After leaving the National Security Council, Albright joined the academic faculty of Georgetown University
and advised Democratic
candidates regarding foreign policy. After Clinton's victory in the 1992 presidential election, Albright helped assemble his National Security Council. In 1993, Clinton appointed her to the position of U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations
. She held that position until 1997, when she succeeded Warren Christopher
as Secretary of State. Albright served in that capacity until Clinton left office in 2001.
Early life and career
Youth and young adulthood in the United States
In January 1960, the couple moved to her husband's hometown of Chicago
, Illinois. Joseph worked at the Chicago Sun-Times
as a journalist, and Albright worked as a picture editor for Encyclopædia Britannica
The following year, Joseph Albright began work at Newsday
in New York City, and the couple moved to Garden City
on Long Island.
That year, she gave birth to twin daughters, Alice Patterson Albright and Anne Korbel Albright. The twins were born six weeks premature and required a long hospital stay. As a distraction, Albright began Russian
classes at Hofstra University
in the Village of Hempstead
Albright returned to Washington, D.C.
, in 1968, and commuted to Columbia
for her PhD
degree, which she received in 1975.
She began fund-raising for her daughters' school, involvement which led to several positions on education boards.
She was eventually invited to organize a fund-raising dinner for the 1972 presidential campaign of U.S. Senator Ed Muskie
This association with Muskie led to a position as his chief legislative assistant in 1976.
However, after the 1976 U.S. presidential election
of Jimmy Carter
, Albright's former professor Brzezinski was named National Security Advisor
, and recruited Albright from Muskie in 1978 to work in the West Wing
as the National Security Council's
Following Carter's loss in 1980 to Ronald Reagan
, Albright moved on to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
at the Smithsonian Institution
in Washington, D.C., where she was given a grant for a research project.
She chose to write on the dissident journalists involved in Poland
movement, then in its infancy but gaining international attention.
She traveled to Poland for her research, interviewing dissidents in Gdańsk
Upon her return to Washington, her husband announced his intention to divorce her for another woman.
U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations
Albright was appointed Ambassador to the United Nations
shortly after Clinton was inaugurated, presenting her credentials on February 9, 1993. During her tenure at the U.N., she had a rocky relationship with the U.N. Secretary-General
, Boutros Boutros-Ghali
, whom she criticized as "disengaged" and "neglect[ful]" of genocide in Rwanda
Albright wrote: "My deepest regret from my years in public service is the failure of the United States and the international community to act sooner to halt these crimes."
In Shake Hands with the Devil
, Roméo Dallaire
writes that in 1994, in Albright's role as the U.S. Permanent Representative to the U.N.
, she avoided describing the killings in Rwanda as "genocide" until overwhelmed by the evidence for it;
this is now how she describes these massacres in her memoirs.
She was instructed to support a reduction or withdrawal (something which never happened) of the U.N. Assistance Mission for Rwanda
but was later given more flexibility.
Albright later remarked in PBS
documentary Ghosts of Rwanda
that "it was a very, very difficult time, and the situation was unclear. You know, in retrospect, it all looks very clear. But when you were [there] at the time, it was unclear about what was happening in Rwanda.""
Also in 1996, after Cuban military pilots shot down two small civilian aircraft flown by the Cuban-American exile group Brothers to the Rescue
over international waters, she announced, "This is not cojones
. This is cowardice."
The line endeared her to President Clinton, who said it was "probably the most effective one-liner in the whole administration's foreign policy".
In 1996, Albright entered into a secret pact with Richard Clarke
, Michael Sheehan
, and James Rubin
to overthrow U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali
, who was running unopposed for a second term in the 1996 selection
. After 15 U.S. peacekeepers died in a failed raid in Somalia
in 1993, Boutros-Ghali became a political scapegoat in the United States.
They dubbed the pact "Operation Orient Express" to reflect their hope that other nations would join the United States.
Although every other member of the United Nations Security Council
voted for Boutros-Ghali, the United States refused to yield to international pressure to drop its lone veto. After four deadlocked meetings of the Security Council, Boutros-Ghali suspended his candidacy and became the only U.N. Secretary-General ever to be denied a second term. The United States then fought a four-round veto duel with France, forcing it to back down and accept Kofi Annan
as the next Secretary-General. In his memoirs, Clarke said that "the entire operation had strengthened Albright's hand in the competition to be Secretary of State in the second Clinton administration".
