Gopala Ratnam Subramaniam
(born 2 June 1956), known professionally as Mani Ratnam
, is an Indian
film director, screenwriter, and producer who predominantly works in Tamil cinema
. Ratnam has won six National Film Awards, four Filmfare Awards
, six Filmfare Awards South
and numerous awards at various film festivals across the world. In 2002, the Government of India
honoured him with the Padma Shri
, acknowledging his contributions to film.
Despite being born into a film family, Mani Ratnam did not develop any interest in films when he was young. Upon completion of his post graduation in management, he started his career as a consultant. He entered the film industry through the 1983 Kannada film Pallavi Anu Pallavi
. The failure of his subsequent films would mean that he was left with fewer offers. However, his fifth directorial outing, Mouna Ragam
(1986), established him as a leading filmmaker in Tamil cinema. He followed that with Nayakan
(1987). Mani Ratnam is well known for his "Terrorism trilogy" consisting of Roja
(1995), and Dil Se..
He is married to actress Suhasini
and has a son with her.
Mani Ratnam was born on 2 June 1956 in Madurai, Tamil Nadu as the second child of a family that was closely associated with film production.
His father S. Gopala Ratnam was a film distributor who worked for Venus Pictures,
and his uncle "Venus" Krishnamurthy was a film producer. His elder brother G. Venkateswaran
would go on to produce some of Mani's films.
His younger brother is G. Srinivasan
, who like Venkateswaran would also co-produce some of his films.
Mani Ratnam grew up in Madras
along with his siblings and cousins. Despite being a film family, the children were not allowed to watch films as the elders considered them taboo.
"As a youngster, films seemed like a waste of time", he claimed in a 1994 interview;
however, he started watching films more actively when he was studying in the Besant Theosophical School
During this time, he developed an admiration towards actors like Sivaji Ganesan
; watching all their films. When he discovered the legendary director K. Balachander
, he became his fan. Upon completing his schooling, he graduated with a degree in commerce from the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College
, affiliated to the Madras University
. Later, he did his Master of Business Administration
(MBA) in finance from Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies
After finishing his post-graduation in 1977, he was employed in a firm in Madras as a management consultant, and continued to work there for sometime.
Ratnam with his wife Suhasini
Mani Ratnam was not satisfied with his job as a consultant as he found it to be a mere extension of his academics. During this time his friend Ravi Shankar, son of director B. R. Panthulu
, was in the process of making his first film. Mani Ratnam, Ravi Shankar and another friend, Raman son of filmmaker S. Balachander
, worked on the script of the film.
Mani Ratnam took a sabbatical from his job in order to ensure his participation in the making of the film. Being inexperienced, the makers were largely dependent upon the American Cinematographer
magazine. The principal cast included Vishnuvardhan
, and Roja Ramani
. When the filming was about to begin in Kolar
, Mani Ratnam left his consulting job and joined the crew. The film, however, did not take off and was eventually shelved. Nevertheless, he was firm in his idea of becoming a film-maker. Although not impressed with many of the films made in Tamil cinema, he was "amazed" at Bharathiraja
's 16 Vayathinile
's Apoorva Raagangal
(1975), and Mahendran
's Mullum Malarum
(1978) and Uthiripookkal
(1979). During this time, he befriended a group of people namely P. C. Sreeram
, Santhana Bharathi
, and P. Vasu
, who shared his interest of entering into the film industry.
With a script in hand, Mani Ratnam had an idea to either get a producer for his film or to narrate the script to a "celebrated" film-maker, so that he could get a chance to work along with them and get to know about the various aspects involved in film-making. He chose three directors—Balachander, Bharathiraja, and Mahendran. As the attempts to meet and convince all the three proved to be unsuccessful, he decided to look out for a producer. In the process, he along with P. C. Sreeram—who would collaborate with him in most of his future projects—met around 20 people; however, all the efforts turned out to be unsuccessful. Early years and struggle: 1983–1986
Mani Ratnam developed a script—originally written in English—into a film and named it Pallavi Anu Pallavi
. His uncle Krishnamurthy agreed to produce the film but imposed a condition that it should be made under a limited budget in Kannada
, to which he agreed. He persuaded Balu Mahendra
to do the cinematography as he found the latter's work to be very impressive.
