On 28 March 2011, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
introduced the Political Party Law, which eases restrictions on the legal establishment of new political parties in Egypt. The legislation has still however been criticized as discriminatory. Under the law new parties are now required to have at least 5,000 members from at least ten of Egypt's provinces
. Originally, new parties were only required to have 1,000 members. This was cited as a barrier for new parties before parliamentary elections
which took place at the end of 2011 and beginning of 2012.
Also, new party leaders are required to raise at least LE
1 million to publish the names of the founding members in two widely circulated dailies
, seen as favoring wealthier interests.
Also, no parties are able to form on the basis of religion
, ruling out the formation of Islamic
However, in practice, religious parties have been allowed. After first being denied a license by the political parties commission,
the Supreme Administrative Court allowed Gamaa Islamiya
to form the Building and Development Party
The political parties commission allowed the Al Nour Party to be approved in May 2011, in part because it does not refer to the hudud
in their electoral program.
An article on the Daily News Egypt website states that religious parties have gone around the ban by not explicitly advocating a state based on Islam in their political programs.
The 2014 Egyptian constitution
bans parties based on religious grounds,
though a similar law that was previously in effect did not bar Islamists from running in the 2012 presidential election
or the 2011–12 parliamentary elections
Egyptian politics are subject to unique circumstances and often defy simple classification in terms of the political spectrum
. Currently, over 100 registered political parties in Egypt exist.
Groups are sometimes associated with the political left
, especially in international circles, according to their stance on issues. While the current Egyptian constitution
prohibits the formation of political parties based on religion, there are parties that seek to establish Islamic sharia
laws, or uphold the article in the constitution that states that sharia law is the main source of legislation, and others that support the formation of a secular
state. The following is a categorization of political parties based on their social, economical, and political orientation, as well as their legal status: