Political Situation and Capital
Luhuti was a region of uncertain political status, known primarily from Assyrian inscriptions,
and the stele of Zakkur
king of Hamath
Luhuti is never attested as a kingdom of its own or as having a single central authority,
although it did constitute an independent interconnected region. The Assyrian inscriptions that describe Luhuti as a country with many cities and troops.
Luhuti had many cities. Shuksi
was the maritime center,
But the most important center and capital was the city of Hazrik
(modern Tell Afis, Known as Hatarikka to the Assyrians),
located 45 kilometer south of Aleppo
Zakkur Stele Discovered at Hatarikka
Luhuti was first attested in 870 BC. The inscriptions of Ashurnasirpal II
record his conquest of its neighbour Pattin
, then his use of Pattin's subordinate city of Aribua
as his military base for operations against Luhuti.
Ashurnasirpal devastated the country, impaled Luhuti soldiers on stakes outside their captured cities.
By 796 BC Luhuti was incorporated into Hamath,
forming the northern province of the kingdom.
King Zakkur of Hamath titled himself King of Hamath and Luhuti.
Zakkur was besieged in Hatarikka by a coalition of Syrian kings incited by Ben-Hadad III
and led by a king descended from Gusi identified as the king of Bit Agusi
Zakkur survived the siege and commemorated the event by commissioning the Stele of Zakkur
Royal Family Hypothesis
Hittitologists Trevor R. Bryce
and especially John David Hawkins believe Zakkur to be a usurper,
The Stele of Zakkur
does not mention any royal ancestors. Hawkins believes that Zakkur was an Aramean usurper local to Luhuti who replaced the old Hittite dynasty ruling in Hamath.
- ^ a b John David Hawkins. Inscriptions of the Iron Age: Part 1. p. 400.
- ^ John Boardman. The Cambridge Ancient History: The prehistory of the Balkans; and the Middle East and the Aegean world, tenth to eighth centuries B.C.. Volume 3. Part 1. p. 499.
- ^ Kenneth Anderson Kitchen. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. p. 505.
- ^ a b c Trevor Bryce. The World of The Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. p. 132.
- ^ Claudia E. Suter; Christoph Uehlinger. Crafts and Images in Contact: Studies on Eastern Mediterranean Art of the First Millennium BCE. p. 133.
- ^ a b Trevor Bryce. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia. p. 296.
- ^ I. E. S. Edwards; Cyril John Gadd; Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammondpage. The Cambridge Ancient History: Early History of the Middle East. Part 2, Volume 1. p. 282.
- ^ Holman Concise Bible Dictionary. p. 282.
- ^ a b Trevor Bryce. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia. p. 282.
- ^ David L. Petersen. Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi: A Commentary. p. 44.
- ^ John Boardman. The Cambridge Ancient History: The prehistory of the Balkans; and the Middle East and the Aegean world, tenth to eighth centuries B.C.. Volume 3. Part 1. p. 403.
- ^ Trevor Bryce. The World of The Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. p. 166.
- ^ James Maxwell Miller. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. p. 303.
- ^ a b John David Hawkins. Inscriptions of the Iron Age: Part 1. p. 401.
Last edited on 17 December 2020, at 14:51
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