Secretary of State
The top level of the Clinton administration was divided into two camps on selecting the new foreign policy. Outgoing Chief of Staff Leon Panetta favored Albright, but a separate faction argued, "anybody but Albright", with Sam Nunn
as its first choice. Albright orchestrated a campaign on her own behalf that proved successful.
When Albright took office as the 64th U.S. Secretary of State on January 23, 1997, she became the first female U.S. Secretary of State and the highest-ranking woman in the history of the U.S. government at the time of her appointment.
Not being a natural-born citizen of the U.S., she was not eligible as a U.S. Presidential successor
and was excluded from nuclear contingency plans.
According to several accounts, Prudence Bushnell
, U.S. Ambassador to Kenya
, repeatedly asked Washington for additional security at the embassy in Nairobi, including a letter directly addressed to Albright in April 1998. Bushnell was ignored.
She later stated that when she spoke to Albright about the letter, Albright told her that it had not been shown to her.
In Against All Enemies
, Richard Clarke writes about an exchange with Albright several months after the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were bombed in August 1998. "What do you think will happen if you lose another embassy?" Clarke asked. "The Republicans in Congress will go after you." "First of all, I didn't lose these two embassies", Albright shot back. "I inherited them in the shape they were."
In 1998, at the NATO
summit, Albright articulated what became known as the "three Ds" of NATO, "which is no diminution of NATO, no discrimination and no duplication – because I think that we don't need any of those three "Ds" to happen".
With NATO officers during NATO Ceremony of Accession of New Members, 1999
In February 1998, Albright partook in a town-hall style meeting at St. John Arena
where she, William Cohen
, and Sandy Berger
attempted to make the case for military action in Iraq. The crowd was disruptive, repeatedly drowning out the discussion with boos and anti-war chants. James Rubin
downplayed the disruptions, claiming the crowd was supportive of a war policy.
Later that year, both Bill Clinton and Albright insisted that an attack on Saddam Hussein
could be stopped only if Hussein reversed his decision to halt arms inspections.
In 2000, Albright became one of the highest level Western diplomats ever to meet Kim Jong-il
, the then-leader of communist North Korea
, during an official state visit to that country.
On January 8, 2001, in one of her last acts as Secretary of State, Albright made a farewell call to Kofi Annan
and said that the U.S. would continue to press Iraq to destroy all its weapons of mass destruction as a condition of lifting economic sanctions, even after the end of the Clinton administration on January 20, 2001.
Following Albright's term as Secretary of State, many speculated that she might pursue a career in Czech politics
Czech President, Václav Havel
, spoke openly about the possibility of Albright succeeding him. Albright was reportedly flattered, but denied ever seriously considering the possibility of running for office in her country of origin.
In 2003, Albright accepted a position on the Board of Directors of the New York Stock Exchange
In 2005, she declined to run for re-election to the board in the aftermath of the Richard Grasso
compensation scandal, in which Grasso, the chairman of the NYSE Board of Directors, had been granted $187.5 million in compensation, with little governance by the board on which Albright sat.
During the tenure of the interim chairman, John S. Reed
, Albright served as chairwoman of the NYSE board's nominating and governance committee. Shortly after the appointment of the NYSE board's permanent chairman in 2005, Albright submitted her resignation.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
greets Albright, February 6, 2013
Albright endorsed and supported Hillary Clinton
in her 2008 presidential campaign.
Albright has been a close friend of Clinton and has served as an informal advisor on foreign policy matters.
On December 1, 2008, then-President-elect Barack Obama
nominated then-Senator Clinton for Albright's former post of Secretary of State.
In September 2009, Albright opened an exhibition of her personal jewelry collection at the Museum of Art and Design
in New York City
, which ran until January 2010.
In 2009 Albright also published the book Read My Pins: Stories from a Diplomat's Jewel Box
about her pins.
In August 2012, when speaking at an Obama campaign
event in Highlands Ranch, Colorado
, Albright was asked the question "How long will you blame that previous administration
for all of your problems?", to which she replied "Forever".
