Replacement of loanwords in Turkish
  (Redirected from List of replaced loanwords in Turkish)
The replacing of loanwords in Turkish is part of a policy of Turkification of Atatürk. The Ottoman Turkish language had many loanwords from Arabic and Persian, but also European languages such as French, Greek, and Italian origin—which were officially replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu, TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms—in the broader framework of Atatürk's Reforms—following the foundation of Republic of Turkey.
The TDK, established by Atatürk in 1932 to research the Turkish language, also sought to replace foreign loanwords (mainly Arabic) with their Turkish counterparts. The Association succeeded in removing several hundred Arabic words from the language. While most of the words introduced into the language in this process were newly derived from existing Turkish verbal roots, TDK also suggested using old Turkish words which had not been used in the language for centuries; like yanıt, birey, gözgü. Most of these words are used today widely while their predecessors are not used in daily language anymore. Some words were used before language reform too but they were used much less than the Persian ones. Some words were taken from rural areas but most of them had different meanings, like ürün. Mongolian also played an important role too, because Mongolian preserved the old Turkic borrowings, such as ulus and çağ.
There are generational differences in vocabulary preference. While those born before the 1940s tend to use the old Arabic-origin words (even the obsolete ones), younger generations commonly use the newer expressions. Some new words have not been widely adopted, in part because they failed to convey the intrinsic meanings of their old equivalents. Many new words have taken up somewhat different meanings, and cannot necessarily be used interchangeably with their old counterpart.
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary, which contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin
Many of the loanwords (especially the Arabic, Persian and French ones) are still widely used today, though decreasing in tendency.
Connotations and implications of word choice
Historically, Arabic was the language of the mosque and Persian was the language of education and poetry. Its deliberate usage (eschewing the usage of a "western" word) often implies romanticism or a religious subtext, respectively. Similarly, the use of European words may be favored to impart a perceived "modern" character. The use of "pure Turkic" words may be employed as an expression of nationalism or as a linguistic "simplification".
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary
The 2005 edition of Güncel Türkçe Sözlük, the official dictionary of the Turkish language published by Turkish Language Association, contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin.[1] Among the most significant foreign contributors to Turkish vocabulary are Arabic, Persian, French, Italian, English, and Greek.[2]
Word derivations
Most of the new Turkish words are derived from other words with thematic suffixes. For example:
bat- is the root of the verb batmak, which means "to sink" or "to set". The derived word batı means "west" or the cardinal direction in which the sun "sinks". Another example would be aylık, which means "salary" as well as monthly. This is derived from the word ay, which means "moon, month".
Here are some other examples of derivations:
Some of the Turkish words are also compound words, such as:
For more information, see the related article: Turkish vocabulary.
Lists of replaced loanwords
Loanwords of Arabic origin
The list gives the Ottoman Turkish word, the modern spelling of the word in Turkish (as suggested by TDK), the modern Turkish equivalent, and its meaning in English. Arabs also used the following words as loanwords for their language.
* Old words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.
** New words that are not as frequently used as the old words.
Ottoman Turkish word and its transliterationModern spelling of the Ottoman Turkish wordModern Turkish equivalentMeaning in EnglishRemarks
عفو ايتمكʻafu itmek*affetmekbağışlamakto forgiveFrom the Persian bağışla– "to spare."[3]
اخلاقahlak*ahlaktörecustoms, ethicsFrom the Old Turkic noun töre "customary law."[3]
عائلهʻaile*aileocak**familyFrom the Old Turkic noun ocak "hearth."[3]
عقبهakabe*akabegeçitpassageFrom the root geç– "to pass."[3]
عقدʻaqd*, مقاولهmukâveleakit, mukavelesözleşme, anlaşma, bağıtcontractFrom the Old Turkic söz "word."[3]
عقلʻaql*akılus**wisdomFrom the Old Turkic noun us "intelligence."[3]
علاقهʻalaqe*alaka(lı)ilgi(li)relevant, related toFrom the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[3]
عَلَامَتْalamet*alametönsezipremonitionFrom the adjective ön "front."[3]
عمهamme*ammesargıbandageFrom the root sar– "to warp."[3]
عاملʻâmilamiletkenfactorFrom the root et– "to do."[3]
عمليةʻamaliyyahameliyeişlemoperation, processFrom the root işle– "to work."[3]
عامهammeammekamupublic, communityFrom the Middle Persian adjective "kamu" "all."[3]
عمودیamudi*amudidikeyperpendicular; the Arabic survives in the expression amuda kalkmak.From the root dik– "to plant."[3]
عنعنهa'naneananegelenek, görenektraditionCreated by İsmet İnönü in 1947, from the root gel– "to come."[3]
عنغنوىananevi*ananevigelenekselcustomaryCreated by İsmet İnönü in 1947, from the root gel– "to come."[3]
عساكرasakir*asker**, çeri**soldierThe Turkish words are used in specific contexts such as subay, "army officer" and yeniçeri "janissary").
عصرasr*asıryüzyılcenturyA compound formed by yüz "one hundred" and yıl "year." The replacement does not preserve the distinction between "century" and "hundred years." The distinction is sometimes important: Speaking in 2020, "yedi asır kadar önce" (some seven centuries ago), has a margin of error of some 60 or 70 years and may refer to 1260–1380, whereas "yedi yüzyıl kadar önce" refers to 1320.
بارزbâriz*barizkesin, belliobvious, accurateFrom the root kes– "to cut."[3]
بسيطbasîṭ*basitkolayeasy, simpleFrom the noun kol "arm."[3]
بعضbazı*bazıkimisome (pronoun)
ﺑﺪﺍﻫﺖbedāhet)*bedahethazırcevaplıkquick wit
أبيضabyâz*beyazakwhiteThe Arabic word and the Turkish word are used in somewhat different contexts: "beyaz" translates as "fair" or "(white) clean"
جمعةcamiʻah*camîatoplulukcommunityFrom the adjective toplu "collective."[3]
جبراًcebrencebrenzorlaforcefullyFrom the adjective zor– "difficult."[3]
جلسةcalsah*celseoturum(law) hearing, sessionFrom the root otur– "to sit."[3]
جماعتcemaat*cemaatkurultaysocietyFrom the Mongolian kurilta "assembly of the nobles."[3]
جمعيتcemiyet*cemiyettoplumsocietyFrom the adjective toplu "collective."[3]
جنوبcenûbcenupgüneysouthFrom the old Turkic Gün "sun" or "day," conserved in some Anatolian dialects to mean "sunny place."[3]
جريانcereyan*cereyanakımflowFrom the root ak– "to flow."[3]
جوابcevâb*cevapyanıtanswerFrom the Old Turkic noun yanut.[3]
جوارىcivarı*civarıdolaylarıapproximately, around
جملهcümle*cümletümce**sentenceFrom the noun tüm "all, entire."[3]
دفعهdefʻa*, کرهkere*defa, kerekeztimes (repetition)Both defa and kere are still in popular use.