He managed to get other crew members B. Lenin
), Thota Tharani
(for art direction
) and Ilaiyaraaja
(for music composer
music), all leading craftsmen in their respective fields. For the male lead, he cast Anil Kapoor
after watching his performance in the Telugu film Vamsa Vruksham
was signed up as the female lead.
The film explored the relationship between a young man and an older woman. Although an average grosser at the box-office, the film fetched Mani Ratnam the Best Screenplay Award
from the Karnataka State Government
for the year 1983.
After watching Pallavi Anu Pallavi
, N. G. John
offered him a chance to direct a film in Malayalam
. Scripted by T. Damodaran
was about the corruption in labour unions of Kerala
The film was completed within two months and released in April 1984. Mani Ratnam attributed the failure of the film to the conflict of interests that he and the producer had.
Following this, he entered Tamil cinema when G. Thyagarajan
of Sathya Jyothi Films
offered him a chance to direct Pagal Nilavu
(1985). The film had Murali
playing lead roles.
It was different from his previous two films in that it included dance sequences and a "comedy track". The same year, he directed another Tamil film Idaya Kovil
, a romantic drama
. He remodeled a ready made script on the lines of Charlie Chaplin
(1952). Despite being unsatisfied with the final product, the film was a major box-office success.
The phase between 1983 and 1986 was the toughest of his career with only Pallavi Anupallavi
feeling satisfactory; the other three completed with a lot of "compromises".
Following these two commercial successes, Mani wrote and directed Agni Natchathiram
The film deals with the story of step-brothers played by Prabhu
and is notable for its use of new techniques in camera framework, especially during the songs.
The film had a successful run in the box office.
In 1989, Telugu actor Nagarjuna
requested Mani Ratnam to direct a Telugu film with him in the lead role, which Ratnam agreed to after initial reluctance.
It remains the only Telugu film directed by Ratnam.
The film Geethanjali
which had Nagarjuna
and Girija Shettar
in the lead, told the story of an ill-fated couple, both of whom are suffering from terminal diseases.Geethanjali
was critically acclaimed and won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment
in 1990. In addition, it won the Best Director
and Nandi Award for Best Story Writer
Mani maintained a momentum of making emotional stories of under-served people through the film Anjali
in 1990, which starred Baby Shamili
as the central character. The film which also had Raghuvaran
, told the story of an autistic
child who changed the lives of people around her.
The film proved to be a commercial success and was nominated as India's official entry to the Oscars in the Best Foreign Language Film category at the 63rd Academy Awards
release, Mani later made another underworld-themed Tamil film, Thalapathi
(1991), starring Rajinikanth
The film was loosely based on Mahabharata
, dealt with the friendship between Karna
portrayed by Rajinikanth and Mammmooty respectively.
The film met with both critical acclaim and commercial success upon release.
Ilaiyaraaja's musical score and Mani's work were highly appreciated as they both went on to win the Music Director
and Best Director
awards respectively at the 39th Filmfare Awards
National acclaim: 1992–99
, Mani ended his long-term association with music director Ilaiyaraaja, bringing in debutant music director A. R. Rahman
to score his Tamil classic Roja
(1992). The venture was successful, earning Mani various awards. Roja
, a romantic film, was about terrorism in the Kashmir
Starring Arvind Swamy
, it was nominated for the Golden St. George Award at the 18th Moscow International Film Festival
It became highly popular, gaining an iconic status in Indian cinema and was dubbed into other languages and met similar success in other regions.
Mani took a more light-hearted approach with his next film—Thiruda Thiruda
(1993). Scripted by Ram Gopal Varma
the film was a fun filled caper,
which was a departure from Mani's previous style and fared moderately well at the box office. Thiruda Thiruda
was premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival
Mani produced his wife's directorial debut film, Indira
and then directed the critically successful Iruvar
, Aishwarya Rai
and Prakash Raj
in the lead. Iruvar
was awarded the Best Film at the "Festival of the Auteur Films" at the FEST film festival
held in Belgrade
In 1998 came the third part of his "terrorism trilogy", named Dil Se..
and starring Shahrukh Khan
and Manisha Koirala
, with the latter fabricating the second collaboration.
