en.m.wikipedia.org
List of wars: 2003–present
  (Redirected from List of wars 2011–present)
For ongoing conflicts, see List of ongoing armed conflicts.
Note:
Merriam-Webster defines war as "a state of opened and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations".[1] Lexico defines war as "A state of armed conflict between different countries or different groups within a country".[2] Conflicts causing at least 1,000 deaths in one calendar year are considered wars by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program.[3] For other conflicts, see rebellions, coups and separate battles.
This is a list of wars that began from 2003 onwards. Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity.
StartFinishedName of conflictBelligerents
Victorious party (if applicable)Defeated party (if applicable)
2003OngoingWar in Darfur Sudan
Supported by:
 China
 Iran (until 2016)
 Russia
 Belarus
UNAMID (from 2007)
SARC (from 2014)
SLFA (from 2017)
  • SLA-Unity
  • SLMJ
  • JEM (Jali)
Supported by:
 South Sudan
 Chad (2005–2010)
 Eritrea (until 2008)
Libya (until 2011)
 Uganda (until 2015)
20032011Iraq War
Invasion phase (2003)
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 Poland
Peshmerga
Supported by:
 Netherlands
 Italy
Post-invasion (2003–11)
 United States
 United Kingdom
MNF–I
(2003–09)

Iraq
Supported by:
Iran
 Iraqi Kurdistan
Invasion phase (2003)
 Iraq
Post-invasion (2003–11)
Ba'ath loyalists
Supported by:
 Iran
2004OngoingWar in North-West Pakistan
 Pakistan
Taliban-aligned groups
ISIL-aligned groups
20042007Central African Republic Bush War
 Central African Republic
 Chad
MINURCAT
MICOPAX (CEEAC)
Rebels:
Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR)
People's Army for the Restoration of Democracy (APRD)
Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (CPJP)
Movement of Central African Liberators for Justice (MLCJ)
Patriotic Convention for Saving the Country (CPSK)
Democratic Front of the Central African People (FDPC)
FDC
GALPC
FPR
20042015Iran–PJAK conflict
 Iran
Supported by:
 Turkey
Kurdistan Free Life Party
Supported by:
 Israel
 United States
2004OngoingConflict in the Niger DeltaNigeria
Supported by:
 Belarus
 Israel
Niger Delta Avengers (2016–present)
Niger Delta Greenland Justice Mandate (2016–present)
Joint Niger Delta Liberation Force (2016–present)
Niger Delta Red Squad (2016–present)
Adaka Boro Avengers (2016–present)
Asawana Deadly Force of Niger Delta (2016–present)
Niger Delta Revolutionary Crusaders (2016–present)
New Delta Avengers (2017–present)
Niger Delta Marine Force (2017–present)
Reformed Egbesu Fraternities
Niger Delta Vigilante (2004–2009)
Supported by:
IPOB elements
20042015Houthi insurgency in YemenAnsar Allah
 Yemen (pro-Saleh forces)
Alleged support by:
 Iran
 North Korea
2004OngoingKivu conflict
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
Pro-government Mai-Mai militias
FDLR (2006–2014)
APCLS (2012–2013)
Nyatura (2012–2014)
MONUSCO
 Angola
 Zimbabwe
 Botswana(Against FNL and FNL-Nzabampema only)
Supported by:
 Belgium
 France
 Belarus
M27
CNDP (2006–2009)
M23 (2012–2013)
Allegedly supported by:
 Rwanda
FDLR (2014–present)
RUD-Urunana (2006–present)
Nyatura (2014–present)
FNL-Nzabampema​(2013–present)
FNL/Palipehutu​(1993–2009 and 2010–2013)
FPB (2015-present)
RED-Tabara (2015-present)
APCLS (2013–2016)
Nduma Defense of Congo (2008–present)
Mai Mai Yakutumba (2009–present)
CNPSC (2017–present)
Other Anti-government Mai Mai militas (1996–present)
Raia Mutomboki​(2005–present)
2004OngoingSistan and Baluchestan insurgency
 Iran
Jundallah (2004–11)
Harakat Ansar(2012–13)
Jaish ul-Adl(2013–Present)
Ansar Al-Furqan (2013–Present)
2005OngoingParaguayan People's Army insurgency
 Paraguay
Supported by:
 United States
 Colombia
Vigilante self-defense groups
Paraguayan People's Army (EPP)
Armed Peasant Association (ACA)