دفينهdefine*definegömütreasureFrom the root göm– "to bury."
دورdevr*devirçağeraBorrowed from Mongolian, which itself is from Old Turkic çak.[3]
دورهdevre*devredönemsemesterFrom the root dön– "to turn."[3]
ابعادebʻâd*ebatboyutdimension, sizeFrom the Arabic buʻd.
ابدىebedî*ebedîsonsuzforeverThe Turkish word literally means "without-end."
اجدادecdâdecdatataancestryThe Turkish word literally means "father."
اجلecel*ecelölüm(predestined time of) deathFrom the root öl– "to die."
اجنبىacnebi*ecnebiel, yadstranger, foreigner
ادبياتedebiyyat*edebiyatyazın**literatureFrom the root yaz– "to write."
البسهelbise*elbisegiysiclothFrom the root giy– "to wear."
أمرemr*emirbuyrukorder, commandFrom the Old Turkic noun buyruk.[3]
امنيهamniyyah*emniyetgüvenliksecurityFrom the noun güven "trust."
اثرeser*eseryapıtproduction (music, film)From the root yap– "to make."[3]
اسيرesîr*esirtutsakhostageFrom the root tut– "to hold."[3]
اطرافetraf*etrafortalıksurroundings, surrounding areaFrom the adjective orta "middle."[3]
اوراقevrâk*evrakbelgepaper documentIn Arabic, evrāk is the plural of vārāk; in modern Turkish, evrak is used as often a singular, although it should be used as a plural of varak.
اولevvel*evvelöncebeforeUsing the adjective ön "front" as a prefix.
فعالfaʻâl*faaletkinactiveFrom the root et– "to do."
فائدfaiz*faizürem**, getiriinterest (monetary)From the root ür– "to produce."
فقير، فقرهfakir, fukara*fakiryoksulpoorFrom the root yok– "to not exist."
فرضfarz*farzvarsayımassumptionFrom the root varsay– "to suppose."[3]
فايدةfâydah*faydayararbenefit, utility
فنfenn*, علمʻilm*fen, ilimbilimscienceFrom the root bil– "to know."
فيضانfeyezanfeyezantaşkınfloodFrom the root taş– "to overflow."[3]
فرقهfırka*fırkatoplulukgroupFrom the adjective toplu "collective."[3]
فرقةfurqahfırkatayrılıkdisparityFrom the Old Turkic root ayr– "to separate."[3]
فكرfikr*fikirgörüşopinionFrom the root gör– "to see."
فعلfiʻl*fiileylemverbFrom the root ey– "to do."
غربgarbgarpbatıwestFrom the root bat– "to sink."
غيرgayrgayriolmayan, başka, dışınon-, other
حادثهhadise*hadiseolayevent, happening, fact, occurrenceFrom the root ol-, meaning "to be", "to become".[3]
حافظهhâfıza*hafızabellekmemoryThe new word is commonly used in electronics, like computer memory, i.e. önbellek for cache
خفيفhafif*hafifyeğni**light (in weight)The Turkish word is rarely used.
حفرياتhafriyyâthafriyatkazıexcavationFrom the root kaz-, meaning "to dig".[3]
حالhâl*, وضعيتvazʻiyet*hâl, vaziyetdurumsituationFrom the root dur– "to halt."[3]
خرابharâb*harapyıkıkruinFrom the root yık– "to destroy."[3]
حرارتharâret*hararetısı, sıcaklıkheat, temperatureThe old word can be used in both meanings in Turkish language.
حركةharekkat*hareketdevinim**movement, motion
حرفharf*harfses, imce**letterFrom the Old Turkic noun ses– "to voice."[3]
حساسhassas*hassasduyarlısensitiveFrom the root duy– "to feel."[3]
خطاhatâ*, قصورkusûr*hata, kusuryanlışmistake
خاطرهhâtıra*hatıraanımemoirFrom the root an– "to call to mind."[3]
حياتhayât*, عمرömr*hayat, ömüryaşam, dirim**lifeFrom the root yaşa– "to live."
حيثيتhaysiyyet*haysiyetsaygınlıkrespectabilityFrom the root say– "to count."[3]
هيئتhey'et*heyetkurulboard (company)From the root kur– "to set up."[3]
حدتhiddet*hiddetkızgınlık, öfkeanger
حكايةhikâye*hikâyeöyküstoryNeologism coined by Nurullah Ataç.[3]
خلافhilâfhilafkarşıtcontraryFrom the noun karşı "opposite."
حسhis*hisduygufeelingFrom the root duy– "to feel."
خواجهhôca*hocaöğretmenteacherFrom the root 'öğret-, meaning "to teach".
حدودhudut*hudutsınırborder.Sınır is a Greek borrowing.[3]
حقوقhukuk*hukuktüze**(judiciary) lawFrom the Old Turkic root tuz– "to command."[3]
خصوصhusûs*hususkonusubjectCoined in 1935 from the root kon– "to be placed."[3]
هجومhücûm*hücumsaldırıattackFrom the root saldır– "to attack."[3]
حرمتhürmet*hürmetsaygırespectFrom the root say– "to count."[3]
اِرْثِيَتْırsiyet*ırsiyetkalıtımheredityFrom the root kal– "to remain."[3]
اصرارısrar*ısrarüstelemeinsistingFrom the adjective üst "above."
