Auguste and Louis Lumière The Lumière brothers
; French: [lymjɛːʁ]
), Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière
(19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean Lumière
(5 October 1864 – 6 June 1948),
were manufacturers of photography
equipment, best known for their Cinématographe
motion picture system and the short films they produced between 1895 and 1905. Their screening of a single film on 22 March 1895 for around 200 members of the "Society for the Development of the National Industry" in Paris was probably the first presentation of projected film
. Their first commercial public screening
on 28 December 1895 for around 40 paying visitors and invited relations has traditionally been regarded as the birth of cinema, although it had in fact been preceded by paying shows to thousands of people in the United States and Germany.
The Lumière brothers were born in Besançon
, to Charles-Antoine Lumière (1840–1911)
and Jeanne Joséphine Costille Lumière, who were married in 1861 and moved to Besançon, setting up a small photographic portrait studio where Auguste and Louis were born. They moved to Lyon
in 1870, where son Edouard and three daughters were born. Auguste and Louis both attended La Martiniere
, the largest technical school in Lyon.
Their father Charles-Antoine set up a small factory producing photographic plates, but even with Louis and a young sister working from 5 a.m. to 11 p.m. it teetered on the verge of bankruptcy, and by 1882 it looked as if they would fail. When Auguste returned from military service, the boys designed the machines necessary to automate their father's plate production and devised a very successful new photo plate, 'etiquettes bleue', and by 1884 the factory employed a dozen workers.
They patented several significant processes leading up to their film camera, most notably film perforations
(originally implemented by Emile Reynaud
) as a means of advancing the film through the camera and projector. The original cinématographe
had been patented by Léon Guillaume Bouly
on 12 February 1892.
The cinématographe — a three-in-one device that could record, develop, and project motion pictures
— was further developed by the Lumières.
The brothers patented their own version on 13 February 1895.
The date of the recording of their first film is in dispute. In an interview with Georges Sadoul given in 1948, Louis Lumière claimed that he shot the film in August 1894 - before the arrival of the kinetoscope in France. This is questioned by historians, who consider that a functional Lumière camera did not exist before the beginning of 1895.
The Lumière brothers saw film as a novelty and had withdrawn from the film business by 1905. They went on to develop the first practical photographic colour process, the Lumière Autochrome.
First film screenings
On 22 March 1895 in Paris, at the "Society for the Development of the National Industry", in front of a small audience, one of whom was said to be Léon Gaumont
, then director of the company the Comptoir Géneral de la Photographie, the Lumières privately screened a single film, La Sortie de l'usine Lumière à Lyon
. The main focus of the conference by Louis Lumière concerned the recent developments in the photographic industry, mainly the research on polychromy (colour photography). It was much to Lumière's surprise that the moving black-and-white images retained more attention than the coloured stills.
The American Woodville Latham
screened films to a paying public two months later on 20 May 1895 at 156 Broadway, New York City.
The Lumières gave their first paid public screening on 28 December 1895, at Salon Indien du Grand Café
This presentation consisted of the following 10 short films, lasting 50 seconds each, (in order of presentation):
- La Sortie de l'usine Lumière à Lyon (literally, "the exit from the Lumière factory in Lyon", or, under its more common English title, Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory), 46 seconds
- Le Jardinier (l'Arroseur Arrosé) ("The Gardener", or "The Sprinkler Sprinkled"), 49 seconds
- Le Débarquement du congrès de photographie à Lyon ("the disembarkment of the Congress of Photographers in Lyon"), 48 seconds
- La Voltige ("Horse Trick Riders"), 46 seconds
- La Pêche aux poissons rouges ("fishing for goldfish"), 42 seconds
- Les Forgerons ("Blacksmiths"), 49 seconds
- Repas de bébé ("Baby's Breakfast" (lit. "baby's meal")), 41 seconds
- Le Saut à la couverture ("Jumping Onto the Blanket"), 41 seconds
- La Places des Cordeliers à Lyon ("Cordeliers Square in Lyon"—a street scene), 44 seconds
- La Mer (Baignade en mer) ("the sea [bathing in the sea]"), 38 seconds
Lumières La Sortie de l'Usine Lumière à Lyon 1895
Each film is 17 meters long, which, when hand cranked through a projector, runs approximately 50 seconds.
In 1896, only a few months after the initial screenings in Europe, films by the Lumiere Brothers were shown in Egypt
, first in the Tousson stock exchange in Alexandria
on 5 November 1896 and then in the Hamam Schneider (Schneider Bath) in Cairo
Early colour photography
The brothers stated that "the cinema
is an invention
without any future" and declined to sell their camera to other filmmakers such as Georges Méliès
. This made many film makers upset. Consequently, their role in the history of film was exceedingly brief. In parallel with their cinema work they experimented with colour photography. They worked on colour photographic processes in the 1890s including the Lippmann process (interference heliochromy) and their own 'bichromated glue' process,
a subtractive colour process, examples of which were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. This last process was commercialised by the Lumieres but commercial success had to wait for their next colour process. In 1903 they patented a colour photographic process, the Autochrome Lumière
, which was launched on the market in 1907.