In October 2012, Albright appeared in a video on the official Twitter feed for the Democratic Party, responding to then-GOP candidate Mitt Romney
's assertion that Russia was the "number-one geopolitical foe" of the United States. According to Albright, Romney's statement was proof that he had "little understanding of what was actually going on in the 21st Century [and] he is not up to date and that is a very dangerous aspect [of his candidacy]".
Deaths by sanctions against Iraq
On May 12, 1996, Albright defended UN sanctions against Iraq
on a 60 Minutes
segment in which Lesley Stahl
asked her, "We have heard that half a million children have died. I mean, that's more children than died in Hiroshima. And, you know, is the price worth it?" and Albright replied, "We think the price is worth it."
Albright later criticized Stahl's segment as "amount[ing] to Iraqi propaganda", saying that her question was a loaded question
She wrote, "I had fallen into a trap and said something I did not mean",
and she regretted coming "across as cold-blooded and cruel".
Sanctions critics took Albright's failure to reframe the question as confirmation of the statistic.
The segment won an Emmy Award.
In the context of the 1998 Iraq campaign, Albright expressed another justification, saying, "But if we have to use force, it is because we are America; we are the indispensable nation. We stand tall and we see further than other countries into the future, and we see the danger here to all of us."
2003 Iraq War
According to Politifact, Albright opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq
, although after the U.S. was committed to the war, she said she would support the President.
Art ownership lawsuit
Following the Washington Post'
s profile of Albright by Michael Dobbs
, an Austrian man named Philipp Harmer launched legal action against Albright, claiming her father had illegally taken possession of artwork that belonged to his great-grandfather, Karl Nebrich.
Nebrich, a German-speaking Prague industrialist, was forced to abandon some of his possessions when ethnic Germans were expelled from the country after World War II under the Beneš decrees
. His apartment, at 11 Hradčanská Street in Prague, was subsequently given to Korbel and his family, which they occupied before also being forced to flee to America. Harmer felt Korbel stole his great-grandfather's artwork, which was left in the apartment. The matter was handled by Albright's brother, John Korbel.
Allegations of hate speech against Serbs
The place where the Prague incident took place.
In late October 2012, during a book signing in the Prague bookstore Palác Knih Luxor
, Albright was visited by a group of activists from the Czech organization "Přátelé Srbů na Kosovu". She was filmed saying, "Disgusting Serbs, get out!" to the Czech group, which had brought war photos to the signing, some of which showed Serbian victims of the Kosovo War
in 1999. The protesters were expelled from the event when police arrived. Two videos of the incident were later posted by the group on their YouTube
Filmmaker Emir Kusturica
expressed thanks to Czech director Václav Dvořák for organizing and participating in the demonstration. Together with other protesters, Dvořák also reported Albright to the police, stating that she was spreading ethnic hatred
and disrespect to the victims of the war.
Albright's involvement in the NATO bombing of Serbia
was the main cause of the demonstration – a sensitive topic which became even more controversial when it was revealed that her investment firm, Albright Capital Management, was preparing to bid in the proposed privatization
of Kosovo's state-owned telecom and postal company, Post and Telecom of Kosovo
. In an article published by the New York-based magazine Bloomberg Businessweek
, it was estimated that the deal could be as large as €600 million. Serbia opposed the sale, and intended to file a lawsuit to block it, alleging that the rights of former Serbian employees were not respected.
Clinton campaign comment
Albright supported Hillary Clinton
during her 2016 presidential campaign
. While introducing Clinton at a campaign event in New Hampshire
ahead of that state's primary
, Albright said, "There's a special place in hell for women who don't help each other" (a phrase Albright had used on several previous occasions in other contexts).
The remark was seen as a rebuke of younger women who supported Clinton's primary
rival, Senator Bernie Sanders
, which many women found "startling and offensive".
In a New York Times op-ed
published several days after the remark, Albright said: "I absolutely believe what I said, that women should help one another, but this was the wrong context and the wrong time to use that line. I did not mean to argue that women should support a particular candidate based solely on gender."
Support for Herbalife
Honorary degrees and awards
Medlin Olbrajt Square in Prishtinë, Kosovo named in honor of Madeleine Albright
Korbel was raised Roman Catholic, but converted to the Episcopal Church
at the time of her marriage in 1959. Her parents had converted from Judaism to Catholicism
in 1941, during her early childhood, while still in Czechoslovakia, in an effort to avoid anti-Jewish persecution before they immigrated to the US. They never discussed their Jewish ancestry with her later.
