), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania
: الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية
), is a country in Northwest Africa
. It is the twenty-eighth largest country or dependency in the world, the eleventh largest sovereign state
and the largest country lying entirely below an altitude of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). Mauritania is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
to the west, Western Sahara
to the north
and northwest, Algeria
to the northeast
to the east and southeast
, and Senegal
to the southwest
Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is in the Sahara
. As a result, most of its inhabitants live in the south of the country, where precipitation is slightly higher. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott
, located on the Atlantic coast. It is home to around one-third of the country's 4 million people. Arabic
is the official language. French
is also widely spoken, due to Mauritania’s history as a colony of France. Mauritania’s official religion is Islam, and almost all its inhabitants are Sunni Muslims. The country’s largest ethnic group is the Bidhan
, or so-called “white moors,” who make up around half the population. The second-largest group is the Haratin
, or so-called “black moors,” who make up around one-third of the population. The rest of the inhabitants, for the most part, belong to sub-Saharan ethnic groups
. Despite an abundance of natural resources, Mauritania remains poor. The country's economy is based on agriculture and livestock. Its major industries include mining (particularly iron ore), petroleum production, and fishing.
Mauritania has been criticized for its poor human rights record
, including for Mauritania's continued practice of slavery
, a result of a historical caste system between the Bidhan and Haratin, despite abolishing it in 1981 as the last country in the world to do so and criminalizing it in 2007. There have also been allegations of systematic torture by Mauritanian law enforcement.
Mauritania takes its name from the ancient Berber
kingdom that flourished beginning in the third century BC and later became the Roman province of Mauretania
, which flourished into the 7th century AD. However, the two territories do not overlap: Historical Mauretania was considerably further north than modern Mauritania: It was spread out along the entire western half of the Mediterranean
coast of Africa.
The term “Mauretania,” in turn, derives from the Greek and Roman exonym
for the Berber peoples of the region: the Mauri people
. The word “Mauri” is also the root of the name for the Moors
History and politics
The ancient tribes of Mauritania were Berber
peoples. The Bafour were among the first Saharan people to abandon their previously nomadic lifestyle and adopt a primarily agricultural one. In response to the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they eventually migrated southward.
Many of the Berber tribes have claimed to have Yemeni (and sometimes other Arab) origins. There is little evidence to support those claims, although a 2000 DNA
study of the Yemeni people did suggest there might be some ancient connection between the peoples.
Other peoples also migrated south past the Sahara and into West Africa. For example, in 1076, the Almoravids
travelled south and conquered the ancient and extensive Ghana Empire
From 1644 to 1674, the indigenous peoples of the area that is modern Mauritania made what became their final effort to repel the Yemeni Maqil
Arabs who were invading their territory. This effort, which was unsuccessful, is known as the Char Bouba war
. The invaders were led by the Beni Hassan
tribe. The descendants of the Beni Hassan warriors became the upper stratum
, a bedouin Arabic dialect
named for the Beni Hassan, became the dominant language among the largely nomadic
Berbers retained a niche influence by producing the majority of the region's marabouts
, as those who preserve and teach Islamic tradition there are called.
After the Portuguese, the Dutch
, and then the French
, took control of Arguin
until abandoning it in 1685.
Starting in the late 19th century, France laid claim to the territories
of present-day Mauritania, from the Senegal River
area northwards. In 1901, Xavier Coppolani
took charge of the imperial mission.
Through a combination of strategic alliances with Zawaya
tribes and military pressure on the Hassane warrior nomads, he managed to extend French rule over the Mauritanian emirates
. Beginning in 1903 and 1904, the French armies succeeded in occupying Trarza
, and Tagant
, but the northern emirate of Adrar
held out longer, aided by the anti-colonial rebellion (or jihad
) of shaykh Maa al-Aynayn
and by insurgents from Tagant and the other occupied regions. In 1904, France organized the territory of Mauritania, and it became part of French West Africa
, first as a protectorate
and later as a colony
. In 1912, the French armies defeated Adrar, and incorporated it into the territory of Mauritania.