Throughout much of the 20th century, the Lumière company was a major producer of photographic products in Europe, but the brand name, Lumière, disappeared from the marketplace following merger with Ilford
Film systems that preceded the Cinématographe Lumière Louis Le Prince
's Roundhay Garden Scene
(1888) is now widely regarded as the first example of filmed moving pictures, but Le Prince disappeared without a trace in 1890 before he managed to present his work or publish about it.
patented a "machine camera" in 1889, which embodied many aspects of later film cameras. He displayed the results at photographic societies in 1890 and developed further cameras but did not publicly project the results.
's Electrotachyscope projected very short loops of high photographic quality.
Lauste and Latham's Eidoloscope
was demonstrated for members of the press on 21 April 1895, and opened to the paying public on Broadway on 20 May.
They shot films up to twenty minutes long at speeds over thirty frames per second and showed them in many US cities.
The Eidoloscope Company was dissolved in 1896 after various internal disputes.
Max and Emil Skladanowsky
, inventors of the Bioscop
, had offered projected moving images to a paying public in Berlin
from 1 November 1895 until the end of the month. Their machinery was relatively cumbersome and their films much shorter. Their booking in Paris was cancelled after the news of the Lumière screening. Nonetheless, they toured their films to other countries.
Their house in Lyon
is now the Institut Lumière museum.
- ^ "Louis Lumière, 83, A Screen Pioneer. Credited in France With The Invention of Motion Picture". The New York Times. 7 June 1948. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- ^ "Died". Time. 14 June 1948. Retrieved 29 April 2008. Louis Lumière, 83, wealthy motion-picture and colour-photography pioneer, whom (with his brother Auguste) Europeans generally credit with inventing the cinema; of a heart ailment; in Bandol, France.
- ^ "Who's Who of Victorian Cinema". www.victorian-cinema.net. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- ^ Gina De Angelis (2003). Motion Pictures. The Oliver Press. ISBN 978-1-881508-78-6.
- ^ "Brevet FR 219.350". Cinematographes. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ^ Chardère 1987, p. 70.
- ^ "Brevet FR 245.032". Cinematographes. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ Mannoni, Laurent (2000). The great art of light and shadow : archaeology of the cinema. Richard Crangle. Exeter, Devon: University of Exeter Press. ISBN 0-85989-665-X. OCLC 44562210.
- ^ "Auguste Lumière" Retrieved 12 April 2021.
- ^ Chardère 1985, p. 71.
- ^ Burns, Paul. "1895 Major Woodville Latham (1838–1911)". precinemahistory.net, October 1999. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- ^ 28 December 1895.
- ^ "Bienvenue sur Adobe GoLive 4". Institut-lumiere.org, 12 September 2005. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- ^ "La première séance publique payante", Institut Lumière Archived 12 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Rossell, Deac (1995). "A Chronology of Cinema, 1889-1896". Film History. 7 (2): 115–236. ISSN 0892-2160.
- ^ Leaman, Oliver (16 December 2003). Companion Encyclopedia of Middle Eastern and North African Film. Routledge. ISBN 9781134662524.
- ^ "Alexandria, Why? (The Beginnings of the Cinema Industry in Alexandria)". Bibliotheca Alexandrina's AlexCinema.
- ^ "Lumiere Trichrome". ignomini.com. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- ^ Lavédrine and Gandolfo 2013, p. 70.
- ^ "City of Lyon Document" Archived 13 February 2013 at archive.today. sdx.rhonealpes.fr. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- ^ a b c "In the beginning: cinema's murky origin story". BFI. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
- ^ "William Friese-Greene". www.victorian-cinema.net. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- ^ "Chronology of Film Shows pre-1896". www.victorian-cinema.net. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- ^ Streible, Dan (11 April 2008). Fight Pictures: A History of Boxing and Early Cinema. University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780520940581. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- Chardère, B. Les images des Lumière (in French). Paris: Gallimard, 1995. ISBN 2-07-011462-7.
- Chardère, B., G. Borgé, G. and M. Borge. Les Lumière (in French). Paris: Bibliothèque des Arts, 1985. ISBN 2-85047-068-6.
- Cook, David. A History of Narrative Film (4th ed.). New York: W. W. Norton, 2004. ISBN 0-393-97868-0.
- Lavédrine, Bertrand and Jean-Paul Gandolfo. The Lumière Autochrome: History, Technology, and Preservation. Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2013. ISBN 978-1-60606-125-1.
- Mast, Gerald and Bruce F. Kawin. A Short History of the Movies (9th ed.). New York: Pearson Longman, 2006. ISBN 0-321-26232-8.
- Rittaud-Hutinet, Jacques. Le cinéma des origines (in French). Seyssel, France: Champ Vallon, 1985. ISBN 2-903528-43-8.
Last edited on 3 May 2021, at 05:30
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.