When The Washington Post
reported on Albright's Jewish heritage shortly after she had become Secretary of State in 1997, Albright said that the report was a "major surprise".
Albright has said that she did not learn until age 59 that both her parents were born and raised in Jewish families. As many as a dozen of her relatives in Czechoslovakia—including three of her grandparents—had been murdered in the Holocaust
Albright has mentioned her physical fitness and exercise regimen in several interviews. In 2006, she said she was capable of leg pressing
400 pounds (180 kg).
Albright was listed as one of the fifty best-dressed over 50s by The Guardian
in March 2013.
- ^ Madeleine Albright's House in Purcellville, VA (Google Maps) Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- ^ Sciolino, Elaine (July 26, 1988). "Dukakis's Foreign Policy Adviser: Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- ^ "Madeleine Albright Fast Facts". CNN. May 8, 2014. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
- ^ Roger Cohen. "Memory Goes to War". The New Republic. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
- ^ Dumbrell, John (December 2008). "President Clinton's Secretaries of State: Warren Christopher and Madeleine Albright" (PDF). Journal of Transatlantic Studies. 6 (3): 217–227. doi:10.1080/14794010802548016. S2CID 144358880 – via Academic Search Complete.
- ^ Koven, Steven G.; Götzke, Frank (August 9, 2010). American Immigration Policy: Confronting the Nation's Challenges. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387959405.
- ^ Brockes, Emma (October 30, 2003). "Interview: Madeleine Albright". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- ^ Williams, Ian (February 25, 1999). "Albright's State Deportment". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- ^ Sciolino, Elaine (September 22, 1996). "Madeleine Albright's Audition". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- ^ "Madeleine Albright: Georgetown's Treasured Professor Active as Ever". www.georgetown.edu. May 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- ^ Cohen, Tom (May 29, 2012). "Albright, Dylan among recipients of Presidential Medal of Freedom". CNN.[permanent dead link]
- ^ "Board of Directors – Council on Foreign Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. May 14, 2006. Archived from the original on November 3, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ "Biography at The Washington Post". The Washington Post. December 15, 1999. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- ^ a b c "Madeleine Albright's War Years". Tablet Magazine. April 26, 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-03-10. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
- ^ a b Dobbs, Michael (December 28, 2000). "Josef Korbel's Enduring Foreign Policy Legacy". The Washington Post. p. A05. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2009.(subscription required)
- ^ Dobbs, Michael (February 9, 1997). "Out Of The Past". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- ^ Baum, Geraldine (February 8, 1995). "A Diplomatic Core". Los Angeles Times. p. 3. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- ^ Albright, 2003: pp. 8–9
- ^ a b c Dobbs, Michael (February 4, 1997). "Albright's Family Tragedy Comes to Light". The Washington Post.
- ^ a b c "Voices on Antisemitism interview with Madeleine K. Albright". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. April 12, 2007.
- ^ "Albright's Family Tragedy Comes to Light". The Washington Post. February 4, 1997. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
- ^ Albright, 2003, pp. 9–11.
- ^ John Carlin (February 8, 1998). "Profile: She who knows tyranny; Madeleine Albright". The Independent. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 9.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 15.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 4.
- ^ a b Albright, 2003, p. 17.
- ^ "Passenger Manifest". The Statue of Liberty – Ellis Island Foundation. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
- ^ Dobbs, Michael (1999). Madeleine Albright: A twentieth-century odyssey. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-5659-9. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 18.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 19–20.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 20.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 24.
- ^ a b c Albright, 2003, p. 47.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 43.
- ^ Albright, 2003, pp. 34–35.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 36.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 48.
- ^ Albright, 2003, pp. 49–50.
- ^ a b Albright, 2003, p. 52.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 54.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 55.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 56.
- ^ Albright, 2003, pp. 56, 59, 71.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 57.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 71.
- ^ Albright, 2003, pp. 63–66.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 65.
- ^ a b Scott, A. O. (April 25, 1999). "Madeleine Albright: The Diplomat Who Mistook Her Life for Statecraft". Slate. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
- ^ a b Albright, 2003, p. 91.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 92.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 94.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 99.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 100.
- ^ Albright, 2003, pp. 102–104.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 127.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 131.