French rule brought legal prohibitions against slavery and an end to inter-clan warfare. During the colonial period, 90% of the population remained nomadic. Gradually, many individuals belonging to sedentary peoples, whose ancestors had been expelled centuries earlier, began to migrate into Mauritania. Until 1960, the capital of French West Africa was Saint-Louis
, in Senegal. When Senegal gained its independence that year, France chose Nouakchott as the site of the new capital of Mauritania. At the time, Nouakchott was little more than a fortified village (or "ksar"
After Mauritanian independence, larger numbers of indigenous Sub-Saharan African
, and Wolof
) migrated into it, most of them settling in the area north of the Senegal River
. Many of these new arrivals had been educated in the French language and French customs, and became clerks, soldiers, and administrators in the new state. At the same time, the French were militarily suppressing the most intransigent Hassane tribes in the north. French pressure on those tribes altered the existing balance of power, and new conflicts arose between the southern populations and the Moors.[clarification needed][incomprehensible]
still exists in different forms in Mauritania.
According to some estimates, thousands of Mauritanians are still enslaved
A 2012 CNN
report, "Slavery's Last Stronghold," by John D. Sutter, describes and documents the ongoing slave-owning cultures.
This social discrimination is applied chiefly against the "black Moors" (Haratin) in the northern part of the country, where tribal elites among "white Moors" (Bidh'an
, Hassaniya-speaking Arabs and Arabized Berbers
) hold sway.
Slavery practices exist also within the sub-Saharan African ethnic groups of the south.
The great Sahel droughts
of the early 1970s caused massive devastation in Mauritania, exacerbating problems of poverty and conflict. The Arabized dominant elites reacted to changing circumstances, and to Arab nationalist
calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize
many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and the education system. This was also a reaction to the consequences of the French domination under the colonial rule. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity have been suggested, but none have been successfully implemented.
This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out in April 1989 (the "Mauritania–Senegal Border War
"), but has since subsided. Mauritania expelled some 70,000 sub-Saharan African Mauritanians in the late 1980s.
Ethnic tensions and the sensitive issue of slavery – past and, in some areas, present – are still powerful themes in the country's political debate. A significant number from all groups seek a more diverse, pluralistic society.
Conflict with Western Sahara
is the capital and the largest city of Mauritania. It is one of the largest cities in the Sahara
Mauritania, along with Morocco
, annexed the territory of Western Sahara
in 1976, with Mauritania taking the lower one-third at the request of Spain, a former imperial power. After several military losses from the Polisario
– heavily armed and supported by Algeria, the regional power
and rival to Morocco – Mauritania withdrew in 1979. Its claims were taken over by Morocco.
Due to economic weakness, Mauritania has been a negligible player in the territorial dispute, with its official position being that it wishes for an expedient solution that is mutually agreeable to all parties. While most of Western Sahara has been occupied by Morocco, the UN still considers the Western Sahara a territory that needs to express its wishes with respect to statehood. A referendum, originally scheduled for 1992, is still supposed to be held at some point in the future, under UN auspices, to determine whether or not the indigenous Sahrawis
wish to be independent, as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
, or to be part of Morocco.
Ould Daddah era (1960–1978) CMRN and CMSN military governments (1978–1984) Chinguetti
was a center of Islamic scholarship in West Africa.
Col. Mustafa Ould Salek
's CMRN junta
proved incapable of either establishing a strong base of power or extracting the country from its destabilizing conflict with the Sahrawi
resistance movement, the Polisario Front
. It quickly fell, to be replaced by another military government, the CMSN
The energetic Colonel Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidallah
soon emerged as its strongman. By giving up all claims to Western Sahara, he found peace with the Polisario and improved relations with its main backer, Algeria. But relations with Morocco, the other party to the conflict, and its European ally France deteriorated. Instability continued, and Haidallah's ambitious reform attempts foundered. His regime was plagued by attempted coups and intrigue within the military establishment. It became increasingly contested due to his harsh and uncompromising measures against opponents; many dissidents were jailed, and some executed. In 1981 slavery was formally abolished by law, making Mauritania the last country in the world to do so.
Ould Taya's rule (1984–2005)
In December 1984, Haidallah was deposed by Colonel Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya
, who, while retaining tight military control, relaxed the political climate. Ould Taya moderated Mauritania's previous pro-Algerian stance, and re-established ties with Morocco during the late 1980s. He deepened these ties during the late 1990s and early 2000s as part of Mauritania's drive to attract support from Western states and Western-aligned Arab states. Mauritania has not rescinded its recognition of Polisario's Western Saharan exile government, and remains on good terms with Algeria. Its position on the Western Sahara conflict is, since the 1980s, one of strict neutrality.