اصطلاحıstılah*ıstılahterimtermBorrowed from Persian.[3]
اجتماعiçtimaiçtimakavuşumnew moon (astronomy)
اجتماعىictimaiiçtimaitoplumsalcommunalFrom the adjective toplu "collective."[3]
ادارهidare*idareyönetimadministrationFrom the root yönet– "to give direction ."[3]
ادرارidrar*idrarsidikurineThe original meaning of the Arabic word is "the action of yielding milk". The Turkish word is derived from an old Turkic verb siymek, meaning "to urinate".
افادهifade*ifadeanlatımnarrationFrom the root anlat– "to explain."
افتخارiftihâr*iftiharövünmeprideFrom the root öv– "to praise."
احتراسihtiras*ihtirastutkupassionFrom the root tut– "to hold."
احتواءihtivaihtiva etmekiçermekto compriseFrom the adjective "inside."
إحتياجihtiyâc*ihtiyaçgereksinme, gereksinimneediħtiyāj is an Arabic verbal-noun form of iħtāj, meaning "need"
اختيارihtiyâr*ihtiyaryaşlıold (age)From the noun yaş "age."
احتياطihtiyâtihtiyatyedekbackup, spare
احتياطihtiyatlı*ihtiyatlıuyanıkwide-awakeFrom the root uyan– "to arouse."
اقتباسiktibasiktibasalıntıcopying (in literature; referencing)From the root al– "to take"
الههilahe*ilahetanrıçagoddess Tanrı (God) + –ça of Serbo-CroatianSerbo-Croat supplied the feminine suffix, –ça, which Turkish lacked.
عمارʻimâr*imarbayındırlıkconstruction, development
امكانimkân*imkânolanakopportunity, possibilityFrom the root ol– "to exist."[3]
املاءimlâ*imlayazımorthographyFrom the root yaz– "to write."[3]
امتدادimtidad*imtidaduzayspaceFrom the root uza– "to extend."[3]
امتحانimtihânimtihansınav, yazılıexaminationFrom the Tatar root sına– "to test."
امتيازimtiyâz*imtiyazayrıcalık"to write."From the adjective ayrı "separate."
انحسارinhisârinhisartekelmonopolyÖmer Asım Aksoy coined from tekel "single hand."[3]
انسانinsân*insankul**humanThe new word is used almost only in religious context.
انتخابintihab*intihabseçimelectionFrom the root seç– "to choose."
انتحالintihalintihalaşırmaplagiarismFrom the root aşır– "to steal."
ابتدائیibtidâ‘îiptidaiilkelprimary; primitiveFrom the word ilk "first."
ارتفاعirtifâʻ*irtifayükseklikaltitudeThe old word is only used in aviation, as in "the altitude of the plane".
ارثیirsî*ırsikalıtsal, kalıtımsalhereditaryFrom the root kal– "to remain."
اِسْكَانْiskan*iskankonutabodeFrom the root kon– "to settle."[3]
اِسْتِخْدَامْistihdam*istihdamdağıtımdistributionFrom the root dağıt– "to distribute."[3]
إستحصالistiḥṣālistihsalüretimproductionFrom the root üret– "to produce."[3]
إستقلالistiqlal*istiklalbağımsızlıkindependence, freedomFrom the noun bağ "tie, bond, impediment."[3]
استراحةistirâhat*istirahatdinlenmerestFrom the root dinlen– "to rest."
استثمارistismar*istismarsömürgecolonyFrom the root sömür– "to exploit."[3]
اشارتişaret*işaretgöstergeindicatorFrom the root göster– "to show."[3]
اشتغالiştigâliştigaluğraş, uğraşıoccupation
اتمامitmam*itmamtamamlamacompletionFrom the adjective tam "complete, full."
ايضاحizâh*izahaçıklamaclarificationFrom the root aç– "to open."
ازدواجizdivâcizdivaçevlilikmarriageFrom the noun ev "house."
قابليهkâbiliyet*kabiliyetyetenek, yetitalent, abilityFrom the root yet– "to reach."[3]
قادرkader*kaderyazgıfateFrom the root yaz– "to write."[3]
كافيkâfi*kâfiyeterenoughFrom the root yet– "to be enough."[3]
قانونkânûn*kanunyasalawBorrowed from Mongolian.[3]
قانون اساسىkanunuesasikanunuesasianayasaconstitution (law)Literally "mother law."
قافيهkâfiye*kafiyeuyakrhymeFrom the root uy– "to comply, fit."
كانون اولkânûn-ı evvelaralıkDecember"Aralık" was adopted during the drafting of the 1945 Constitution because it occurred in the text. With the new name for December it became the subject of jokes on the theme that the transition from December to January—Aralıktan Ocağa—now meant passing through the gap into the fire.[3]
كانون ثانیkânûn-ı sânîocakJanuary"Ocak," the new name for January preserves the meaning of kânun "hearth."[3]
كلمهkelime*kelimesözcük, sözwordInvented by Melih Cevdet Anday in 1958.[3]
قرمزghermez*kırmızıal**, kızılredThe Arabic and the Turkish words are used in somewhat different contexts. kızıl is mostly used for red hair.
قسمkısm*kısımbölümpartFrom the root böl– "to divide."
كتابketab*kitapbetik**bookFrom the Old Turkic root biti– "to write," which is a loanword from Chinese word , meaning "brush."[3]
كفرkufr*küfürsövme**curseFrom the root söv– "to swear, curse."[3]
قوةkuvvet*kuvvetgüç, erkpower, forceIn physics, the old word is used for "force" and the new word is used for "power".
لطيفهlâtîfelatifeşakajokeThe new word is also of Arabic origin (from the word şaḳā (شقاء‎)), meaning "pity, being unfortunate"
لسانlisân*lisandillanguagedil means both tongue in the physical sense and language, while "lisan" only means tongue in the language sense.
معاشmaʻâş*maaşaylıksalaryFrom the noun ay "moon, month"
معبادmaʻbed*mabettapınaktempleFrom the root tap– "to worship."
مادةmaddî*maddîözdeksel**material, materialisticThe Turkish word is exclusively used in the context of philosophy.
مفصلmafsalmafsaleklemligamentThe old word is used for "hinge" (non-anatomical).