Army of Marshal López (EML) (from 2016)
Supported by:
FARC (until 2016)
Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front (alleged)
20052010Chadian Civil War (2005–10)
 Chad
 France
NMRD
JEM
Supported by:
 Ukraine
Rebels:
FUC
UFDD
RFD
CNT
CDR
UFDP
RDL
UFDD-F
CNR
URF
MDJT
UFCD
FSR
UFR
UMC
FPRN
UDC
MPRD
Janjaweed
Alleged support:
 Sudan (until 2010)
200520052005 Bangladesh India border clash
 India
 Bangladesh
20052008Mount Elgon insurgency
 Kenya
Sabaot Land Defence Force
2006OngoingFatah–Hamas conflict
Hamas
Fatah
Supported by:
 United States (allegedly)
 United Kingdom (covert)
20062009/2013Bakassi conflict
 Cameroon
BAMOSD
BFF
MEND
SCAPO
LSCP
BSDF
200620062006 Lebanon War
 Israel
Supported by:
 United States
Hezbollah
Amal
LCP
PFLP-GC
Supported by:
 Iran
 Syria
 Lebanon
20062013Operation AstuteAustralia
New Zealand
Malaysia
Portugal
East Timor
United Nations
Renegade elements of Timor Leste Defence Force
20062009Eelam War IV Sri Lanka
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
20062009Iraqi Civil War
Part of the Iraq War
Public stability:
Iraq
United States
United Kingdom
MNF-I
Private Security Contractors
Peshmerga
Sons of Iraq
al-Qaeda in Iraq (until October 2006)
Shi'a factions:
Mahdi Army
Special Groups
Badr Brigades
Rogue elements among the Iraqi security forces
Soldiers of Heaven
Shia tribes
Other militias
2006OngoingMexican Drug War
Consulting and training support by:
United States through the Merida Initiative
Colombia through the National Police of Colombia
Australia through the Australian Federal Police
Cartels:
Supported by:
Cartels:
Supported by:
20062009War in Somalia (2006–09)
Part of the Somali Civil War
Supported by:
 United Kingdom
Invasion:
Islamic Courts Union
Oromo Liberation Front
Insurgency:
Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia
al-Shabaab
Ras Kamboni Brigades
Jabhatul Islamiya
Muaskar Anole
Alleged:
Al-Qaeda and other foreign mujahideen
2007OngoingOperation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara
 Algeria
 Morocco
Mauritania
Tunisia
Burkina Faso
 Chad
 Mali
 Niger
Nigeria
 Senegal
Supported & trained by:
United States
Canada
France
Germany
Netherlands
Spain
United Kingdom
al-Qaeda (2007–present)
Ansar Dine (2012–17)
Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin (2017–present)
Supported by:
Boko Haram (2009–15)
MOJWA (2011–13)
20072007Hamas' takeover of Gaza
Hamas
Fatah
200720072007 Lebanon conflict
Lebanon
Fatah al-Islam
20072009Tuareg rebellion (2007–09)
part of the Tuareg rebellion
 Niger
 Mali
In Niger:
Niger Movement for Justice
Front of Forces for Rectification (2008 split)
Niger Patriotic Front (2009 split)
In Mali:
ADC
ATMNC (2008 split)
20072015War in Ingushetia
Russia
200820082008 invasion of Anjouan
Supported by:
 Anjouan
200820082008 conflict in Lebanon
Future Movement
Progressive Socialist Party
 Hezbollah
Amal Movement
LDP
SSNP
Arab Democratic Party
200820082008 Bangladesh India border clash
 Bangladesh
 India
200820082008 Kufra conflictLibya
Toubou Front for the Salvation of Libya
20082012Cambodian–Thai border dispute
 Cambodia
 Thailand
20082008Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict Eritrea
 Djibouti
20082008Russo-Georgian War
 Russia
 South Ossetia
 Abkhazia
 Georgia
20082009Gaza War
Israel
 Gaza Strip
2009OngoingSudanese nomadic conflictsVarious tribesVarious tribes
20092017Insurgency in the North Caucasus
Caucasus Emirate
(2009–17)
Wilayat al-Qawqaz (since June 2015)
2009OngoingBoko Haram insurgencyMultinational Joint Task Force
Local militias and vigilantes[7]
Supported by:
Boko Haram(partially aligned with ISIL from 2015)[a]
Ansaru[b]
Supported by:
al-Qaeda[44]
200920092009 Peruvian political crisis
 Peru
AIDESEP
200920092009 Boko Haram uprising
 NigeriaBoko Haram
2009OngoingSouth Yemen insurgency
Yemen
Pro-government tribes
Al-Islah militias
Supported by:
 Saudi Arabia