Ordinance 83.127, enacted 5 June 1983, launched the process of nationalization of all land not clearly the property of a documented owner, thus abolishing the traditional system of land tenure. Potential nationalization was based on the concept of "dead land",
i.e., property which has not been developed or on which obvious development cannot be seen. A practical effect was government seizure of traditional communal grazing lands.:42, 60
, illegal during the military period, were legalized again in 1991. By April 1992, as civilian rule returned, 16 major political parties had been recognized; 12 major political parties were active in 2004. The Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social
(PRDS), formerly led by President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya, dominated Mauritanian politics after the country's first multi-party elections in April 1992, following the approval by referendum
of the current constitution in July 1991. President Taya won elections in 1992 and 1997. Most opposition parties boycotted the first legislative election in 1992. For nearly a decade the parliament was dominated by the PRDS. The opposition participated in municipal elections in January–February 1994, and in subsequent Senate
elections – most recently in April 2004 – and gained representation at the local level, as well as three seats in the Senate.
This period was marked by extensive ethnic violence and human rights abuses
. Between 1990 and 1991, a campaign of particularly extreme violence took place against a background of Arabization
, interference with blacks' association rights, expropriation and expatriation.
Aerial view of Nouakchott
. The population of Nouakchott has increased from 20,000 in 1969 to almost 1 million in 2013.
In October 1987, the government allegedly uncovered a tentative coup d'état
by a group of black army officers, backed, according to the authorities, by Senegal
Fifty-one officers were arrested and subjected to interrogation and torture.
Heightened ethnic tensions were the catalyst for the Mauritania–Senegal Border War
, which started as a result of a conflict in Diawara between Moorish Mauritanian herders and Senegalese farmers over grazing rights.
On 9 April 1989, Mauritanian guards killed two Senegalese.
Following the incident, several riots erupted in Bakel
and other towns in Senegal, directed against the mainly Arabized Mauritanians who dominated the local retail business. The rioting, adding to already existing tensions, led to a campaign of terror against black Mauritanians,
who are often seen as 'Senegalese' by Bidha'an, regardless of their nationality. As low scale conflict with Senegal continued into 1990/91, the Mauritanian government engaged in or encouraged acts of violence and seizures of property directed against the Halpularen ethnic group. The tension culminated in an international airlift agreed to by Senegal and Mauritania under international pressure to prevent further violence. The Mauritanian Government expelled tens of thousands of black Mauritanians. Most of these so-called 'Senegalese' had no ties to Senegal, and many have been repatriated from Senegal and Mali after 2007.
The exact number of expulsions is not known but the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates that, as of June 1991, 52,995 Mauritanian refugees were living in Senegal and at least 13,000 in Mali.:27
From November 1990 to February 1991, between 200 and 600 (depending on the sources) Fula and Soninke soldiers and/or political prisoners were executed or tortured to death by Mauritanian government forces. They were among 3,000 to 5,000 blacks – predominantly soldiers and civil servants – arrested between October 1990 and mid-January 1991.
Some Mauritanian exiles believe that the number was as high as 5,000 on the basis of alleged involvement in an attempt to overthrow the government.
The government initiated a military investigation but never released the results.
In order to guarantee immunity for those responsible and to block any attempts at accountability for past abuses, the Parliament declared an amnesty
in June 1993 covering all crimes committed by the armed forces, security forces as well as civilians, between April 1989 and April 1992. The government offered compensation to families of victims, which a few accepted in lieu of settlement.
Despite this amnesty, some Mauritanians have denounced the involvement of the government in the arrests and killings.:87
In the late 1980s, Ould Taya had established close co-operation with Iraq
, and pursued a strongly Arab nationalist
line. Mauritania grew increasingly isolated internationally, and tensions with Western countries grew dramatically after it took a pro-Iraqi position during the 1991 Gulf War
. During the mid-to late 1990s, Mauritania shifted its foreign policy to one of increased co-operation with the US and Europe. It was rewarded with diplomatic normalization and aid projects. On 28 October 1999, Mauritania joined Egypt, Palestine, and Jordan as the only members of the Arab League to officially recognize Israel. Ould Taya also started co-operating with the United States in anti-terrorism activities, a policy which was criticized by some human rights organizations.
