MNNA status was first created in 1987
when section 2350a, otherwise known as the Sam Nunn
Amendment, was added to Title 10
) of the United States Code
It stipulated that cooperativeresearch and development
agreements could be enacted with non-NATO allies by the Secretary of Defense
with the concurrence of the Secretary of State
. The initial MNNAs were Australia
, and South Korea
In 1996, major non-NATO allies received additional military and financial benefits when section 2321k was added to Title 22
) of the U.S. Code (also known as section 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961), which added MNNAs to many of the same exemptions from the Arms Export Control Act
that were enjoyed by NATO members. It also authorized the President
to designate a nation as an MNNA thirty days after notifying Congress.
When enacted, the statute designated the initial five countries as major non-NATO allies, and added Jordan
and New Zealand
to the list.
In 1998, President Bill Clinton
named Argentina as an ally for the "Argentine compromise and contribution to international peace and security" materialized in its participation in the Gulf War
(being the only Latin American country to do so), and for its continuing support of United Nations
The designation of certain countries as major non-NATO allies has not been without controversy. In 2017, U.S. Representatives Ted Poe
) and Rick Nolan
) introduced H.R. 3000, a bill to revoke Pakistan's position as an MNNA, citing inadequate counterterrorism efforts, the harboring of Osama bin Laden
and Pakistani support for the Taliban
The bill never received a vote. In 2021, U.S. Representative Andy Biggs
introduced H.R. 35, another version of the legislation.
In 2017, General Joseph Dunford
, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
, accused Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
(ISI) of having ties to terror groups.
Reuters reported that "possible Trump administration responses being discussed include expanding U.S. drone strikes and perhaps eventually downgrading Pakistan’s status as a major non-NATO ally."
enacted on September 30, 2002, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 2003, it required that Taiwan
be "treated as though it were designated a major non-NATO ally."
Despite some initial misgivings about Congress's perceived intrusion into the President's foreign affairs authority, the Bush administration
subsequently submitted a letter to Congress on August 29, 2003, designating Taiwan as a major non-NATO ally.
Ukraine and other former Soviet Republics
Saudi Arabia and others
In June 2019 US lawmakers provided for enhancements to India
's status, though this fell short of making them a MNNA.
Nations named as major non-NATO allies are eligible for the following benefits:
Israel as Major Strategic Partner
In December 2014, the US House passed the United States–Israel Strategic Partnership Act of 2013
This new category would have placed Israel one notch above the Major Non-NATO Ally classification and would have added additional support for defense, energy, and strengthen cooperation business and academics.
The bill additionally called for the US to increase their war reserve stock
in Israel to US$1.8 billion.
The bill did not reach a vote, and as such did not pass or become law.
India as Major Defence Partner
In 2018 USA recognized India as a “major defence partner”.
The description came less than a month after the House of Representatives passed the ‘US India Defense Technology and Partnership Act’.
List of MNNAs
The following countries have been designated as major non-NATO allies of the United States (in order of their appointment):
Named by Ronald Reagan
Named by Bill Clinton
Named by George W. Bush
Named by Barack Obama
Named by Donald Trump
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- ^ a b c d e f g "U.S. Is Granting Israel Non-NATO Ally Status : Move Should Bring Strategic and Economic Gains, Shamir Says; Egypt Gets Same Rating". Los Angeles Times. February 16, 1987. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- ^ Title 10, section 2350a of U.S. CodeArchived 2012-07-21 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b 22 U.S.C. § 2321k
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- ^ "Polémica por la designación como aliado extra-OTAN" [Controversy over designation as extra-OTAN ally]. Clarín (in Spanish). October 10, 1997. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
- ^ "Trump bumps up Brazil to 'major non-NATO' ally".
- ^ "CONGRESSMEN POE AND NOLAN INTRODUCE BILL REVOKING PAKISTAN'S MNNA STATUS". Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- ^ "General Dunford: Pakistan intelligence has links to 'terrorists'". Al-Jazeera. October 4, 2017.
- ^ "Mattis says will try to work with Pakistan 'one more time'". Reuters. October 3, 2017.
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- ^ Huxley, Tim (July 30, 2012). "Singapore and the US: not quite allies". The Strategist. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
- ^ Graham, Euan (December 10, 2015). "The US-Singapore enhanced defence agreement: A third upgrade for bilateral collaboration". The Interpreter. The Lowy Institute. Archived from the original on August 26, 2020. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
- ^ H M, A (October 12, 2019). "F-15SG fighter jet detachment in US turns 10; commander says it's RSAF's 'tip of the spear'". channelnewsasia.com. Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- ^ Yong, Charissa (December 28, 2019). "Singapore and United States sign pact to set up RSAF fighter training detachment in Guam". straitstimes.com. The Straits Times. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- ^ "U.S. State Dept. approves sale of 12 F-35 jets to Singapore". reuters.com. Reuters. January 20, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- ^ "Singapore's F-35 jet purchase part of longstanding bilateral relationship: US official". straitstimes.com. The Straits Times. February 10, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- ^ H.R. 5782 - Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014
- ^ "Ukraine might be designated as major non-NATO US ally". Kyiv Post. June 1, 2019. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
- ^ Toosi, Nahal (May 14, 2015). "U.S. may raise Arab states to 'major' ally status". Politico. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- ^ "US Senate okays non-Nato ally status for India". Retrieved August 29, 2019.
- ^ Iwanek, Krzysztof (August 1, 2019). "No, India Isn't a 'Major Non-NATO Ally' of the United States". The Diplomat.
- ^ "Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA)". globalsecurity.org. September 15, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
- ^ "Congress enshrines Israel in a new class of ally". The Jerusalem Post - JPost.com. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- ^ "US Congress passes Israel strategic partnership bill". The Times of Israel. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- ^ "US Congress passes Israel strategic partnership bill". Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy. "US recognises India as 'major defence partner' - The Economic Times". The Economic Times. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- ^ "Major Non-NATO Ally Status". US State Department. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- ^ "Code of Federal Regulations - Title 22 - Foreign Relations - § 120.32Major non-NATO ally". United States Government Publishing Office. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- ^ "22 USC 2321k: Designation of major non-NATO allies". United States Government Publishing Office. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- ^ Stearns, Scott (July 7, 2012). "Afghanistan Designated Major US Ally During Clinton Visit to Kabul". Voanews.com. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- ^ "Overview of U.S. Policy Toward South America and the President's Upcoming Trip to the Region". Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- ^ "Bahrain Joins Iran in Opposing Strike". Fox News. Associated Press. August 18, 2002. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- ^ "Bush 'upgrades' Philippines". CNN. May 20, 2003. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- ^ Despeignes, Peronet (October 20, 2003). "U.S. wants APEC agenda to include security issues". USA Today. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- ^ "US tightens military relationship with Kuwait". Associated Press. January 15, 2004. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2012.(subscription required)
- ^ "US rewards Morocco for terror aid". BBC News. June 4, 2004. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- ^http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers10/paper959.html South Asia Analysis Group Archived April 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Hillary Clinton says Afghanistan 'major non-Nato ally'". BBC News. July 7, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- ^ United States Department of State
- ^ "Designation of Tunisia as a Major Non-NATO Ally". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- ^ "Memorandum on the Designation of the Federative Republic of Brazil as a Major Non-NATO Ally". whitehouse.gov. July 31, 2019 – via National Archives.
- ^ "Message to the Congress on Designating Brazil as a Major Non-NATO Ally". whitehouse.gov. May 8, 2019 – via National Archives.
- ^ NATO. "Partners". NATO. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 22:40
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