It showed the relationship between a young man and a dangerous, disturbed woman. Although they fall in love, she is unable to take the romance further due to her bleak past. The soundtrack album, again composed by A. R. Rahman, gained mass appeal and gave Rahman his next Filmfare Award for Best Music Direction
Unlike his previous two projects, Dil Se..
opened with little note among film critics and performed poorly in the domestic market,
despite being a success overseas.
It was screened in many international film festivals, and won the Netpac award (Ex-Aqueo) in the Berlin International Film Festival
The film over the years has achieved cult classic
In 2000, Mani directed the romantic drama Alaipayuthey
that starred R. Madhavan
. The film focussed on marriage and explored relationships and their consequences, and garnered critical recognition.
It was also screened at the Berlin International Film Festival.
Along with Vasanth
, he was instrumental in organizing Netru, Indru, Naalai
a stage musical that marked the first theatre production, with numerous other artistes, to aid The Banyan
, an organization that rehabilitates women and children with mental illness.
and onwards: 2002–2013
Mani's next film, Kannathil Muthamittal
, dealt with the story of a child of Sri Lankan Tamil
parentage adopted by Indian parents, who wishes to meet her biological mother during the Sri Lankan Civil War
The film was critically acclaimed and commercially successful, winning six National Film Awards
, Filmfare Award for Best Direction in Tamil
, In the Spirit of Freedom Award at the Jerusalem Film Festival,
and an award at the Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles
In 2004, he made Aayutha Ezhuthu
, which tells the story of how one incident sends the lives of three youths on a collision course and received positive reviews.
Mani made the film simultaneously in Hindi as Yuva
, his second venture into Bollywood. Ajay Devgn
, Abhishek Bachchan
, and Vivek Oberoi
replaced Surya Sivakumar
, R. Madhavan
, and Siddharth
, respectively in the Hindi version.
, Aayutha Ezhuthu
was appreciated by critics. Mani suffered his first heart attack while shooting Aayutha Ezhuthu
The film is loosely based on the Hindu epic Ramayana
; its narrative occurs over 14 days when a revolutionist named Veera, who lives in a forest, kidnaps a policeman's wife to avenge his sister's death. The Tamil version received positive reviews from the critics compared to its other versions.
The New York Times
called the movie a "critics' pick". However, the reviewers of the Hindi version panned the film; Rajeev Masand
said it was "a crushing bore of a film, a disappointment on virtually every count"
The Tamil version was declared a box office success.
Mani's film, Kadal
was released worldwide on 1 February 2013 to mixed reviews from critics and became a box office failure. Later the distributor of the film filed a police complaint against Mani on account of the huge losses suffered by him.
His next was Kaatru Veliyidai
, starring Karthi
, Aditi Rao Hydari
and RJ Balaji
The film, set in 1999 during the Kargil War
, followed a pilot who, during his time as a prisoner of war, reflects on his failed love life. Kaatru Veliyidai was released in April 2017 to mixed reviews and received an average box office return.
After Kattru Veliyadai
, Ratnam's next film was the crime thriller Chekka Chivantha Vaanam
, starring Arvind Swami
, Arun Vijay
and Vijay Sethupathi
as the lead actors, while Jyothika
, Aishwarya Rajesh
, Aditi Rao Hydari
and Dayana Erappa, Prakash Raj
, and Mansoor Ali Khan
rounded out the supporting cast. The film followed three children as they battled for complete power of their crime family following their father's unexpected demise. Chekka Chivantha Vaanam
opened in September 2018 to positive reviews and was a box office success. His next project is confirmed to be Ponniyin Selvan
, based on the Indian epic written by Kalki Krishnamurthy
. The film thus far has an ensemble cast consisting of Vikram
, Jayam Ravi
, Aishwarya Rai
, Aishwarya Lekshmi
, Aditi Rao Hydari
, and Ashwin Kakumanu
, with Prabhu
and Sobhita Dhulipala
also having reportedly signed on as well. The venture is jointly produced by Mani Ratnam and Subaskaran
under their banners Madras Talkies
and Lyca Productions
, the music is composed by A. R. Rahman
, while Ravi Varman
is the cinematographer and Sreekar Prasad
is the editor. Ponniyin Selvan
is rumored to be a two-part film.