- ^ a b Albright, 2003, p. 207.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 147.
- ^ Dallaire, Roméo (January 2005). Shake Hands with the Devi. p. 374. ISBN 9780786715107.
- ^ a b Albright, 2003, pp. 150–151.
- ^ "Interview Madeleine Albright". Ghosts of Rwanda. PBS Frontline. April 1, 2004. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 205.
- ^ "Albright's Personal Odyssey Shaped Foreign Policy Beliefs". The Washington Post. December 6, 1996. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
- ^ Goshko, John M. (February 16, 2016). "Boutros Boutros-Ghali, U.N. secretary general who clashed with U.S., dies". The Washington Post.
- ^ a b Clarke, Richard (2004). Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror. New York: Free Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-7432-6024-4.
- ^ Thomas Blood, Madam Secretary (1997) pp 12-34.
- ^ "Biography: Madeleine Korbel Albright". Office of the US Secretary of State. Archived from the original on February 4, 2016. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- ^ Albright, 2003, p. 182.
- ^ "U.S. to Boycott Seating of New Hong Kong Legislature – June 10, 1997". CNN. June 10, 1997. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ "Before Bombings, Omens and Fears". Partners.nytimes.com. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ PBS Documentary
- ^ Clark, Richard A. (2004). Against All Enemies. Simon and Schuster. p. 206. ISBN 9780743266406.
- ^ "News from the USIA Washington File". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- ^ "U.S. policy on Iraq draws fire in Ohio", CNN. February 18, 1998. Retrieved January 9, 2017
- ^ "Hussein seeks 'just' solution to standoff". CNN. November 13, 1998. Archived from the original on January 17, 2007. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
- ^ "Frontline: Kim's Nuclear Gamble: Interviews: Madeleine Albright". PBS. March 27, 2003. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ "U.S. Will Maintain Pressure on Iraq, Albright Says". United States Diplomatic Mission to Italy. January 8, 2001. Archived from the original on June 5, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ "National - Jefferson Awards Foundation". Archived from the original on 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- ^ "EUROPE | Albright Tipped for Czech Presidency". BBC News. February 28, 2000. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A"(PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- ^ "The Albright Group LLC". BusinessWeek. 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2008.
- ^ "Albright Capital Management LLC – Brochure" (PDF). Albright Capital Management. March 18, 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on November 29, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "Business: Interim NYSE chairman to stay another year". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ "Board of Directors-Council on Foreign Relations". Archived from the original on November 3, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- ^ "Faculty – Mortara Center for International Studies". Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "The Harry S. Truman Scholarship Foundation – Officers & Board of Trustees". Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "Making the Law Work for Everyone – Group Report – Volume II" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "United Nations Foundation – Ministerial Initiatives". United Nations Foundation. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "Madeleine Albright on Gilmore girls". YouTube. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- ^ "Madeleine Albright Loved Her Waffle Date With Leslie Knope". Jezebel. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- ^ "How to stop genocide | Preventing genocide | The Economist". The Economist. December 11, 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ Madeleine Albright to Co-Chair Genocide Prevention Task Force, Huffington Post, November 20, 2007.
- ^ "Armenian Americans Criticize Hypocrisy of Genocide Prevention Task Force Co-Chairs | Asbarez". Asbarez. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- ^ "Clinton named Secretary of State". BBC News. December 1, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ Lamb, Christina (October 4, 2009). "Madeleine Albright reveals Brooch Diplomacy Pinned Down Adversaries". London: The Sunday Times [UK]. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ Spiering, Charlie (August 21, 2012). "Madeleine Albright campaigns for Obama: We're going to blame Bush 'forever'". Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- ^ Robillard, Kevin (August 21, 2012). "Madeleine Albright: Dems should blame George W. Bush 'forever'". Politico. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
- ^ Romney, who calls Russia our "No. 1 geopolitical foe," doesn't seem to realize it's the 21st century. #RomneyNotReady
- ^ "Madeleine Albright Warns: Don't Let Fascism Go 'Unnoticed Until It's Too Late'". NPR.org. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- ^ Thomsen, Jacqueline (April 4, 2018). "Madeleine Albright: Trump is the most anti-democratic president in American history". TheHill. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- ^ Samuels, Brett (November 30, 2017). "Albright: Trump's 'disdain for diplomacy' creating a 'national security emergency'". TheHill. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- ^ Albright, Madeleine K. (November 29, 2017). "Opinion | The national security emergency we're not talking about". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- ^ "About Albright Stonebridge Group". Albright Stonebridge Group. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "Madeleine Albright in Board of The Hague Institute for Global Justice" on YouTube, YouTube. uploaded May 31, 2011 by THIGJTHIGJ.
