is a work stoppage
or denial of employment initiated by the management of a company during a labour dispute
In contrast to a strike
, in which employees refuse to work, a lockout is initiated by employers or industry owners.
Lockouts are usually implemented by simply refusing to admit employees onto company premises, and may include changing locks or hiring security guards for the premises. Other implementations include a fine
for showing up, or a simple refusal of clocking in on the time clock
. For these reasons, lockouts are referred to as the antithesis
A lockout is generally an attempt to enforce specific terms of employment upon a group of employees during a dispute. It is often used to force unionized workers to accept new conditions, such as lower wages. If the union is asking for higher wages, better benefits, or maintaining benefits, a manager may use the threat of a lockout – or an actual lockout – to convince the union to relent.
Far from all labour disputes involve lockouts (or strikes), but lockouts have been used on a large scale around the world during and after industrialization. Some of the lockout incidents are historically significant.
For the above reasons, many American employers have historically been reluctant to impose lockouts and instead try to provoke a strike. However, as American unions have increasingly begun to resort to slowdowns
rather than strikes, lockouts have become a more common tactic of many employers. Even as strikes are on the decline, lockouts are on the rise in the US.[when?]
In 1892, after several wage cuts and disputes with the employers at the Homestead Steel Mill in Homestead, Pennsylvania
, the union called for a strike after the company stopped discussing its decisions with the union. Henry Clay Frick
shut down the plant and locked out all workers, preventing them from entering the mill.
In September 2016, Long Island University
became the first institution of higher education to use a lockout against its faculty members.
On 2 April 2013, the Danish Union of Teachers (Danish
: Danmarks Lærerforening
) and the Local Government Association (Danish
: Kommunernes Landsforening
) declared a lockout for more than 60,000 primary school teachers across the country. Over 600,000 students were also affected by the lockout and could not go to school.
The dispute was about whether teachers should have extra working time, as the Local Government Association (KL) wanted. The Danish Union of Teachers (DFL) was against it and could not find a solution.
After 24 days of being locked out, the teachers lost the labour dispute on 25 April 2013, with a government intervention to end the lockout. The government chose to apply all of KL's main demands, and the teachers got a small wage increase as compensation.
The term lock-in
refers to the practice of physically preventing workers from leaving a workplace. In most jurisdictions, it is illegal, but it is occasionally reported, especially in some developing countries.
More recently, lock-ins have been carried out by employees against management, which have been labeled 'bossnapping
' by the mainstream media. In France during March 2009, 3M
's national manager was locked in his office for 24 hours by employees in a dispute over redundancies.
The following month, union employees of a call center managed by Synovate
locked the front doors of the office, in response to management locking them out.
Such practices bear some resemblance to the gherao
in India. It is also caused by disagreement between employer and employees in a certain department.
- ^ "Work Stoppages Frequently Asked Questions". www.bls.gov.
- ^ Jaschik, Scott (6 September 2016). "Labour Day Lockout". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- ^ Semuels, Alana. "An Unprecedented Faculty Lockout". The Atlantic.
- ^ Steve O'Neill, "Outline of the Waterfront Dispute", Current Issues Brief, (Parliamentary Library), n15, 1998. Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Qantas grounds entire fleet Archived 2011-10-30 at the Wayback Machine - ABC/Yahoo News, 29 Oct 2011
- ^ Lockout to take effect April 2 - The Copenhagen Post, 25 Mar 2013
- ^ "Striking French workers free boss". BBC News. 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- ^ Sage, Adam (2009-04-04). "Angry French workers turn to 'Bossnapping' to solve their problems". The Times. London. Archived from the original on April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- ^ Matlack, Carol. "BusinessWeek Europe - Sarkozy's "Bossnapping" Dilemma". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- ^ "Locked out call-centre staff lock managers in". NZ Herald. 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
Last edited on 15 December 2020, at 23:13
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