Craft, style, and technical collaborations
Unlike most of his contemporaries, Mani Ratnam did not assist anybody in film-making prior to entering the industry.
A majority of his films are characterized by a string of socio-political
Because of his idea of combining art and commercial elements, most of his films garnered both critical acclaim and commercial success. Nayakan
were inspired from real-life incidents, while Thalapathi
were based on Indian epics.
Mani Ratnam handled screenplays for a majority of his films. Lauded for his casting in each of his films, he claimed in an interview that "I am not a director who performs and shows. I discuss the role, the scene with my actors and let them bring life to it".
Right from the beginning of his career, his works were noted for their technical expertise in areas such as cinematography, art direction, editing and background score. For his debut film, he managed to handpick Balu Mahendra, Thotta Tharani
, B. Lenin
, and Ilaiyaraaja
, leading craftsmen in their respective fields.
As his career progressed, he worked with his childhood friend P. C. Sreeram
and continued his collaborations with him until Geethanjali
. In 1991 for his film Thalapathi
, he chose Santosh Sivan
and Suresh Urs
—both newcomers to the Tamil film industry—to do cinematography and editing respectively.
Both would later become a part of his regular crew.
While working on Raavan
, Santosh Sivan noted "any cameraman can hone his skills just working with [Mani]" and described Mani Ratnam's films as difficult to film.
From his debut project till Thalapathi
, Ilaiyaraaja was his regular composer.
For his next film Roja
(1992), he collaborated with debutant A. R. Rahman
, who has been his regular composer for all his films till date.
Among cinematographers, he has also worked with Madhu Ambat
, Rajiv Menon
, Ravi K. Chandran
, V. Manikandan
and Ravi Varman
while switching between Sreeram and Santosh Sivan otherwise.
, Sreekar Prasad
has been his regular film editor.
Awards and honours
The Government of India
honoured Mani with Padma Shri
He has won several National Film Awards
, Filmfare Awards
, Filmfare Awards South
and state awards. Apart from these awards, many of his films have been screened at various film festivals and have won numerous accolades. Geethanjali
, directed by him won the Golden Lotus Award for Best Popular Film
at the 37th National Film Awards
. Other films like Mouna Ragam
, and Kannathil Muthamittal
have won the Best Regional Film awards at the National Film Awards
. Two of his films, Roja
have won the Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration
. The former was also nominated for Best Film category at the 18th Moscow International Film Festival
In 2010, Mani was honoured with Jaeger-Lecoultre Glory to the Filmmaker
at the 67th Venice International Film Festival.
In July 2015, he was honoured with the Sun Mark
Lifetime Achievement Award at the Bagri Foundation London Indian Film Festival
for his esteemed contribution to international cinema.
Around the same time, the Museum of the Moving Image
, New York City
, paid a special tribute to Mani. His films Roja
, and Dil Se
were screened at the museum as a retrospective.
- ^ "Everyone loves the black lady". The Times of India. 12 August 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
- ^ "The timeless duo: Mani Ratnam and Ilaiyaraaja". The Week.
- ^ a b Shetty, Kavitha (15 February 1994). "A shooting success". India Today. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- ^ a b N, Sathiya Moorthy. "Film producer GV commits suicide". Rediff. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g "Mani mantra for B-school". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 10 September 2007. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ S, Shivakumar (10 May 2003). "The seamier side of film financing". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- ^ "Film producer G. Srinivasan dead". The Hindu. 28 May 2007. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- ^ Singh, Vidya (3 November 2011). "Maniratnam, the filmmaker". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- ^ "Mani Ratnam's son a hit at party meet". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 2 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- ^ Ramkumar, Krishna (19 September 2009). "Planet plush!". The Times of India. p. 37. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- ^ "Security cover for Mani Ratnam reviewed". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 January 2003. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ a b P. K, Ajith Kumar (27 August 2010). "A life in cinema". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- ^ a b c d "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- ^ Subramanian, Samanth (2 March 2005). "Mani on Mani". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- ^ Srinivasan; Pavithra (9 September 2010). "Pagal Nilavu (1985)". Rediff. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- ^ a b c d Bhaskaran, Gautaman (7 September 2010). "Venice honours Mani Ratnam". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- ^ a b c d e Srinivasan, Pavithra (9 June 2010). "Nayagan (1987)". Chennai: Rediff. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ Hemanth (9 November 2010). "Evolution of Dubbed Films in Andhra Pradesh". South Scope. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ^ "Nayagan/Dayavan". Rediff. 29 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- ^ Babu Jayakumar, G (7 October 2010). "Tragedy brings back memories of Nayagan". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- ^ "Apu Trilogy, Pyasa, Nayakan in Time list of 100 great films". Outlook. 23 May 2005. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- ^ Tourtellotte, Bob (24 May 2005). "Three Indian films make it to top 100 list". Los Angeles: Sify.com. Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ Parameswaran, Prathibha (19 August 2009). "Sridevi calls me sir, says Kamal Hassan". CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- ^ Kamath, Sudhish (15 July 2005). "Nayagan, Sarkar stand on their own". The Hindu. Chennai. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- ^ Roy, Piyush (27 January 2008). "India's Oscar drill". The Indian Express. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- ^ K, Jeshi (18 June 2005). "When a maestro cranks the camera". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- ^ "Interview with Nagarjuna about Soggade Chinni Nayana - Telugu cinema actor". www.idlebrain.com.