- ^ "Honorary Chairs". World Justice Project. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "What We Do – The World Justice Project". World Justice Project. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "Soros, Albright, Rothschild in $350m Deal". Institutional Investor. November 30, 2009. Archived from the original on August 30, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- ^ Mills, Lauren. "Soros Joins Top Names in African Deal" (PDF). Helios Investment. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- ^ a b The Mighty and the Almighty: Reflections on America, God, and World Affairs. HarperCollins. 2006. ISBN 978-0060892586. Retrieved September 9, 2010. the price, we think, the price is worth it.
- ^ Rosen, Mike (March 15, 2002). "U.S., U.N. not to blame for deaths of Iraqis". Rocky Mountain News. Archived from the original on April 14, 2002.
- ^ "Albright's Blunder". Irvine Review. 2002. Archived from the original on June 3, 2003. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
- ^ a b Albright, Madeleine (2003). Madam Secretary: A Memoir. pp. 274, 275. ISBN 9780786868438.
- ^ "The Politics of Dead Children: Have Sanctions against Iraq Murdered Millions?". Reason magazine. March 2002. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ "Economics Sanctions and Iraq: 'The Non-Denial Heard 'Round the World'". How the World Works: A Brief Survey of International Relations. CourseSmart. ISBN 978-0-205-72905-0.
- ^ Spagat, Michael (September 2010). "Truth and death in Iraq under sanctions" (PDF). Significance. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-07-11. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ "Lesley Stahl". CBS News. 1998. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ Interview on NBC-TV, (Transcript, February 19, 1998, USIS Washington File, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2016.).
- ^ In foreign policy spat, Bernie Sanders suggests Madeleine Albright supported Iraq invasion, By Linda Qiu on Sunday, February 7, 2016. "Mostly false."
- ^ a b Suzanne Smalley (May 17, 2000). "Germans lost their art, too: Family says Albright's father took paintings". The Prague Post. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
- ^ Pratele Srbu na Kosovu (2012). Madeleine Albright in Prague: "Disgusting Serbs!" (in Czech). Prague, Palác Knih Luxor: YouTube: pratelesrbunakosovu. Event occurs at 1:00. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- ^ "Madeleine Albright's scrap with pro-Serbian activists". The Atlantic. October 29, 2012.
- ^ Emir Kusturica i Vaclav Dvorak (in Czech). Prague: YouTube: sigor108. 2012. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- ^ Wirnitzer, Jan (November 13, 2012). "Aktivisté dali trestní oznámení na Albrightovou kvůli "odporným Srbům"" (in Czech). iDnes.
- ^ Matlack, Carol (August 30, 2012). "Albright firm eyes Kosovo's contested state telecom". Businessweek.
- ^ a b Albright, Madeleine (February 12, 2016). "My Undiplomatic Moment". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- ^ Alan Rappeport, Gloria Steinem and Madeleine Albright Rebuke Young Women Backing Bernie Sanders, New York Times (February 8, 2016).