(See also Foreign relations of Mauritania
Road from Nouakchott to the Mauritanian–Senegalese border
A group of current and former Army officers launched a violent and unsuccessful coup attempt on 8 June 2003. The leaders of the attempted coup escaped from the country, but some of them were caught, later on. Mauritania's presidential election
, its third since adopting the democratic process in 1992, took place on 7 November 2003. Six candidates, including Mauritania's first female and first Haratine (descended from the original inhabitants of the Tassili n'Ajjer and Acacus Mountains during the Epipalaeolithic era
) candidates, represented a wide variety of political goals and backgrounds. Incumbent President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya
won reelection with 67.0% of the popular vote, according to the official figures, with Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla
August 2005 military coup
On 3 August 2005, a military coup led by Colonel Ely Ould Mohamed Vall
ended Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya's twenty-one years of rule. Taking advantage of Taya's attendance at the funeral of Saudi King Fahd
, the military, including members of the presidential guard, seized control of key points in the capital Nouakchott
. The coup proceeded without loss of life. Calling themselves the Military Council for Justice and Democracy, the officers released the following statement:
"The national armed forces and security forces have unanimously decided to put a definitive end to the oppressive activities of the defunct authority, which our people have suffered from during the past years."
The Military Council later issued another statement naming Colonel Vall as president and director of the national police force, the Sûreté Nationale. Vall, once regarded as a firm ally of the now-ousted president, had aided Taya in the coup that had originally brought him to power, and had later served as his security chief. Sixteen other officers were listed as members of the Council.
Though cautiously watched by the international community, the coup came to be generally accepted, with the military junta
organizing elections within a promised two-year timeline. In a referendum
on 26 June 2006, Mauritanians overwhelmingly (97%) approved a new constitution which limited the duration of a president's stay in office. The leader of the junta
, Col. Vall, promised to abide by the referendum and relinquish power peacefully. Mauritania's establishment of relations with Israel
– it is one of only three Arab states to recognize Israel – was maintained by the new regime, despite widespread criticism from the opposition. They considered that position as a legacy of the Taya regime's attempts to curry favor with the West.
Parliamentary and municipal elections in Mauritania took place on 19 November and 3 December 2006.
2007 presidential elections
Mauritania's first fully democratic presidential elections took place on 11 March 2007. The elections effected the final transfer from military to civilian rule following the military coup in 2005. This was the first time since Mauritania gained independence in 1960 that it elected a president in a multi-candidate election.
2008 military coup
On 6 August 2008, the head of the presidential guards took over the president's palace in Nouakchott, a day after 48 lawmakers from the ruling party resigned in protest of President Abdallahi's policies.[which?]
The army surrounded key government facilities, including the state television building, after the president fired senior officers, one of them the head of the presidential guards.
The President, Prime Minister Yahya Ould Ahmed Waghef
, and Mohamed Ould R'zeizim, Minister of Internal Affairs, were arrested.
The coup was coordinated by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz
, former chief of staff of the Mauritanian Army and head of the presidential guard, who had recently been fired. Mauritania's presidential spokesman, Abdoulaye Mamadouba, said the President, Prime Minister, and Interior Minister had been arrested by renegade Senior Mauritanian army officers and were being held under house arrest at the presidential palace in the capital.
In the apparently successful and bloodless coup, Abdallahi's daughter, Amal Mint Cheikh Abdallahi, said: "The security agents of the BASEP (Presidential Security Battalion) came to our home and took away my father."
The coup plotters, all dismissed in a presidential decree shortly beforehand, included Abdel Aziz, General Muhammad Ould Al-Ghazwani, General Philippe Swikri, and Brigadier General (Aqid) Ahmad Ould Bakri.
After the coup
Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz in his hometown, Akjoujt
, on 15 March 2009
A Mauritanian lawmaker, Mohammed Al Mukhtar, claimed that many of the country's people supported the takeover of a government that had become "an authoritarian regime" under a president who had "marginalized the majority in parliament."
The coup was also backed by Abdallahi's rival in the 2007 election, Ahmed Ould Daddah. However, Abdel Aziz's regime was isolated internationally, and became subject to diplomatic sanctions and the cancellation of some aid projects. It found few foreign supporters (among them Morocco, Libya and Iran), while Algeria, the United States, France and other European countries criticized the coup, and continued to refer to Abdallahi as the legitimate president of Mauritania. Domestically, a group of parties coalesced around Abdallahi to continue protesting the coup, which caused the junta to ban demonstrations and crack down on opposition activists. International and internal pressure eventually forced the release of Abdallahi, who was instead placed under house arrest in his home village. The new government broke off relations with Israel. In March 2010, Mauritania's female foreign minister Mint Hamdi Ould Mouknass announced that Mauritania had cut ties with Israel in a "complete and definitive way."