- ^ "Nagarjuna, Mahesh Babu to star in Mani Ratnam's next".
- ^ "37th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- ^ a b "38th National Film Festival, 1991". Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 69. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- ^ "38th National Film Festival" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 79. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- ^ "Rajinikanth's Thalapathi to be remade in Bollywood". Oneindia.in. 22 November 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- ^ "Rajni's Tamil Top 10". Rediff. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ S Thakkar, Mehul (11 November 2011). "Mani Ratnam reunites with Bharat Shah". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- ^ "Won from the heart-39th Annual Filmfare Awards Nite-Winners". Filmfare. May 1993.
- ^ "18th Moscow International Film Festival (1993)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- ^ Sen, Raja (18 June 2010). "Raavan is unforgivably boring". Rediff. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- ^ a b c Nayar, Parvathi (25 June 2010). "Jewel of Indian cinema". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- ^ Sri (16 July 2009). "Retrospect: Gaayam (1993)". Telugucinema.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- ^ "Previous Political Film Society Award Winners". Political Film Society. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ "13th JFF". Jerusalem Film Festival. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ "A change of guard". Rediff. 3 November 1998. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- ^ a b c "The Director – Mani Ratnam" (PDF). berlinbabylon14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ a b "Mani Ratnam admitted to hospital". The Indian Express. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ "Political Film Society – Previous Award Winners". Political Film Society. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012.
- ^ "Mani Ratnam's best in Bollywood". IBN Live. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ Sattar, Miral (27 October 2010). "Five Essential Bollywood Movies to Netflix". Time. Time Inc. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ Nahta, Komal (21 September 2000). "Bollywood films strike gold!". Rediff. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ "Box Office 1998". Box Office India. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ "1999 Winners". Berlin International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ https://www.mensxp.com/special-features/features/46903-as-dil-se-completes-20-years-we-wonder-why-bollywood-stopped-making-great-movies-like-these.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
- ^https://www.scoopwhoop.com/inothernews/flops-to-cult-classics/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
- ^ "Film Review: Alaipayuthey". The Hindu. 21 April 2000. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- ^ "Weaving emotions into celluloid". The Hindu. 21 April 2000. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- ^ "2000 Winners". Berlin International Film Festival. 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ R. Kamath, Sudhish (15 June 2005). "Rahman musical extravaganza in the offing". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- ^ Kamath, Sudhish (4 August 2005). "The making of Planet Kollywood". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2005.
- ^ "Banyan pulls out of Dial 100 Mental Health Helpline services". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 23 November 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- ^ Tulika, Pearl (26 February 2012). "Delicate flower caught in a storm". Rediff. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ "The 20th JFF". Jerusalem Film Festival. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ "IFFLA 2003 Film Schedule". Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ a b Kehr, Dave (21 May 2004). "Portraits From the Class Struggle in Modern India". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ Dasgupta, Priyanka (14 January 2007). "Spinning a yarn?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- ^ Devi. K, Sangeetha (6 October 2006). "This is as big as it gets". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ SALAM, ZIYA US (28 December 2007). "Twinkle, twinkle, all stars!". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ Preview: Acceptance in Cannes bestows prestige and honour Archived 30 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Cannes, India celebrate 60 years". Variety. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011.