مغدورmağdûr*mağdurkıygın**wronged, injuredThe new word is almost never used.
مغلوبيات​maʻlubiyyat​*mağlubiyetyenilgidefeatFrom the root yen– "to defeat."
محفوظmahfuzmahfuzsaklıhiddenFrom the root sakla– "to hide."
مخلوقmahlûk*mahlukyaratıkcreatureFrom the root yarat– "to create."
محصولmahsûl*mahsulürünproductThe new word actually meant "weed".
مقصدmaksad*, غايهgaye*, هدفhedef*maksat, gaye, hedefamaç, erekgoal
معقولmaʻkûl*makuluygun, elverişlireasonableFrom the root uy– "to comply."
معنةmaʻnah*mânaanlammeaningFrom the root anla– "to comprehend."
معنويmanevî*manevîtinsel**moral, spiritualThe Turkish word is exclusively used in the context of philosophy.
مصرفmasraf*masrafgider, harcamacostFrom the root git– "to go, leave."
مطبعهmatbaa*matbaabasım eviprintingFrom the root bas– "to press."
معذرتmazeret*mazeretgerekçecorollaryFrom the root gerek– "to need."
مجازmecaz*, استعارةistiaremecaziğretileme, eğretilememetaphor
مجبورmecbûr*mecburzorunluobligation, obligatoryBoth the new and the old words can be used as either a noun or an adjective.
مجهولmechûl*meçhulbilinmeyenunknownFrom the root bil– "to know."
مدنيmadanni*medeniuygarcivilBorrowed from Uyghur.
مدنياتmadanniyyat*medeniyetuygarlıkcivilizationFrom the name of the Uyghur Uygur, who established an advanced civilization in Eastern Turkestan in the tenth to twelfth centuries.[3]
مفهومmefhûm*mefhumkavramconceptFrom the root kavra– "to grasp, understand."
مملکتmemleket*memleketülkecountryThe old word is used for "one's native region"
مساحهmesaha*mesahayüzölçümarea, measure ofFrom the root ölç– "to measure."
مسافهmesafe*mesafeuzaklıkdistanceFrom the root uza– "to extend."[3]
مثانةmesane*mesanesidik kesesiurinary bladder
مثلاmeselâ*meselaörneğinfor example
مسعودmesʻûd*mesutmutlu, sevinçlihappy
مشهورmeşhûr*meşhurünlüfamousFrom the noun ün "fame."
مشروباتmeşrûbât*meşrubatiçecekbeverageFrom the root iç– "to drink."
موقعmevkiʻ مكانmekân*mevki, mekânyer, konumlocationFrom the root kon– "to settle."[3]
موضعmevzi*mevzibölgelocationFrom the root böl– "to divide."
ميدانmeydân*, ساحهsâhameydan, sahaalan**open area, plazaWhile the new word is used mainly in mathematics (as in the "area" of a triangle), it is seldom used with the same meaning of the old words except in compound words like havaalanı (airport), not hava meydanı (older version).
ميلmeyl*meyileğim, eğiliminclinationFrom the root eğil– "to incline."
مزارmezar*mezargömüt**cemeteryFrom the root göm– "to bury."
منطقةmıntıkamıntıkabölgeregionFrom the root böl– "to divide."
ملتmillet*milletulusulusFrom the Mongolian noun uluş "confederation of people."[3]
مراثmirâs*miraskalıt**inheritanceFrom the root kal– "to remain."[3]
مسافرmisâfir*misafirkonukguestFrom the root kon– "to settle."[3]
مسکينmiskîn*miskinuyuşuk, mıymıntılazyFrom the root uyuş– "to numb."
معاملهmuʻâmele*muameledavranıştreatment, behaviorFrom the root davran– "to behave."
معماmuʻammâmuammabilmecepuzzle, triviaFrom the root bil– "to know."
معاصرmuʻâsırmuasırçağdaş, güncelcontemporary
معجزهmuʻcize*mucizetansık**miracleThe new word is almost never used.
مغالطهmugalatamugalatayanıltmacadeceptive statementFrom the root yanılt– "to mislead."
مغني، مغنيهmuganni, muganniyemuganni,muganniyeşarkıcısinger
مغايرmugayirmugayiraykırıirregularThe old word has only remained as a legal term meaning "adverse".
مخابرهmuhaberemuhabereiletişim, iletişmecommunicationFrom the root ilet– "to transmit."
مهاجرةmuhaceretmuhaceretgöçemigrationFrom the root göç– "to move."
مهاجمmuhacimmuhacimsaldıran, saldırıcıattacker, offenderFrom the root saldır– "to attack."
مهاجرmuhacirmuhacirgöçmenimmigrantFrom the root göç– "to move."
محدبmuhaddepmuhaddepdış bükeyconvexFrom the root bük– "to bend."
محافظةmuhafaza*muhafazakorumaconservationFrom the root koru– "to protect."
محافظmuhafızmuhafızkoruyucuprotectorFrom the root koru– "to protect."
محاكمهmuhakeme*muhakemeyargılama, uslamlamajudgment, argumentation
مدةmuddat*müddetsüredurationFrom the root sür– "to last."
محققmuhakkikmuhakkiksoruşturmacıinvestigatorFrom the root sor– "to ask."
محالmuhalmuhalolanaksızimpossibleFrom the root ol– "to exist."
مخالفةmuhallaffat*muhalefetkarşıtlıkoppositionFrom the adjective karşı "opposite."[3]
مخمنmuhammenmuhammenoranlanan, ön görülenpre-determined
مخمسmuhammesmuhammesbeşgenpentagonFrom the noun beş "five."
محاربهmuhârebe, حربharbmuharebe, harpsavaşwar
محررmuharrermuharreryazılı, yazılmışwrittenFrom the root yaz– "to write."[3]
محركmuharrikmuharrikkışkırtıcı, ayartıcıprovokerFrom the root kışkırt– "to provoke."
محاصرهmuhasaramuhasarakuşatmasiegeFrom the root kuşat– "to encircle."[3]
محاسبهmuhasebe*muhasebesaymanlıkaccounting, bookkeepingFrom the root say– "to count."[3]
محاسبجيmuhasebeci*muhasebecisaymanaccountant, bookkeeperFrom the root say– "to count."[3]
محتملmuhtemel*muhtemelolasıpossibleFrom the root ol– "to happen."