Supported by:
 United Arab Emirates
2009OngoingSomali Civil War (2009–present)
Part of the Somali Civil War
Participants:
 Burundi
 Djibouti (from 2011)
 Ethiopia (from 2014)
 Ghana
 Kenya (from 2011, officially from 2012)
 Nigeria (from 2010)
 Sierra Leone (from 2013)
 Uganda (until 2017)
Regional forces:
Supported by:
 United Kingdom
Non-combat support:
 European Union
Hizbul Islam (until 2010; 2012–2014)
Allegedly supported by:
 Eritrea
 Islamic State (from 2015)
20092010Operation Scorched Earth
 Yemen
Hashed tribesmen
 Saudi Arabia
Alleged:
 Morocco
Houthis
Alleged:
Iran ( Quds Force)
20092009Dongo conflict
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
Supported by:
MONUC
 Rwanda (alleged)
Lobala rebels
Possibly:
Resistance Patriots of Dongo
201020102010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes Kyrgyz provisional government
Supported by:
 Russia
Kazakhstan
 United States
 China
Turkey
Pro-BakiyevKyrgyz gangs
Other pro- Bakiyev forces
Kyrgyzstani Uzbeks
 Uzbekistan (limited involv.)
201020102010 Kingston unrest Jamaica
 United States
Shower Posse drug cartel
20102012Tajikistan insurgency
201020112010–2011 Ivorian crisis
FNCI
Liberian mercenaries
RDR
UNOCI
 France
 Ukraine
Ivory Coast
Liberianmercenaries
COJEP
FPI
20112011Libyan Civil War (2011)
Coalition members:

  • Paramilitary forces
  • Pro-Gaddafi tribes
  • Foreign mercenaries (alleged)
Military support:
Minor border clashes:
Darfur rebels
2011OngoingSinai insurgency Egypt
 Israel
 United Arab Emirates
2011OngoingSyrian Civil War
Support
 Iraq (2017–19)
Support:
 Qatar
United States (2011–17)
 Saudi Arabia(2012–17)
 United Kingdom (2011–18)
 France(2011–18)
Support:
Al-Qaeda
 Qatar (2012–2017)
 Saudi Arabia (2012–2017)
 Turkey (2012–2017)
 Islamic State(2013–present)
Support
Al-Qaeda​(2013–2014)
Rojava (Syrian Democratic Forces) (2012–present)
Support:
United States (2014–present)
 Russia(2015–18, 2019-present)
 France(2016–present)
PKK
PUK (2013–present)
KDP (2013–15)
CJTF–OIR (2014–present)
Participants:
 United States
 France
 United Kingdom
 Jordan
 Germany
 Netherlands
 United Arab Emirates
 Saudi Arabia
 Australia(2015–17)
 Belgium(2014–17)
 Bahrain(2014–16)
 Denmark(2014–16)
 Morocco(2014–16)
 Qatar(2014–16)
 Canada(2014–15)
2011OngoingSudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile Sudan
Alleged support:
 Ethiopia
 South Sudan
20112017Shia insurgency in BahrainBahrain
  • Wa'ad Allah Brigades
  • Islamic Allah Brigades
  • Imam al-Mahdi Brigades
  • al-Haydariyah Brigades
Iran (alleged)
Saraya al-Mukhtar (al-Mukhtar Brigade)
Saraya al Karar
Asa’ib al-Muqawama al-Bahrainia
Alleged support:
20112017Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon
Part of the Syrian Civil War
Supported by:
Pro-Syrian government militias:
Supported by:
Other militias:
Anti-Syrian government militias:
Al-Qaeda affiliates:
 Islamic State 
(from 2013)
2011OngoingEthnic violence in South Sudan (2011–present)
Various tribesVarious tribes
20112012Operation Linda Nchi
 Kenya
Al-Shabaab
20112014Factional violence in Libya (2011–14)Libya
Government-sanctioned local militias
Various militias
20112014Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013)
Part of the Iraq War
Iraq
Supported by
Sunni insurgent factions:
Islamic State of Iraq (ISIL since April 2013)
Shi'a factions:
Supported by
2012OngoingNorthern Mali conflict
full list
Supported by:
full list
Non-state combatants:
Ganda Iso
 FLNA[100][101]
 MSA (from 2016)
GATIA (from 2014)
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA)
Islamic Movement of Azawad
(MIA)[102]
Islamist Groups
Al-Qaeda
 Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin (2017–present)
 Al-Mourabitoun (2013–17)
 Ansar al-Sharia (2012–present)
 Ansar Dine (2012–17)[103]
 AQIM (2012–17)
 Macina Liberation Front
(2015–17)[104]
 MOJWA (2011–13)[105][106]
Nigerian jihadist volunteers