- ^ "Cannes fete off to a start with 'Robin Hood'". The Hindu. Press Trust of India. 14 May 2010. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- ^ "Mani Ratnam to be honoured at Venice". The Indian Express. 18 May 2010. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- ^ Saltz, Rachael (18 June 2010). "An Indian Epic With Bollywood Glamour". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ Sivaswamy, Saisuresh (18 June 2010). "Vikram's Raavanan is better, as is Prithviraj's Dev". Rediff. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- ^ Rajeev Masand (19 June 2010). "Masand: 'Raavan' is a bore of a film". IBN Live. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015.
- ^ "Going Places". The Telegraph. 10 October 2010. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- ^ "Mani Ratnam gets police protection". The Times of India. 28 February 2013. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- ^ "Dil Raju suggested 'Ok Bangaram' title to Mani Ratnam". The Indian Express. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- ^ "Kanchana 2 and OK Kanmani are superhits". Sify.com. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- ^ Upadhyaya, Prakash (20 April 2015). "'Ok Kanmani' Review Round-up: Dulquer Salmaan-Nithya Menen's Film Gets Positive Response". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- ^ "Mani Ratnam releases Kaatru Veliyidai poster, Karthi and Aditi Rao Hydari in lead". The Indian Express. 7 July 2016. Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- ^ "Its official! Mani Ratnams next to star Jyothika, Simbu, Vijay Sethupathi, Fahadh Faasil". Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- ^ "Cast for Mani Ratnam's next announced". The News Minute. 16 September 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- ^ a b Padmanabhan; Gautam. "Straight From The Heart". Asian Age. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- ^ "Cannes is not my goal". The Hindu. 12 April 2002. Archived from the original on 8 September 2003. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- ^ Jayanthi, K. (15 October 1995). "What makes Mani?". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- ^ a b "Tiburon International Film Festival – Mani Ratnam". Tiburon International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- ^ Rangan 2014, chpt. Filmography and Awards.
- ^ S. R. Ashok Kumar (23 December 2011). "A different role". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ^ a b "Santhosh Sivan on the sets of Raavan". Sify. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ^ a b "Ilayaraja, Mani Ratnam bury differences?". The Times of India. 5 April 2013. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ^ "Encountering transitions". The Hindu. 27 January 2013. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ^ "Sreekar Prasad on editing a bilingual". Rediff. 20 May 2004. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ^ Subhash K Jha (24 June 2010). "Let him say what he wants to!". Mid Day. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ^ "Padma Awards". Government of India. National Informatics Centre.
- ^ "Competition program: XVIII MIFF (1–12 july 1993)". 34th Moscow International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ "Venezia 67 Awards". Venice Film Festival. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- ^ "London Indian Film Festival Awards". London Indian Film Festival. Archived from the original on 19 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- ^ Dore, Shalini (11 June 2015). "Mani Ratnam Tribute Set at Museum of the Moving Image". Variety. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Nagappan, Ramu (1 December 2011). Speaking Havoc: Social Suffering and South Asian Narratives. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-80171-1.
- Thoraval, Yves (1 February 2000). The cinemas of India. Macmillan India. ISBN 978-0-333-93410-4.
- Film. British Federation of Film Societies. 1994.
- National Film Development Corporation of India (NFDC), Directorate of Film Festivals (1988). Indian cinema. Directorate of Film Festivals, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
- Chaudhuri, Shohini (2005). "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka". Contemporary world cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. Edinburgh University Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780748617999.
- "1994 India". India Today. Aroon Purie for Living Media India Ltd. 21. 1994.
- "1988 India". India Today. Living Media India Limited. 13: 96. 1988.
- Gopalan, Lalitha (2005). Bombay: BFI Film Classics. BFI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85170-956-7.
- Rangan, Baradwaj (2014). Conversations with Mani Ratnam. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-81-8475-690-6.
- Rangan, Baradwaj; Sachidanandam, Aravindh (2014). Maniratnam Padaippugal or Uraiyadal. Kizhakku Pathippagam. ISBN 9789351351573.
Last edited on 2 May 2021, at 08:10
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.