محتوياتmuhteviyyâtmuhteviyatiçindekileringredientsFrom the adjective "inside."
منتظمmuntazam*muntazamdüzgün, düzenlitidyFrom the root düz– "to align."[3]
مربعmurabbaʻmurabbakaresquareA loanword from the French carré.
موفقيتmuvaffakıyyetmuvaffakiyetbaşarısuccessFrom the root başar– "to succeed (in)."
مبالغهmübalâgamübalağaabartıexaggerationFrom the root abart– "to exaggerate."
مجادلهmücâdele*mücadeleçaba, uğraşendeavor
مجردmücerritmücerritsoyutabstractFrom the root soy– "to strip."[3]
مدافعهmüdâfaʻamüdafaakorumasustain, protect, defendFrom the root koru– "to protect."
مداخلهmüdâhale*müdahalekarışmainterventionFrom the root karış– "to interfere, meddle with."
مُلَازِمْmülazım*mülazımteğmenlieutenantFrom the Old Turkic teğ– "to touch," which Turkish retains as değ–.[3]
مدتmüddet*müddetsüredurationFrom the root sür– "to last."
مدركهmudrikemüdrikeanlıkintellect (in psychology)
مؤدبmueddepmüeddepusluwell behaved, demureFrom the noun us "intelligence."
مؤلفاتmuelleffatmüellefat(yazılı) yapıt(written) pieceFrom the root yap– "to make."
مؤلف، محررmuellif, muharrirmüellif, muharriryazarwriterFrom the root yaz– "to write."
مؤمنmuemmenmüemmensağlanmışsecuredFrom the adjective sağ "alive."
مؤسسهmu‘essesemüessesekurumfoundationFrom the root kur– "to set up." Kurum is recorded in Tarama Sözlüğü (1963-77) as occurring in two dictionaries from the fourteenth and eighteenth century.[3]
مؤثرmuessirmüessirdokunaklıtouchingFrom the root dokun– "to touch."
مؤسسmuessismüessiskurucufounderFrom the root kur– "to set up."[3]
مفكرهmufekkrirehmüfekkiredüşünce gücüthought capacityFrom the root düşün– "to think."
مفردmufrettmüfrettekilsingularFrom the adjective tek "single."
مفلسmuflismüflisbatkınone that's gone bankruptFrom the root bat– "to sink."
مهمmühim*mühimönemliimportantFrom the noun önem "importance."
مؤمنmü‘minmümininanan, inançlıbelieverFrom the root inan– "to believe."
مناسبتmünâsebet*münasebetilişkirelationFrom the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[3]
منتخبmüntahib*müntahibseçmenvoterFrom the root seç– "to choose."
مراجعتmürâcaʻatmüracaatbaşvuruapplicationFrom the root başvur– "to apply."
مركبmürekkebmürekkepbirleşmiş, birleşikinkFrom the root birleş– "to unite."
مرتبmurrettipmürettipdizgicitype setterFrom the root diz– "to align."[3]
مسابقهmüsâbakamüsabakakarşılaşmamatch, competitionFrom the adjective karşı "opposite."[3]
مسامحهmüsâmahamüsamahahoşgörütoleranceFrom the root gör– "to see."
مُسَاو۪يmüsavi*müsavieşitequalFrom the noun "pair."
مسدسmüseddes*müseddesaltıgenhexagonFrom the noun altı "six."
مستهجنmüstehcen*müstehcenuygunsuzinappropriate, obsceneFrom the root uy– "to comply."[3]
مستملكmustamlakmüstemlekesömürgecolony (exploitee)From the root sömür– "to exploit."[3]
مشابه، مماثلmuşabbih, mumassilmüşabih, mümasilbenzersimilarFrom the root benze– "to resemble."
مشبهاتmuşşabbahatmüşabehetbenzerliksimilarityFrom the root benze– "to resemble."
مشخصmüşahhasmüşahhassomutconcrete (in concept, the opposite of abstract)
مشتقmüştakmüştaktürevderivativeBorrowed from Kazakh, where verbs end not in –mek/–mak, but in –v.[3]
مشتكيmuştekimüştekiyakınan, sızlananone who complains, whiner
مشتملاتmuştemilatmüştemilateklentiattachment, appandageFrom the root ekle– "to add."
مشتركmuşterek*müşterekortakpartnerFrom the noun orta "middle."[3]
مشتريmuşteri*müşterialıcı, alımcıcustomerFrom the root al– "to buy."[3]
مطالعهmütâlâʻamütalâadüşüncethoughtFrom the root düşün– "to think."
متارکهmütârekemütarekeantlaşmaarmisticeFrom the noun ant "oath."[3]
متعددmuteadditmüteadditbirçoka lot, many
متفنmuteaffinmüteaffinkokuşukmalodorousFrom the root kok– "to smell."
متعاقبmuteakibmüteakipsonra, ardındanafter, thereafterFrom the adjective arka "behind."
متعلقmuteallikmüteallikilişkin, ilgilirelated (to)From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[3]
متعممmuteammimmüteammimyaygınlaşmış, genelleşmişsomething that has widespreadFrom the root yay– "to radiate."[3]
متبقيmutebakimütebakikalanremainingFrom the root kal– "to remain."
متبدلmutebeddilmütebeddildeğişen, kararsızone that changes, undecidedFrom the root değiş– "to change."
متبسمmutebessimmütebessimgülümseyen, güleçone that smilesFrom the root gül– "to laugh."
متجاوزmutecavizmütecavizsaldırganattackerFrom the root saldır– "to attack."
متدينmutedeyyinmütedeyyindindarreligiousBorrowed from Persian, where it means "owner of religion."
متأثرmuteessirmüteessirüzüntülüsad (person)From the root üz– "to aggrieve."
متفكرmutefekkirmütefekkirdüşünürthinker, intellectualFrom the root düşün– "to think."
متفرقmüteferrikmüteferrikdağınıkuntidyFrom the root dağıt– "to distribute."