- ^ Sage, Alexandria (2010-09-24). "Madeleine Albright pumps iron — and vouches for healthy lifestyle". Reuters Blogs. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ "Column: FTC moves against Herbalife, but leaves a question: Why is this company still allowed in business?". Los Angeles Times. 2016-07-18. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ "Subscribe to read | Financial Times". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2021-01-05. Cite uses generic title (help)
- ^ "What we get wrong about multilevel marketing, explained by the host of the popular podcast about it". Vox. 2018-11-30. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ Kolhatkar, Sheelah. "Financiers Fight Over the American Dream". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ "Bill Ackman says he'll take Herbalife fight 'to the end of the earth'". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ Bort, Ryan (2016-11-07). "John Oliver says multilevel marketing companies like Herbalife are pyramid schemes". Newsweek. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ Celarier, Michelle (2016-05-09). "Why It's So Hard to Bust Herbalife for Being an Alleged Pyramid Scheme". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ Bary, Bill Alpert and Emily. "Herbalife Big Winner After Ackman's Big Presentation". blogs.barrons.com. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ Braun, Ted (2017-03-17), Betting on Zero (Documentary), William Ackman, Douglas M. Brooks, William Cohan, Julie Contreras, Biltmore Films, Zipper Bros Films, retrieved 2021-01-05
- ^ "Stakes high as film targets Herbalife". Arkansas Online. 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- ^ "Madeleine Albright to deliver Washington University's 142nd Commencement address". Washington University in St. Louis. 15 May 2003. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "UNC News Release – Five to receive honorary degrees at Carolina's Spring Commencement". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. May 3, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- ^ "Knox Announces Honorary Degree Recipients". Knox College. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ Pearlstein, Max. "2014 Commencement Citations". Dickinson College. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- ^ "Honorary Degrees". Tufts University. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
- ^ National Women's Hall of Fame, Madeleine Albright
- ^ "Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright Remarks at Event Sponsored by the Bohemia Foundation Prague, Czech Republic, March 7, 2000" https://1997-2001.state.gov/statements/2000/000307.html, Retrieved 7 November 2019 12.15 GMT
- ^ "Menschen in Europa". Menschen in Europa. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- ^ Colorado Women's Hall of Fame, Madeleine K. Albright
- ^ Albright, Madeleine (October 21, 2008). "Memo to the President Elect: How We Can Restore America's Reputation and Leadership". Harper Collins. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
- ^ Albright, Madeleine (October 19, 2020). "Read My Pins: Stories from a Diplomat's Jewel Box by Madeleine Albright". Harper Collins. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
- ^ "Sunday Morning with Katie Couric – Madeleine Albright's Pins". CBS News, USA. September 29, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- ^ Albright, Madeleine, Prague Winter: A Personal Story of Remembrance and War, 1937–1948, Amazon.com.
- ^ Albright, Madeleine (April 10, 2018). "Fascism: A Warning". Harper Collins. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- ^ Dobbs, Michael (May 2, 1999). "Becoming Madeleine Albright". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- ^ Franklin Foer (February 16, 1997). "Did She Know?". Slate. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- ^ Jaweed Kaleem (April 27, 2012). "Madeleine Albright Discusses Her Jewish Background And Her New Book, 'Prague Winter'". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- ^ MJ Lee (April 24, 2012). "Albright memoir: Her secret past". Politico. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- ^ Bedard, Paul. "Washington Whispers (⍌389⍍, 2006)". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- ^ "Madeleine Albright Reveals Exercise Regimen for 'Kicking Ass'". NPR. December 19, 2001. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- ^ Cartner-Morley, Jess; Mirren, Helen; Huffington, Arianna; Amos, Valerie (March 28, 2013). "The 50 best-dressed over 50s". The Guardian. London.
- Albright, Madeleine (2003). Madam Secretary: A Memoir (1st ed.). Miramax. ISBN 0-7868-6843-0. 576 pp.
- Bashevkin, Sylvia. Women as Foreign Policy Leaders: National Security and Gender Politics in Superpower America (Oxford UP, 2018) excerpt; also online review
- Blackman, Ann. Seasons of Her Life: A Biography of Madeleine Korbel Albright (Simon and Schuster, 1999) online.
- Blood, Thomas (1997). Madam Secretary: A Biography of Madeleine Albright.
- Dobbs, Michael. Madeleine Albright: A Twentieth-Century Odyssey (Macmillan, 2000).
- Dumbrell, John. "President Clinton's Secretaries of State: Warren Christopher and Madeleine Albright." Journal of transatlantic studies 6.3 (2008): 217–227.
- Lippman, Thomas W. Madeleine Albright and the new American diplomacy (Westview Press, 2004). online
Nelson, Sherice Janaye. "Transformational leadership and decision making: Madeleine Albright and Hillary Clinton, a case study of Kosovo and Libya" (PhD dissertation, Howard University 2015) online
- Piaskowy, Katharine Ann. "Madeleine Albright and United States Humanitarian Interventions: A Principled Or Personal Agenda?" (PhD. Diss. University of Cincinnati, 2006) online.
- “Madeleine Albrights Agenda,” New York Times, January 23, 1997, online
Last edited on 13 May 2021, at 11:33
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.