After the coup, Abdel Aziz insisted on holding new presidential elections to replace Abdallahi, but was forced to reschedule them due to internal and international opposition. During the spring of 2009, the junta
negotiated an understanding with some opposition figures and international parties. As a result, Abdallahi formally resigned under protest, as it became clear that some opposition forces had defected from him and most international players, notably including France and Algeria, now aligned with Abdel Aziz. The United States continued to criticize the coup, but did not actively oppose the elections.
Abdallahi's resignation allowed the election
of Abdel Aziz as civilian president, on 18 July, by a 52% majority. Many of Abdallahi's former supporters criticized this as a political ploy and refused to recognize the results. They argued that the election had been falsified due to junta control, and complained that the international community had let down the opposition. Despite complaints, the elections were almost unanimously accepted by Western, Arab and African countries, which lifted sanctions and resumed relations with Mauritania. By late summer, Abdel Aziz appeared to have secured his position and to have gained widespread international and internal support. Some figures, such as Senate chairman Messaoud Ould Boulkheir
, continued to refuse the new order and call for Abdel Aziz's resignation.
In November 2014, Mauritania was invited as a non-member guest nation to the G20 summit in Brisbane.
In August 2019, Mohamed Ould Ghazouani
was sworn in as Mauritania’s tenth president since its independence from France in 1960.
His predecessor Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz ran the African desert country for 10 years. The ruling party Union for the Republic
(UPR) was founded by Aziz in 2009.
As of 2018, Mauritania has a population of approximately 4.3 million. The local population is composed of three main ethnicities: Bidhan
or white Moors, Haratin
or black moors, and West Africans
. 53% Bidhan, 30% Haratin, and 17% others. Local statistics bureau estimations indicate that the Bidhan represent around 53% of citizens. They speak Hassaniya Arabic
and are primarily of Arab-Berber
origin. The Haratin constitute roughly 34% of the population. They are descendants of the original inhabitants of the Tassili n'Ajjer and Acacus Mountain sites during the Epipalaeolithic
The remaining 13% of the population largely consists of various ethnic groups of West African descent. Among these are the Niger-Congo
Camel market in Nouakchott
Mauritania is almost 100% Muslim, with most inhabitants adhering to the Sunni
orders, the Tijaniyah
and the Qadiriyyah, have great influence not only in the country, but in Morocco, Algeria, Senegal and other neighborhood countries as well. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Nouakchott
, founded in 1965, serves the 4,500 Catholics in Mauritania (mostly foreign residents from West Africa and Europe).
There are extreme restrictions on freedom of religion and belief in Mauritania; it is one of thirteen countries in the world which punishes atheism by death.
On 27 April 2018, The National Assembly passed a law that makes the death penalty mandatory for anyone convicted of "blasphemous speech" and acts deemed "sacrilegious". The new law eliminates the possibility under article 306 of substituting prison terms for the death penalty for certain apostasy-related crimes if the offender promptly repents. The law also provides for a sentence of up to two years in prison and a fine of up to 600,000 Ouguiyas (approximately EUR 14,630) for "offending public indecency and Islamic values" and for "breaching Allah’s prohibitions" or assisting in their breach.
As of 2011, life expectancy
at birth was 61.14 years.
Per capita expenditure on health was 43 US$ (PPP) in 2004.
Public expenditure was 2% of the GDP in 2004 and private 0.9% of the GDP in 2004.
In the early 21st century, there were 11 physicians per 100,000 people.
Infant mortality is 60.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 estimate).
The obesity rate among Mauritanian women is high, perhaps in part due to the traditional standards of beauty (in some regions in the country), in which obese women are considered beautiful while thin women are considered sickly.
Since 1999, all teaching in the first year of primary school is in Modern Standard Arabic
is introduced in the second year, and is used to teach all scientific courses.
The use of English
Mauritania has the University of Nouakchott
and other institutions of higher education, but the majority of highly educated Mauritanians have studied outside the country. Public expenditure on education was at 10.1% of 2000–2007 government expenditure.
