The Litani River
: نهر الليطاني
, Nahr al-Līṭānī
), the classical Leontes
: Λέοντες, Léontes
'lions'), is an important water resource
in southern Lebanon
. The river rises in the fertile Beqaa Valley
, west of Baalbek
, and empties into the Mediterranean Sea
north of Tyre
. Exceeding 140 km in length, the Litani River is the longest river
in Lebanon and provides an average annual flow estimated at 920 million cubic meters.
The waters of the Litani both originate and flow entirely within the borders of Lebanon. It provides a major source for water supply
both within Southern Lebanon
, and the country as a whole.
The Litani River in maroon, the Lebanese capital city Beirut
Litani River is named after the Ugaritic
), a seven-headed sea serpent and servant of the sea god Yam
in the Lebanese name preserves the hypothesized ī
in Ugaritic. The river that winds and coils like a serpent through the Beqaa Valley was believed to be the personification of the deity.
Historians in the past have claimed that the location of Biblical Misrephoth Maim, the place to which Joshua chased the various tribes after their defeat at the waters of Merom, was the river-mouth of the Litani River, but it is unlikely as the name Litani
predates that of the Biblical story.
The southern part of the Litani River.
After heading south parallel to the Syrian border, the course of the river bends dramatically westward. Near this bend, the Litani comes within five km of the Hasbani River
The portion of the river flowing west is called the Qasimiyeh
. The Qasmieh-Ras-el-Aïn region, irrigated from the river's lower reaches from main irrigation canals, to south and north, is one of the largest irrigated areas in the nation, consisting of 32.64 km², shared among 1257 irrigating farmers, who concentrate on citrus crops and bananas (Raad 2004). For the entire stretch of the Qasimiyeh as it flows into the Mediterranean Sea
, the Litani River remains nearly parallel to (and about 29 km (18 mi) north of) the Israeli-Lebanese border. 10 km north of Tyre, the river is crossed by the ancient Leontes Bridge
. In June 1941, the mouth of the river was the site of an attack by British commandos and Australian troops on Vichy French forces that became known as the Battle of the Litani River
The Litani River Dam, as seen from the highway to the west.
Litani River Dam
, an artificial lake of 12 square km, was created by the Litani River Dam
, 60 meters high and 1,350 meters in length, which was completed in 1959.
A spillway of 6503 meters carries the water to the underground station where generators produce a maximum of 185 megawatts of electricity, the largest hydroelectric
project in Lebanon. The dam was intended eventually to provide irrigation for 310 km² of farmland in South Lebanon and 80 km² in the Beqaa Valley. The office is at the southern (dam) end of the lake on the left side. The lakeside has a hotel and a number of restaurants specializing in fresh trout.
The Litani River Authority
The Litani River Authority
was formed in 1954 to facilitate the integrated development of the Litani River Basin. Shortly after its formation, the authority engaged in a massive hydroelectric development project
that tapped the 850 meter head potential between Lake Qaraoun and the Mediterranean. This development has brought about major hydrological changes to the Litani River Basin, where the flows from its upper reaches above Lake Qaraoun, referred to as the Upper Litani Basin, are diverted through a system of tunnels, ponds and plants, to meet the Mediterranean several kilometers north of its original natural tailwater. These changes have resulted in the effective hydrological separation between the Upper Litani Basin and the lower reaches. The advent of a protracted civil strife in the 1970s followed by a prolonged occupation in the 1980s that lasted into the 1990s, have plunged the country into disarray, freezing development and investment in infrastructure. The subsequent return to normal conditions has encouraged the river authority to initiate several major water diversion projects from the Upper Litani Basin worth hundreds of millions of US dollars.
Bridges over the Litani
- Jisr el Kasmieh (Leontes Bridge)
- Jisr el Akai
- Jisr el Khardali
- Jisr el Khatueh (Kakhieh)
- Jisr el Burghuz
- Jisr el Meshghara
- Jisr el Karaoum
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- ^ "The Characteristics of the Litani River". The Litani River Authority. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- ^ Price, Robert. Bart Ehrman Interpreted. Pitchstone Publishing, Durham, NC. 2018, p. 153.
- ^ Price (2018), p. .
- ^ Bekkum, Koert va. From Conquest to Coexistence: Ideology and Antiquarian Intent in the Historiography of Israel's Settlement in Canaan Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherland, 2011, p. 178.
- ^ Bickerman, Elias Joseph. The Jews in the Greek Age, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998, pp. 69-70.
- ^ "The Qaraoun Dam". The Litani River Authority. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- ^ a b "Litani River Basin Management Support Project (LRBMS)". Globalwaters. Archived from the original on 4 November 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- Ramadan, H.H., Beighley, R.E and Ramamurthy, A.S. (2013). "Temperature and precipitation trends in Lebanon’s largest river: the Litani Basin”, American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 139 (1), pp. 86–95.
- Ramadan, H.H., Ramamurthy, A.S., and Beighley, R.E (2012). "Inter-annual temperature and precipitation variations over the Litani Basin in response to atmospheric circulation patterns”, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Volume 108, Numbers 3-4 (2012), pp. 563–577.
- Ramadan, H.H., Beighley R.E. and Ramamurthy A.S. (2012). "Modeling Streamflow Trends for a Watershed with Limited Data: A case on the Litani Basin, Lebanon” Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57 (8), pp. 1516–1529.
- Ramadan, H.H., Ramamurthy A.S. and Beighley R.E. (2013). "Sensitivity of the Litani Basin’s runoff in Lebanon to climate change.” International Journal of Environment and Pollution (in press).
- Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
- Raad, Daoud, 2004. "Localized irrigation in Qasmieh-Ras-el-Aïn: a technique to be encouraged" pdf file
- Amery, H. A. 1993. "The Litani River of Lebanon", Geographical Review 83 (3) pp229–237.
- Where the western Litani empties into the Mediterranean, on Wikimapia
- Old Feud Over Lebanese River Takes New Turn
- Assaf, Hamed and Saadeh, Mark. "Development of an Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Control in the Upper Litani Basin, Lebanon", Proceedings of the iEMSs Third Biennial Meeting, "Summit on Environmental Modelling and Software". International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, Burlington, USA, July 2006.
Last edited on 4 March 2021, at 21:26
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