A large number of male participants arrange themselves into a circle, which is anchored by one or several drum players. A man paces in the middle of the group playing a simple reed instrument called mizmar
, whose plaintive sharp sound reminds the listener of an oboe
. The circle claps and dances in place, while individuals join a line which rhythmically paces around the inside of the circle. The Liwa is a more casual dance than the others, and can be performed with great spirit and banter from the young men who usually take part.
The three backing drums for this dance are the shindo
, the jabwah
, and the jasser
. More recently, a fourth drum—known as the Peeper—was added.
This drummer plays a dominant role, which gives him plenty of opportunity for a virtuoso performance.
has an oboe-like sound and produces a haunting melody, which is lent particular poignancy by the eastern tonic scale
to which it is tuned. Like the oboe, it is made in two pieces, with a double reed fitted into the second piece. The best instruments these days are made of African hardwood
and Dar Es Salaam
. Their cost can be as high as $2,000.
The Liwa begins with a mizmar solo of about six minutes in slow tempo. The drums join in, followed by the ten dancers/singers, and gradually the pace increases to reach a spectacular swirl of activity. The whole dance takes about 25 minutes and both men and women can be involved in a performance.
The singing is always performed in Swahili
—the native language of Tanzania
. These were both major trading partners with the Persian Gulf
in centuries past, and have lent their language and culture to influence this fascinating dance.
It is especially performed on Eid
and other celebrations.
- Africans in the Persian Gulf
- Video of Liwa in Kuwait
- (en) Poul Rovsing Olsen, "La Musique Africaine dans le Golfe Persique", Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 19, (1967), pp. 28–36
- (fr) Maho Sebiane, « Le statut socio-économique de la pratique musicale aux Émirats arabes unis : la tradition du leiwah à Dubai », Chroniques yéménites, 14, Numéro 14, 2007].
- (fr) Maho Sebiane, "Entre l’Afrique et l’Arabie : les esprits de possession sawahili et leurs frontières", Journal des africanistes, 84-2 | 2014, 48-79.
- (en) Maho Sebiane, Beyond the leiwah of Eastern Arabia Structure of a possession rite in the longue durée, Música em Contexto, Brasília Nº. 1 (2017): 13-44
- (fr) Maho Sebiane "Nuisances et chaos des Vents. Expressions de l’agressivité dans un rite de possession en Arabie orientale", Cahiers d’ethnomusicologie 33, 2020: 113-131
- Liwa and Tanbura from Africa to Bahrain, Part 2, Al Waqt newspaper, 21 Feb 2009
Last edited on 19 March 2021, at 11:12
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