 Boko Haram (2012–13)[107]
 Ansaru (2012–13)[107]
Islamic State in the Greater Sahara
20122012Heglig Crisis Sudan South Sudan
201220122012 Abyan offensive
Yemen
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
20122013M23 rebellion
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
March 23 Movement
Alleged support:
 Rwanda
 Uganda
20122012Baragoi clashesSamburu tribeTurkana tribe
2012OngoingCentral African Republic conflict (2012–present)
MISCA (2013–2014)
MICOPAX (2013)
 France (2013–16)
 South Africa(2012–13)
EUFOR RCA(2014–15)
 FPRC
UPC
 MPC
3R
20132020South Sudanese Civil War
 Mathiang Anyoor
Maban Defence Force[108]
Allied militias
 SSLM
 JEM[c]
 SPLM-N[113][111] (alleged)
 EUPF[114](alleged)
State allies:
 Uganda
 Egypt[115](alleged)
SSFDP South Sudan National Army[123][124]
 NAS[125](since March 2017)
 SSPA
SS-UF
Arrow Boys (since Nov. 2015)
Supported by:
 Sudan(South Sudanese gov. claim)[127]
 UNMISS[128]
Regional Protection Force[129]
20132013Lahad Datu standoffMalaysia
Sabahan villagers
Sultanate of Sulu
20132019Batwa–Luba clashesPygmy Batwa militias
"Perci"
Luba militias
"Elements"
20132013Zamboanga City crisis Philippines Bangsamoro Republik
20132019RENAMO insurgency (2013–2019) MozambiqueRENAMO
20142015Houthi takeover in Yemen
Houthis
Government of Yemen
201420142014 Israel–Gaza conflict
 Israel
 Gaza Strip
201420142014 Aswan tribal clashesArab Al-Halayel (Beni Helal) clanNubian Al-Dabodeya family
20142017Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)
 Iraq
Allied groups:
Support:
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 France
 Italy
 Jordan
 Kuwait
 Netherlands
 Belgium(2014–17)
 Turkey (2014–17)
 Canada (2014–16)
 Denmark(2014–16)
 Morocco(2014–16)
 Hezbollah
 Syria (2014)
Further Support:
Islamic State
Other anti-government groups:
2014OngoingSecond Libyan Civil War
Further Support:
 Egypt
 United Arab Emirates
 France
 United States
 Russia
 Saudi Arabia
 Chad
 United Kingdom (2014–16)
 Jordan (2014–16, 2019–present)
 Algeria (2014–18)
 Belarus
 Greece (since 2019)
Aligned militias:
Supported by:
 Turkey
 Qatar
 United States (2016–19)
 United Kingdom (since 2016)
 Italy
 Germany
 European Union
 Sudan (until 2019)
 Jordan(2016–18)
Supported by:
 Qatar (2014–16)
 Sudan (2014–16)
 Turkey (2014–16)
 Iran (allegedly)
SCBR militia:
ISILSupported by:
AQIM (2014–2015; alleged in 2016)
2014OngoingRusso-Ukrainian War
 Russia
Crimea (2014)
In Donbass:
 Donetsk PR
 Luhansk PR
Ukraine
2014OngoingInternational military intervention against ISILIntervening in Syria and Iraq:
Support:
Intervening in Syria only:
 Russia
 Saudi Arabia(2014–16)
 Bahrain (2014–16)
 United Arab Emirates (2014–16)
Support:
Military Aid:
Local forces:
Local forces in Iraq:
Iraq Government (supported by U.S. and RSII coalitions)
Shi'a militias: (supported by Iran)
Local forces in Syria:
 Syria (supported by Russia and Iran)
Syrian Democratic Forces(U.S. & allies)
Vetted Syrian Opposition (U.S. & allies)
Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army(supported by Turkey)
Government of National Accord
Misrata Brigades
Misrata Military Council
Nigerian-led
intervention:
(Boko Haram joined ISIL in 2015)
Islamic Military
Alliance
2015OngoingYemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Alleged support
Alleged support
Cabinet of Yemen
 Saudi Arabia
 United Arab Emirates (limited involvement)
 Senegal
 Sudan (2015–19)
 Morocco(2015–19)
 Qatar (2015–17)
Academi security contractors
Under 1,000 troops:
Support:
Supported by:
 United Arab Emirates
2015OngoingISIL insurgency in Tunisia
 Islamic State (ISIL)
 Tunisia
Supported by:
United Kingdom
2015OngoingKurdish–Turkish conflict (2015–present)
 Turkey
Kurdistan Communities Union (KCK)
2016Ongoing2016 Niger Delta conflict
Niger Delta Separatists:
201620162016 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes Azerbaijan
