuxembourgCouncil for the Luxembourgish Language (Conseil fir d'Letzebuerger Sprooch)
Macedonian North MacedoniaLinguistics and Literary Science Department at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Malagasy
 Madagascar
Foibe momba ny teny at the Akademia Malagasy (​http://www.tenymalagasy.gov.mg/​)
Malay MalaysiaDewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
 BruneiDewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei (Language and Literature Bureau)
 Singapore
Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (Malay Language Council, Singapore)
Malayalam
 India
Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ അക്കാദമി)
Maltese
 Malta
National Council for the Maltese Language (www.kunsilltalmalti.gov.mt)
Manx Isle of ManCoonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori New ZealandMāori Language Commission
Mirandese
 Portugal
Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec MexicoAcademy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Khalkha Mongolian MongoliaCouncil of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[5]
Chakhar Mongolian
 China
Council for Language and Literature Work
Nepali
   Nepal
Nepal Academy (नेपाल प्रज्ञा–प्रतिष्ठान)
Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål)
 Norway
Norwegian Academy
Norwegian Bokmål
Norwegian Nynorsk
Norwegian Language Council
Occitan
 Occitania
 France
 Spain
 Monaco
 Italy
Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language)[6]
Institut d'Estudis Aranesi (Aranese)[7]
Conselh de la Lenga Occitana
Odia
 India
Odisha Sahitya Akademi (ଓଡ଼ିଶା ସାହିତ୍ୟ ଏକାଡେମୀ)
Pashto
 Afghanistan
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
 Pakistan
Pashto Academy
Persian IranAcademy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی‎)
 Afghanistan
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
 Tajikistan
 Uzbekistan
Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature
Paiwan
 Republic of China
Council of Indigenous Peoples
Polish PolandPolish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego), of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Portuguese
 Portugal
Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
 Brazil
Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
 Galicia
Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Lingua Portuguesa)
Quechua
 Peru
High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Rohingya
Arakan (Rakhine State)
Rohingya Language Academy (𐴌𐴟𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴚𐴒𐴙𐴝 𐴎𐴟𐴁𐴝𐴕 𐴀𐴠𐴑𐴝𐴋𐴠𐴔𐴞)
Romanian
 Romania
Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
 MoldovaAcademia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Romansh
  Switzerland
Lia Rumantscha
Russian
 Russia
Russian Language Institute (Институт русского языка)
Scots ScotlandScots Language Centre (Center for the Scots Leid)
Scottish Gaelic ScotlandBòrd na Gàidhlig (The Gaelic Board)
Secwepemctsín CanadaSecwepemc Cultural Education Society
Serbian and Montenegrin
 Serbia
 Montenegro
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi
 Pakistan
Sindhi Language Authority [2]
Sinhala Sri LankaHela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak
 Slovakia
Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene SloveniaSlovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali
 Djibouti
 Ethiopia
 Somalia
Regional Somali Language Academy
Sorbian Germany
 Czech Republic
 Poland
Serbski institut [3]
Spanish
 Spain
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Mexico
 El Salvador
 Venezuela
 Chile
 Peru
 Guatemala
 Costa Rica
 Philippines
 Panama
 Cuba
 Paraguay
 Bolivia
 Dominican Republic
 Nicaragua
 Argentina
 Uruguay
 Honduras
 Puerto Rico
 United States
 Equatorial Guinea
 Israel
Association of Spanish Language Academies (constituted by the Royal Spanish Academy plus 23 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world and an Israel-based committee for Judaeo-Spanish.)
Swahili
 Tanzania
Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
 Kenya
Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish SwedenSwedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
 FinlandSwedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil
 India
Thanjavur Tamil University and Official Language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
 Sri LankaDepartment of Official Languages, Sri Lanka
 Singapore
Tamil Language Council, Singapore
 MalaysiaMalaysia Tamil Language Standardisation Council (மலேசியத் தமிழ் மொழியின் காப்பகம்)
Taiwanese Hokkien
 Republic of China
Ministry of Education (Taiwan)
Tatar TatarstanInstitute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan [4]
Telugu
 India
Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum East TimorNational Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai
 Thailand
Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา)
Tibetan
Tibet Autonomous Region
Committee for Tibetan Language Affairs [5]
 India
Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language
Tulu
 India
Karnataka Tulu Sahitya Academy
Turkish
 Turkey
 Cyprus
 Northern Cyprus
Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian
 Ukraine
NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language
Urdu
 Pakistan
National Language Promotion Department (اِدارۀ فروغِ قومی زُبان)
 India
National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (قومی کونسل برائے فروغ اردو زبان)
Urhobo NigeriaUrhobo Studies Association
Vietnamese
 Vietnam
Institute of Linguistics of Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences
Võro
 Estonia
Võro Institute
Waray PhilippinesSanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh WalesWelsh Language Commissioner (Aled Roberts)
West Frisian
 Friesland
Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof
 Senegal
Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish United States
 Sweden
 Russia
YIVO[8] (Note that YIVO does not regulate or hold any sway over the Yiddish used in Ultra-Orthodox circles where the Yiddish language is most used in current times. The orthography and pronunciation of Yiddish in the Ultra-Orthodox communities is dramatically different from the standardized version of Yiddish devised by YIVO. A prime example of this is the spelling of the name for the Yiddish language in Yiddish itself. YIVO promotes the spelling "ייִדיש", while the spelling "אידיש" is more commonly used in most Ultra-Orthodox contexts.)
Yoruba NigeriaYoruba Academy
Auxiliary languages
Esperanto
See also: International auxiliary languages
Apart from the Akademio de Esperanto, most auxiliary languages, also known as constructed languages (Conlangs) have no true linguistic regulators, language academies.[9]
Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution.
Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.
LanguageRegulator(s)
EsperantoAkademio de Esperanto
IdoUniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Lingua Franca NovaAsosia per Lingua Franca Nova
LojbanLogical Language Group
VolapükKadäm Volapüka
Other constructed languages
Language
Regulator(s)
KlingonMarc Okrand
TalossanComità per l'Útzil del Glheþ
Interlingua
The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua "Interlingua doesn't need its Academy".[9]
Other bodies
These bodies do not attempt to regulate any language in a prescriptive manner and are primarily concerned with aiding and advising the government on policies regarding language usage.
See also
References
  1. ^
    Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:
    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian
  2. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ...
  3. ^ Council of the Cherokee Nation
  4. ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis" (in Latin). Vatican.va. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  5. ^ "Хуулийн нэгдсэн портал сайт". Legalinfo.mn (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Lo Congrès". locongres.org. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Reconeishença der Institut d'Estudis Aranesi coma academia e autoritat lingüistica der occitan, aranés en Aran - Conselh Generau d'Aran". conselharan.org.
  8. ^ "YIVO Institute". Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  9. ^ a b Johan Derks, Prilingvaj institutoj de 18 naciaj lingvoj (Language Institutes of eighteen states), Interlingvistikaj Studoj, UAM, 2014/17, Esperanta Interlingvistiko 1
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 15:20
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