متحركmuteharrikmüteharrikdevingen, oynarmobile
متخصصmütehassısmütehassısuzmanexpertFrom the Old Turkic noun uz "skilled craftsman" and the intensive suffix "–man" in şişman "fat" and kocaman "huge."[3]
متشبثmuteşşebbismüteşebbisgirişimcientrepreneurFrom the root gir– "to enter."
متوفىmuteveffamüteveffaölü, ölmüşdeadFrom the root öl– "to die."
متفقmuttefik*müttefikbağlaşık**allyFrom the root bağla– "to tie."[3]
مزايدهmuzayyadehmüzayedeaçık arttırmaauction
مزمنmüzminmüzminsüreğenchronicFrom the root sür– "to last."
نادرnadir*, اندرender*nadir, enderseyrekrare(ly)
نصيحتnasîhat*nasihatöğütadvice, counsel
نتيجهnetîce*neticesonuçresultFrom the combination of old Turkic nouns son "end" and "latter."[3]
نزيفnezifnezifkanamahemorrhageFrom the noun kan "blood"
نصفnısfnısıfyarı(m)halfFrom the root yar– "to split."[3]
نكاحnikâh*nikâhdüğünweddingIn modern Turkish, nikâh is generally used for the wedding ceremony, while düğün is used for the wedding reception or party.
نسبتnisbet*nispetoranratioFrom the Old Turkic noun oran for "measure," "proportion" or "moderation."[3]
نطقnutk*nutuksöylevspeechBorrowed from Kazakh, where verbs end not in –mek/–mak, but in –v.[3]
رغماragmen*rağmenkarşındespite, in spite ofFrom the adjective karşı "opposite."[3]
رجعتricat*ricatçekilmeretreatFrom the root çek– "to pull."[3]
روحruh*ruhtin**spiritThe Turkish word is almost never used, except in the context of philosophy.
رطوبهrutûbet*rutubetyaşlık, ıslaklıkmoistureFrom the adjective yaş "dank."
سادهّsade, سائدsa'aid*sadeyalınplainThe Turkish word is rarely used.
صفحةsafha*safhaevre, aşamastage, phase
صاحبsahip*sahipiye**ownerThe Turkish word is seldom used; however, it is commonly used in the context of grammar when describing the possessive suffix (iyelik eki)
سطحsathsatıhyüzeysurfaceFrom the noun yüz "face."
سيارهsayyâreseyyarearaba, taşıtcarAraba is the outdated expression for "car" in Arabic. The current word in Arabic for car is seyyara but in Turkish seyyar, means "transportable" or given to travel.
سلامتselâmetselametesenlikhealth, soundness
صحتsıhhatsıhhatsağlıkhealthFrom the adjective sağ "alive."
صحبتsohbet*sohbetsöyleşichatFrom the root söyle– "to say."
سؤالsu'âlsualsoruquestionFrom the root sor– "to ask."
صنعsunîsuniyapayartificialFrom the root yap– "to make."[3]
سکوتsükûtsükûtsessizliksilenceFrom the noun ses "voice."
شاهدşâhid*şahittanıkwitnessFrom the root tanı– "to recognize."
شرقşarkşarkdoğueastFrom the root doğ– "to be born."[3]
شرطşart*şartkoşulconditionInvented in 1947 by Nurullah Ataç.[3]
شمالşimâlşimalkuzeynorthFrom the noun kuz "side of a mountain out of reach of the sun." Kuzey was also used in some Anatolian dialects, meaning sunless place.[3]
ﺷﻌﺎﻉşu‘ā‘)*şuaışınray, gleam
تعلقtaalluktaallukilinticonnection, relationFrom the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[3]
طبقهtabaqqa*tabakakatmanlayerFrom the noun kat "floor."
طبيعتṭabîʻat*tabiatdoğanatureFrom the root doğ– "to be born."
طبيعىṭabîʻî*tabiidoğalnaturalFrom the root doğ– "to be born."
تعبير، افادهtaʻbîr, ifâde*tabir, ifadedeyiş**narration
تحليلtahlil*tahlilinceleme(laboratory) test (as in medicine)
تخمينtahmin*tahminkestirim**guess, predictionFrom the root kes– "to cut."
تعقيبtaʻkib*takipizlem**follow-upFrom the root izle– "to watch."
طلبṭaleb*talepistekrequest, demand, wishFrom the root iste– "to demand, request."
طلبهṭalebetalebeöğrencistudent (plural of طالبṭâlib, "seeker" [of knowledge])From the Old Turkic root igid– "to feed."[3]
تعمیمtâmîm*tâmîmgenelgecircular, noticeFrom the adjective genel "general."
تعميرtaʻmîr*, تعديلاتtaʻdîlât*tamir, tadilatonarımrepair, renovationFrom the root onar– "to repair."
تاريخtarih*tarihgünay**date (in time)The Arabic word tarih also means "history". The Turkish word günay (literally meaning "day-month") is rarely used.
تسلطtasalluttasallutsarkıntılık(sexual) harassmentFrom the root sark– "to dangle from."
تصورtasavvurtasavvurcanlandırma, tasarıimagine
تصحيحtashîhtashihdüzeltmecorrectionFrom the adjective düz "even, flat."
طيارهtayyâretayyareuçakairplaneFrom the root uç– "to fly."
تعادلteʻâdülteadüldenklikequivalenceFrom the adjective denk "equal."
تعاملteʻâmülteamültepkime, davranışreaction, behaviorFrom the root davran– "to behave."
تبسمtebessümtebessümgülümsemesmileFrom the root gül– "to laugh."
تبديلtebdîltebdildeğişiklikchangeFrom the root değiş– "to change."
تبريكtebrîk*tebrikkutlamacongratulateFrom the root kutla– "to celebrate."
تجربهtecbüre*tecbüredeneyexperimentFrom the root dene– "to try."
تجلىtecellîtecellibelirmeemerge, appear
تجسمtecessümtecessümgörünmeappearance, manifestationFrom the root gör– "to see."
تجربةtecrübe*tecrübedeneyimexperienceFrom the root dene– "to attempt."[3]
تدبيرtedbîr*tedbirönlemprecautionFrom the root önle– "to prevent."