20162017The Pool War Republic of the CongoNinja militia
2016OngoingNorthern Rakhine State clashes
 MyanmarArakan Army
201620162016 Kasese clashes
 Uganda
 Rwenzururu
2016OngoingKamwina Nsapu rebellion
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
Allied militias:
Kamwina Nsapu militia
Various independent militias
201720172017 Afghanistan–Pakistan border skirmish
 Pakistan
 Afghanistan
2017Ongoing2017–2020 Qatif unrest
Part of the Qatif conflict
 Saudi Arabia
Shia minority
20172017Marawi crisis
 Philippines
Supported by:
Foreign supporters:
  •  United States(Military equipment, aid, and technical assistance)
  •  Australia(Intelligence support)
  •  China (Military equipment)
  •  Israel(Intelligence support and military equipment)
 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
201720172017 Iraqi–Kurdish conflict
Part of the Iraqi Civil War
Supported by:
 Iraqi KurdistanSupported by:
Saudi Arabia
2017OngoingAnglophone Crisis
 Cameroon
 Ambazonia
2017OngoingInsurgency in Cabo Delgado
Supported by:
 Ansar al-Sunna
 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (denied by Mozambican government)
Supported by:
Organized crime
Foreign sympathizers
2017OngoingIraqi insurgency (2017–present)
 Iraq
Pro-Government Tribes
Rojava (cross-border cooperation since May 2018)
Supported by:
Supported by:
Netherlands
Islamic State
2018OngoingWar in Catatumbo
 Colombia
 National Liberation Army (ELN)
Nororiental de Guerra
Frente 33 Popular Liberation Army (EPL)
20182018Gaza–Israel clashes (November 2018)
Israel
 Gaza Strip
201820182018 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes Azerbaijan Armenia
201920192019 India–Pakistan standoff
Part of the 2019 India-Pakistan skirmishes
PakistanIndia
20192019Gaza–Israel clashes (May 2019)
Israel
 Gaza Strip
2019Ongoing2019–20 Persian Gulf crisis United States
 Iran
Iraqi militias
Supported by:
Houthis
 Russia
 China
2019OngoingMetekel conflictEthiopiaTigray People's Liberation Front
20192019Gaza–Israel clashes (November 2019)
Israel
Palestinian Islamic Jihad
2020Ongoing2020 China–India skirmishes
India
China
2020OngoingWestern Togoland Rebellion
Ghana
Western Togoland Restoration Front
20202020Second Nagorno-Karabakh war Azerbaijan
Supported by:
Arms suppliers:
 Armenia
Arms suppliers:
2020OngoingTigray conflictEthiopiaTPLF
2020Ongoing2020–2021 Western Saharan clashes
Morocco
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
2020Ongoing2020–21 Sudanese–Ethiopian clashesSudanEthiopia
Amhara Region militias
2021OngoingOrlu Crisis
IPOB
 Nigeria
20212021Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan conflict
  1. ^ Following Mohammed Yusuf's death, Boko Haram splintered into numerous factions which no longer operated under a unified leadership. Though Abubakar Shekau eventually became the preeminent commander of the movement, he never really controlled all Boko Haram groups. Instead the factions were loosely allied, but also occasionally clashed with each other.[32][33] This situation changed in 2015, when Shekau pledged allegiance to ISIL.[34][35] The leadership of ISIL eventually decided to replace Shekau as local commander with Abu Mus'ab al-Barnawi, whereupon the movement split completely. Shekau no longer recognized the authority of ISIL, and his loyalists started to openly fight the followers of al-Barnawi.[34]
  2. ^ The exact origin of Ansaru is unclear, but it had already existed as Boko Haram faction[40] before officially announcing its foundation as separate group on 1 January 2012.[40][41][42] The group has no known military presence in Nigeria since 2015, but several of its members appear to be still active.[43]
  3. ^ The SPLM-IO accused JEM of supporting Kiir's government since 2013, though JEM has denied any involvement and claims to maintain neutrality in the South Sudanese Civil War.[109] The Sudanese government,[110] aid workers[109] and other sources[111] have however affirmed that JEM is taking part in conflict on the side of the South Sudanese government.[112]
