List of religions and spiritual traditions
Further information: Major religious groups, Religious denomination, and History of religion
This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
While the word religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion used in religious studies courses defines it as a
Religious symbols in clock-wise order from top: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Baháʼí Faith, Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Slavic neopaganism, Celtic polytheism, Heathenism (Germanic paganism), Semitic neopaganism, Wicca, Kemetism (Egyptian paganism), Hellenism (Greek paganism), Italo-Roman neopaganism.
[…] system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic.[1]
Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions, churches, denominations, religious bodies, faith groups, tribes, cultures, movements, ultimate concerns, which at some point in the future will be countless.[2]
The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with the words "faith" or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviours, including clerical hierarchies, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, congregations of laity, regular meetings or services for the purposes of veneration of a deity or for prayer, holy places (either natural or architectural) or religious texts. Certain religions also have a sacred language often used in liturgical services. The practice of a religion may also include sermons, commemoration of the activities of a God or gods, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trance, rituals, rites, ceremonies, worship, initiations, funerals, marriages, meditation, invocation, mediumship, music, art, dance, public service or other aspects of human culture. Religious beliefs have also been used to explain parapsychological​phenomena such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences and reincarnation, along with many other paranormal and supernatural experiences.[3][4]
Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths.[5] One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings,[6] and thus believes that religion, as a concept, has been applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures that are not based upon such systems, or in which these systems are a substantially simpler construct.
Eastern religions
Main article: Eastern religions
East Asian religions
Main article: East Asian religions
See also: Three teachings
Religions that originated in East Asia, also known as Taoic religions; namely Taoism, Confucianism, Shenism and Shintoism, and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them.
Main article: Confucianism
See also: Confucian ritual religion
Confucian churches
Confucian philosophy schools
Main article: Shinto
See also: Shinto sects and schools
Main article: Taoism
Main article: Religion in China
Main article: Religion in Japan
Main article: Religion in Korea
Main article: Religion in Vietnam
Indian religions
Main article: Indian religions
The three main religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them.
Main article: Buddhism
See also: Schools of Buddhism
Main article: Buddhist modernism
Main article: Hinduism
Further information: Hindu denominations
Bhakti movements
Main articles: Bhakti movement and Contemporary Sant Mat movements
Sant Mat[11]
Hindu philosophy schools
Main article: Hindu philosophy
Main article: Yoga
Neo Vedanta Movements
Main article: Jainism
Main articles: Sikhism and Sects of Sikhism
Middle Eastern religions
Main article: Religion in the Middle East
Religions that originated in the Middle East; namely Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them.
Abrahamic religions
Main article: Abrahamic religions
Main article: Bábism
See also: Baháʼí divisions
Main article: Christianity
See also: List of Christian denominations
Eastern Christianity
Main article: Eastern Christianity
Western Christianity
Main article: Western Christianity
See also: Gnosticism and Christian mysticism
Certain Christian groups are difficult to classify as "Eastern" or "Western." Many Gnostic groups were closely related to early Christianity, for example, Valentinism. Irenaeus wrote polemics against them from the standpoint of the then-unified Catholic Church.[16]
Main article: Druze
Main article: Islam
See also: Islamic schools and branches, Ilm al-Kalam, Ahl al-Hadith, and Islamism
Main article: Khawarij
Shia Islam
Main article: Shia Islam
Main articles: Sufism and Islamic Mysticism
See also: List of Sufi orders
Sunni Islam
Main article: Sunni Islam
Main articles: Judaism and Jewish religious movements
Main articles: Kabbalah and Jewish mysticism
Non-Rabbinic Judaism
Rabbinic Judaism
Main article: Rabbinic Judaism
Historical Judaism
Main article: Mandaeism
New Age
Main article: New Age
Iranian religions
Main articles: Iranian religions and Religion in Iran
Main article: Yazdânism
Main article: Zoroastrianism
Indigenous (ethnic, folk) religions
Main articles: Ethnic religion and Folk religion
See also: Paganism, Animism, Totemism, and Shamanism
Religions that consist of the traditional customs and beliefs of particular ethnic groups, refined and expanded upon for thousands of years, often lacking formal doctrine.
