Habitability in Law
is the conformance of a residence
to the implied warranty
of habitability.[circular definition]
A residence that complies is said to be habitable
. It is an implied warranty
or contract, meaning it does not have to be an express contract
, or provision
of a contract
. There was no implied warranty of habitability for tenants at common law
and the legal doctrine
has since developed in many jurisdictions through housing laws and regulations.
Habitability is a common law doctrine that is largely synonymous with tenantability
In Architecture, the term habitabilty is understood to be an umbrella term for the suitability and value of a built habitat for its inhabitants in a specific environment over time.
In order to be habitable, such housing usually:
New York law
Some states, such as New York
, have given additional statutory protections in addition to those created by caselaw
These statutes include:
- Lobby attendant service by a concierge or landlord 
- Elevator mirrors 
- Smoke detectors
- Window guards
- Intercoms and self-locking doors
- Protection from lead paint 
Habitability in Extreme Environments
Human Factors and habitability are important topics for working and living spaces. For space exploration, they are vital for mission success. One of the critical characteristics for living and working in extreme environments the dependency on the habitat, its technological capability as well as the sociospatial framing. Inhabitants who are exposed to remote and hostile environments, not only must overcome the challenges posed by the dangers and limitations imposed by the particular environment itself, but also experience significant distress from being confined indoors and isolated from civiliazation and social contact
Components of the system include: The setting, the individual, the group or (microsociety) and the time. Support and evidence for the need of integrating habitability can be found in every decade. Thomas M. Fraser suggested "that habitability can be consedered as the equilibrium state, resulting from man-machine-environment-mission interactions which permits man to maintain physiological homeostasis, adequate performance, and psycho-social integrity".
Habitability of Islands
In 2020, small islands in Europe not satisfied with the sustainability methods and tools, created a habitability tool to measure their own attractiveness as a place to live. There are 40 indicators grouped into seven areas that can be used to test the habitability of an island society on a four-grade scale. Åbo Academy University is giving a course in making a Habitability analysis.
- ^ "Landlord-Tenant Law". Wex. Cornell Law School. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- ^ "Duties of the Landlord". LawShelf. National Paralegal College. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- ^ Cudney, Kevin (1975). "Landlord and Tenant--Tenantable Condition of Premises--Relation of Landlord's Statutory Obligations to Common Law Warranty of Landlord's Statutory Obligations to Common Law Warranty of Habitability". Case Western Reserve Law Review. 25 (2): 371.
- ^ Verfasser, Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra. Architecture for Astronauts An Activity-based Approach. ISBN 978-3-7091-0667-9. OCLC 863786893.
- ^ In New York, see N.Y. Multiple Dwelling Law § 79.
- ^ Mold in condominium: Negligent maintenance: Breach of warranty of habitability: Settlement: Verdict | Law Reporter | Find Articles at BNET.com
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- ^ Pennsylvania
- ^ generally, United States
- ^ California
- ^ District of Columbia
- ^ Vermont (form).
- ^ TITLE 10.COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Part 7. TEXAS RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION COMMISSION Chapter 304. WARRANTIES AND BUILDING AND PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Texas Residential Construction Commission
- ^ Massachusetts
- ^ See N.Y. Attorney General's WebsiteArchived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine, q.v., and in External sources.
- ^ N.Y. Multiple Dwelling Law §50-c
- ^ N.Y. Multiple Dwelling Law §51-b; NYC Admin. Code §27-2042
- ^ N.Y. Multiple Residence Law §15; Buffalo Code Ch. 395; NYC Admin. Code §27-2045, §27-2046
- ^ NYC Health Code §131.15
- ^ N.Y. Multiple Dwelling Law §50-a
- ^ NYC Health Code §173.14;
- ^ Josephson, Richard C. (1971). "The Implied Warranty of Habitability in Landlord-Tenant Relations". William & Mary Law Review. 12 (3): 580. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- ^ See N.Y. Real Property Law §235-b.
- ^ Warranty of Habitability (rev 7/96)
- ^ N.Y. Multiple Dwelling Law (MDL) §78 and §80; Multiple Residence Law (MRL) §174. (Note: The MDL applies to cities with a population of 325,000 or more and the MRL applies to cities with less than 325,000 and to all towns and villages; from N.Y. Attorney General's Website Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ (Note to editors: merge with this article?)
- ^ Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Bishop, Sheryl (2021). Space Habitats and Habitability: Designing for Isolated and Confined Environments on Earth and in Space. Space and Society. Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-030-69739-6.
- ^ "NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)" (PDF). ntrs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- ^ Abo Academy. "Habitability". www.abo.fi. Abo Academy. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
Last edited on 9 May 2021, at 14:09
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.