تأثرte'essürteessürüzüntüagonyFrom the root üz– "to aggrieve."
تكاملtekâmültekamülevrim, başkalaşımmaturation, metamorphosis, evolution
تكفلtekeffültekeffülyükümlenmestanding surety
تكليفteklîf*tekliföneriproposalFrom the root öner– "to propose."
تلاشtelâş*telaştasa, kaygıworry
تَمْي۪يزْtemyiz*temyizyargıtayBorrowed from Chagatai.
تناسبtenâsübtenasüpuyumcongruityFrom the root uy– "to conform."
تنبيهtenbîh*tembihuyarıwarningFrom the root uyar– "to warn."
ترددterreddut*tereddütduraksamahesitancyFrom the root dur– "to halt, stop."
ترتيبtertip*tertipdüzenorder, tidinessFrom the root düz– "to align."
تأثيرtesir*tesiretkieffectFrom the root et– "to do."
تسلىteselli*teselliavunmaconsoleFrom the root avun– "to console oneself."
تشخيصteşhis*teşhistanıdiagnosisFrom the root tanı– "to recognize."[3]
تَشْك۪يلَاتْteşkilat*teşkilatörgütorganizationFrom the noun örgü "plait."[3]
تشكيلteshkilteşkil etmekoluşturmakto constitute
تشرين اولteşrîn-i evvelekimOctoberFrom the root ek– "to harvest."
تشرين ثانیteşrîn-i sânîkasımNovember
تشويقteşvik*teşviközendirme, kışkırtma(providing) incentive, provocation
تولدtevellüd*tevellüddoğumbirthFrom the root doğ– "to be born."
تذكارtezkar*tezkaranılmaya değerworth-mentioningFrom the root an– "to call to mind."[3]
عنصرunsur*unsuröğeconstituent, element
عنوانunvan*ünvansan(professional) title
وعدvaʻd*vaatsözpromise (noun)
واقعهvakʻâ*vakaolayeventFrom the root ol– "to happen."
وقورvakûrvakurağır başlıdignifiedThe Turkish expression literally means "heavy headed".
وصفvasf*vasıfnitelikfeature, quality
وظيفهvazîfe*vazifegörevtask, mission
وve*veileandFrom the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[3]
وهمvehmvehimkuruntuapprehension, fancy
تفسيرtefsîr*tefsiryoruminterpretation, analysis, comment
ضبطdzabt*zabıttutanakminute of proceeding, trialFrom the root tut– "to hold."[3]
ضميرzamîr*zamiradıl**pronounFrom the noun ad "noun."
زاويهzaviyezaviyeaçıangleFrom the root aç– "to open."
ﺫﻯ ﻗﻴﻤﺖẕі-ḳiymet)*zikıymetdeğerlivaluable
Loanwords of French origin
French words started to infiltrate the Turkish language in the 1800s, when administrative reforms (Tanzimat) started taking place in the Ottoman Empire. The extent of French influence was such that the number of French loanwords was close to 5,000.
Most of the French loanwords are still widely used in Turkish today.
* Words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.
LoanwordTurkish equivalentMeaning in EnglishOriginal French spelling
ajanda *andaç (replaced with gündem )agendaagenda
aksesuar *süsaccessory (decorative)accessoire
aktif *etkinactiveactif
alternatif *seçenekalternative (noun)alternatif
analiz *çözümlemeanalysisanalyse
asimilasyon, anabolizma *özümlemeassimilation, anabolismassimilation, anabolisme
astronomi *gökbilimastronomyastronomie
avantaj *üstünlükadvantageavantage
detay *ayrıntıdetaildétail
direkt *doğrudandirectlydirect
dikte *yazdırımdictationdictée
doküman *belgedocumentdocument
domestik *evcildomesticdomestique
egzersiz *alıştırmaexerciseexercice
endemik *salgınendemicendémique
enerji *erkeenergyénergie
enflamasyon *yangıinflammationinflammation
enformatikbilişiminformation technologyinformatique
enteresan *ilginçinterestingintéressant
eritrositalyuvarred blood cellérythrocyte
eksper *bilirkişiexpertexpert
faks *belgeç, belgegeçerfaxfax
faktör *etkenfactorfacteur
fenomen *olguphenomenonphénomène
filoloji *dilbilimphilologyphilologie
filtre *süzgeçfilterfiltre
fizyoloji *işlevbilimphysiologyphysiologie
fonksiyon *işlevfunctionfonction
fotokopi *tıpkıbasımphotocopyphotocopie
garanti *güvenceinsurance, assurancegarantie
global *küreselglobalglobal
gramerdil bilgisigrammargrammaire
grup *öbekgroupgroupe
halüsinasyon *sanrıhallucinationhallucination
histolojidoku bilimihistologyhistologie
homojen *bağdaşıkhomogenoushomogène
Hoplamak*ZıplaJumpOup La
illüzyon *yanılsamaillusionillusion
istatistik *sayımlamastatisticsstatistiques
izolasyon *yalıtımisolationisolation
kalite *nitelikqualityqualité
kampüs *yerleşkecampuscampus
kapasite *sığa, kapsamcapacitycapacité
karakter *kişilikcharacter, personalitycaractère
kategori *ulamcategorycatégorie
kompleks *karmaşıkcomplexcomplexe
konsantrasyon *derişimconcentrationconcentration
konsolidasyon *süreletmeconsolidation (economics)consolidation
kontrol *denetimcontrolcontrôle
kramp *kasınç(muscle) crampcrampe
kriter *ölçütcriteriacritères
kronik *süreğenchronic(ally)chronique
kuaför *güzellik salonu/berberbeauty/hair salon, barbercoiffeur
lenf *ak kanlymphlymphe
liste *dizelgelistliste
lokositakyuvarwhite blood cellleucocyte
medya *basın-yayınmediamédia
mekanizma *düzenekmechanismmécanisme
meridyen *boylamlongitudeméridien
mesaj, posta *iletimessagemessage
metamorfoz *başkalaşımmetamorphosismétamorphose
metot *yöntemmethodméthode
monoton *tekdüzemonotonousmonotone
mobilya *döşenekfurnituremobilier
moral *özgüçmoralmorale
mutasyon *değişinimmutationmutation
normal *olağannormalnormal
objektif *nesnelobjectiveobjectif
organizasyon *düzenlemeorganizationorganisation
orijinal *özgünoriginaloriginal
otorite *yetkeauthorityautorité
paradoks *çelişkiparadoxparadoxe
paralel *enlemlatitudeparallèle
parazit *asalakparasiteparasite
pasif *edilgenpassivepassif
performans *başarımperformanceperformance
plaj *kumsalbeachplage
plato *yaylaplateauplateau
popüler, favori *gözdepopular, favoritepopulaire, favori
prensip *ilkeprincipalprincipe
problem *sorunproblemproblème
program *izlenceprogramprogramme