  4. ^ The Cobra Faction openly opposed the government until 2014, and remained in relative opposition until 2015, when it divided into a pro-government and pro-SPLM-IO faction, the latter of which formed the Greater Pibor Forces. In early 2016, the Cobra Faction effectively disbanded, when the remaining group joined the government.[117][118] In September 2016, however, the Cobra Faction was declared restored by some of its commanders and declared that it had resumed its struggle against the government.[119]
  5. ^ Arms, military exercises and general aid.
See also
Lists of wars in World (by date, region, type of conflict)
Lists of wars and conflict by region
Lists of battles (Orders)
List of events named massacres
List of terrorist incidents
List of active rebel groups
List of rebel groups that control territory
List of designated terrorist organizations
List of number of conflicts per year
List of most lethal battles in world history
Africa
List of conflicts in Africa (Military history of Africa)
Americas
List of conflicts in North America
List of wars involving the United States
List of conflicts in Central America
List of conflicts in South America
Asia
List of conflicts in Asia
List of conflicts in the Near East
List of conflicts in the Middle East
List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
Europe
List of conflicts in Europe
Post-Cold War European conflicts
Others
Ongoing conflicts in World
List of ongoing armed conflicts
List of wars 2011–present
Chronological
List of wars: before 1000
List of wars: 1000–1499
List of wars: 1500–1799
List of wars: 1800–1899
List of wars: 1900–1944
List of wars: 1945–1989
List of wars: 1990–2002
List of wars: 2003–present
References
  1. ^ "War - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
  2. ^ "War | Definition of War by Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com also meaning of War". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
  3. ^ "Definitions Uppsala Conflict Data Program". Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
  4. ^ Faced with Boko Haram, Cameroon weighs death penalty for terrorism. Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine By Tansa Musa, Reuters. YAOUNDE Wed 3 December 2014 9:56am EST.
  5. ^ Chad armoured column heads for Cameroon to fight Boko Haram. Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine AFP for Yahoo! News, 16 January 2015 4:54 PM.
  6. ^ a b West Africa leaders vow to wage 'total war' on Boko Haram Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine By John Irish and Elizabeth Pineau. 17 May 2014 2:19 PM.
  7. ^ "Vigilantes Settle Local Scores With Boko Haram". Voice of America. 15 February 2015. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  8. ^ ICG (2018), pp. i, 4–8.
  9. ^ ICG (2018), pp. 5, 6.
  10. ^ ICG (2018), pp. i, 3, 7.
  11. ^ ICG (2018), p. 3.
  12. ^ Adama Nossiter (12 March 2015). "Mercenaries Join Nigeria's Military Campaign Against Boko Haram". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  13. ^ Colin Freeman (10 May 2015). "South African mercenaries' secret war on Boko Haram". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  14. ^ Union agrees to send 7,500 troops to fight Boko Haram in Nigeria[dead link]. Mashable.com, 31 January 2015.
  15. ^ The African Union Readies an Army to Fight Boko Haram Archived 3 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Medium.com.
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External links
Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (HIIK)
Conflict Barometer - Describes recent trends in conflict development, escalations, and settlements
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