Note: Some adherents do not consider their ways to be "religion," preferring other cultural terms.
Main article: Religion in Africa
Traditional African
Main article: Traditional African religions
Diasporic African
Main article: Afro-American religion
See also: List of Tengrist movements
Main article: Native American religion
Tai and Miao
Main articles: Tai folk religion and Miao folk religion
Other indigenous
New religious movements
Main article: New religious movement
See also: List of new religious movements
Religions that cannot be classed as either world religions or traditional folk religions, and are usually recent in their inception.
Cargo cults
Main article: Cargo cults
New ethnic religions
See also: Ethnic religion
Main article: Rastafari
Black Hebrew Israelites
Main article: Black Hebrew Israelites
Native American
New Hindu derived religions
Japanese new religions
Main article: Japanese new religions
Modern Paganism
Main article: Modern Paganism
See also: List of Neopagan movements
Ethnic neopaganism
See also: Polytheistic reconstructionism and European Congress of Ethnic Religions
Syncretic neopaganism
Entheogenic religions
Main article: Entheogen
New Age Movement
Main article: New Age
New Thought
Main article: New Thought
Parody religions and fiction-based religions
Main article: Parody religion
Post-theistic and naturalistic religions
Main articles: Post-theism and Religious naturalism
UFO religions
Main article: UFO religions
Western esotericism
Main article: Western esotericism
See also: Left-hand path and right-hand path, Occult, and Magick (Thelema)
Other new
Historical religions
Main article: History of religion
Bronze Age
Classical antiquity
Other historical
Din-i Ilahi
Other categorisations
The Eeshan Religion and Church of Metta Spirituality & School of Enlightenment [18]
By demographics
Main article: Religious demographics
List of religious populations
By area
Further information: Religion geography
See also
  1. ^ (Clifford Geertz, Religion as a Cultural System, 1973)
  2. ^ "World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  3. ^ http://www.parapsych.org/base/about.aspx
  4. ^ "Key Facts about Near-Death Experiences". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  5. ^ Harvey, Graham (2000). Indigenous Religions: A Companion. (Ed: Graham Harvey). London and New York: Cassell. Page 06.
  6. ^ Vergote, Antoine, Religion, belief and unbelief: a psychological study, Leuven University Press, 1997, p. 89
  7. ^ Melton 2003, p. 1112.
  8. ^ a b c Tattwananda, Swami (1984). Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship (1st rev. ed.). Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd.
  9. ^ Dandekar, R. N. (1987). "Vaiṣṇavism: An Overview". In Eliade, Mircea (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. 14. New York: MacMillan.
  10. ^ Melton 2003, p. 997.
  11. ^ Lorenzen, David N. (1995). Bhakti Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-2025-6.
  12. ^ Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli. Vol. 1-2. Indian Philosophy (1923) Vol. 1, 738 p. (1927) Vol. 2, 807 p. Oxford University Press.
  13. ^ Melton 2003, p. 1001.
  14. ^ Melton 2003, p. 1004.
  15. ^ a b "Welcome to Jainworld – Jain Sects – tirthankaras, jina, sadhus, sadhvis, 24 tirthankaras, digambara sect, svetambar sect, Shraman Dharma, Nirgranth Dharma". Jainworld.com. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  16. ^ "Irenaeus of Lyons". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  17. ^ Laycock, Joseph P. Reitman (2012). "We Are Spirits of Another Sort". Nova Religio. 15 (3): 65–90. doi​:​10.1525/nr.2012.15.3.65​. JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2012.15.3.65.
  18. ^ "Eeshan Religion and Church of Metta Spirituality and School of Enlightenment". The Eeshan Religion. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
External links
Wikiversity has learning resources about Beyond Theism
Last edited on 20 June 2021, at 23:06
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