proje *tasarıprojectprojet
prosedür *işlem, işleyişprocedureprocédure
radyoaktif *ışın etkinradioactiveradioactif
randıman *verimefficiencyrendement
rapor *yazanakreportrapport
restoran *aşevirestaurantrestaurant
sekunder, sekonderikincilsecondarysecondaire
sekreter *yazmansecretarysecrétaire
sembol *simgesymbolsymbole
semptom *belirtisymptomsymptôme
sendrom *belirgesyndromesyndrome
sentez *bireşimsynthesissynthèse
sistem *dizgesystemsystème
simülasyon *öğrencesimulationsimulation
standart *ölçünstandardstandard
statik *durukstaticstatique
statü *durumstatusstatut
subjektif *öznelsubjectivesubjectif
teori *kuramtheorythéorie
tretuvarkaldırımpavement / sidewalktrottoir
tümör *urtumortumeur
versiyon *sürümversionversion
viraj *dönemeçturn (as in traffic)virage
ultrason *yansılanım (the act of echoing)ultrasoundultrason
Loanwords of Persian origin
The list gives the Ottoman Turkish word, the modern spelling of the word in Turkish (as suggested by TDK), the modern Turkish equivalent, and its meaning in English.
Most of the original Persian words are still widely used in modern Turkish. In fact, there are over 1,500 Persian words in Turkish. However, for many of the Persian words (unlike Arabic words[citation needed]), there is no TDK-prescribed equivalent. TDK did not put as much effort into replacing Persian words as it did for Arabic words[citation needed], largely because the Persian words were better assimilated into the language.[citation needed] Arabic language and culture is general perceived by Turks to be more "foreign" than Persian language and culture, which had a native presence in Anatolia since the time of the Achaemenids, and was patronised for millennia afterwards by other dynasties with a presence in Anatolia such as the Sasanians, Seleucids, Seljuks, Sultanate of Rum, and lastly, the Ottomans, amongst others.
* New words that are not as frequently used as the old words.
Ottoman Turkish word and its transliterationModern spelling of the Ottoman Turkish wordModern Turkish equivalentMeaning in EnglishRemarks
بدبينbedbin*bedbinbitkiplantFrom the root bit– "to grow."[3]
چشيتçeşit*çeşittürkind, variety
چهار یکçeyrek*çeyrekdörtte birquarterBoth the Persian and the Turkish expressions literally mean one in four.
دمارdemar*demarölümdeathFrom the root öl– "to die."
دیگرdiğer*diğeröbür, ötekiother
فروختfüruht*füruhtsatışsaleFrom the root sat– "to sell."[3]
خستهhasta*hastasayrıpatient, sickThe original Persian word actually means tired
همیشهhemîşe*hemîşeher zamanalways
قورناز kurnaz*kurnazaçıkgözlücunning
مهتابmehtap*mehtapay ışığımoonlight
محافظه كار* muhafazakar*muhafazakartutucuconservativeFrom the root tut– "to hold."
خبز عزيزnân-ı aziz*nân-ı azizekmekbread
پاپوشpabuç*pabuçayakkabıshoeBoth the Persian and the Turkish words literally mean foot cover.
ساخته* sahte*sahtedüzmecefakeFrom the root düz– "to align."[3]
سربستserbest*serbesterkinfree, footloose
بهارsonbahar*sonbahargüzfall (season)
سطورsütur*süturbinekrideFrom the root bin– "to ride."
شخصşahıs*şahısbireyindividualFrom the root biregü [< bir+egü "from someone."[3]
شهرşehir*şehirkentcityThe word kent is of Sogdian origin.
زهرzehir*zehirağıpoison, toxin
Loanwords of other origin
* Words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.
LoanwordTurkish equivalentMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageOriginal spellingRemarks
angarya *yüklentidrudgery, forced laborGreekαγγαρείαThe Turkish word is still unused.
endoskopi *iç görüm ("inside seeing")endoscopyEnglishThe Turkish word is less common.
fetüs *dölütfetusLatinfetusThe Turkish word is used occasionally.
genetik *kalıtım (bilimi) ("the science of heredity")geneticsGermanGenetikBoth the loanword and the Turkish word are used.
hegemonya *boyundurukhegemonyGreekηγεμονίαThe Turkish word is more commonly used.
İnternet *Genel AğInternetEnglishThe Turkish word is still unused.
konsonantünsüzconsonantGerman[4]KonsonantThe loanword is now unused.
kundura *ayakkabıshoeItalianconduraThe Turkish word is more commonly used.
otoban *otoyolhighwayGermanAutobahn
vokal *ünlüvowelGerman[5]VokalThe loanword is now unused.
pezevenk *dümbükprocurerArmenianբոզավագThe Turkish word is less common.
See also
  1. ^ "Güncel Türkçe Sözlük" (in Turkish). Turkish Language Association. 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
  2. ^ "Türkçe Sözlük (2005)'teki Sözlerin Kökenlerine Ait Sayısal Döküm" [Numerical list on the origin of words in Türkçe Sözlük (2005)] (in Turkish). Turkish Language Association. 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aaab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar asat au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bjbk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz cacb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr csct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di djdk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du Lewis, Geoffrey (2000). Turkish Grammar (Second ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-870036-9.
  4. ^ TDK Online Dictionary - konsonantArchived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ TDK Online Dictionary - vokal Archived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine
Yazım Kılavuzu, the official spelling guide of the Turkish language on TDK website
Last edited on 4 May 2021, at 12:17
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