The government bureaucracy is composed of traditional ministries, special agencies, and parastatal
companies. The Ministry of Interior spearheads a system of regional governors and prefects modeled on the French system of local administration. Under this system, Mauritania is divided into 15 regions (wilaya
Control is tightly concentrated in the executive branch of the central government, but a series of national and municipal elections since 1992 have produced limited decentralization
. These regions are subdivided into 44 departments
). The regions and capital district (in alphabetical order) and their capitals are:
Topography of Mauritania
Mauritania lies in the western region of the continent of Africa, and is generally flat, its 1,030,700 square kilometres forming vast, arid plains broken by occasional ridges and clifflike outcroppings.
It borders the North Atlantic Ocean
, between Senegal
and Western Sahara
It is considered part of both the Sahel
and the Maghreb
. Approximately three-quarters of Mauritania is desert or semidesert.
As a result of extended, severe drought, the desert has been expanding since the mid-1960s.
A series of scarps face southwest, longitudinally bisecting these plains in the center of the country. The scarps also separate a series of sandstone plateaus, the highest of which is the Adrar Plateau
, reaching an elevation of 500 metres or 1,600 feet.
Spring-fed oases lie at the foot of some of the scarps. Isolated peaks, often rich in minerals, rise above the plateaus; the smaller peaks are called guelbs and the larger ones kedias. The concentric Guelb er Richat
is a prominent feature of the north-central region. Kediet ej Jill
, near the city of Zouîrât
, has an elevation of 915 metres (3,000 ft) and is the highest peak. The plateaus gradually descend toward the northeast to the barren El Djouf
, or "Empty Quarter," a vast region of large sand dunes that merges into the Sahara Desert
. To the west, between the ocean and the plateaus, are alternating areas of clayey plains (regs) and sand dunes (ergs), some of which shift from place to place, gradually moved by high winds. The dunes generally increase in size and mobility toward the north.
Graphical depiction of Mauritania's product exports in 28 color-coded categories
Despite being rich in natural resources, Mauritania has a low GDP.
A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s.
Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. Gold and copper mining companies are opening mines in the interior.
The country's first deepwater port
opened near Nouakchott
in 1986. In recent years, drought and economic mismanagement have resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In March 1999, the government signed an agreement with a joint World Bank
-International Monetary Fund
mission on a $54 million enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF). Privatization remains one of the key issues. Mauritania is unlikely to meet ESAF's annual GDP growth objectives of 4–5%.
was discovered in Mauritania in 2001 in the offshore Chinguetti field
. Although potentially significant for the Mauritanian economy, its overall influence is difficult to predict. Mauritania has been described as a "desperately poor desert nation, which straddles the Arab and African worlds and is Africa's newest, if small-scale, oil producer."
There may be additional oil reserves inland in the Taoudeni basin
, although the harsh environment will make extraction expensive.
The United Arab Emirates government, via its pilot green city Masdar
, installed new solar plants supply an additional 16.6 megawatts of electricity. The plants will power about 39,000 homes and save 27,850 tonnes of carbon emissions per year.
Mauritania is ranked second in the index of geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition (GeGaLo Index), making it potentially one of the main winners in the global transition to renewable energy.
Following the 2008 coup, the military government of Mauritania faced severe international sanctions and internal unrest. Amnesty International
accused it of practicing coordinated torture against criminal and political detainees.
Amnesty has accused the Mauritanian legal system, both before and after the 2008 coup, of functioning with complete disregard for legal procedure, fair trial, or humane imprisonment. The organization has said that the Mauritanian government has practiced institutionalized and continuous use of torture throughout its post-independence history, under all its leaders.
in 2008 alleged that torture was common in Mauritania, stating that its usage is "deeply anchored in the culture of the security forces", which use it "as a system of investigation and repression". Forms of torture employed include cigarette burns, electric shocks and sexual violence, stated Amnesty International.
In 2014, the United States Department of State
identified torture by Mauritanian law enforcement as one of the "central human rights problems" in the country.Juan E. Méndez
, an independent expert on human rights from the United Nations, reported in 2016 that legal protections against torture were present but not applied in Mauritania, pointing to an "almost total absence of investigations into allegations of torture".
According to the US State Department 2010 Human Rights Report
abuses in Mauritania include:
...mistreatment of detainees and prisoners; security force impunity; lengthy pretrial detention; harsh prison conditions; arbitrary arrests; limits on freedom of the press and assembly; corruption; discrimination against women; female genital mutilation (FGM); child marriage; political marginalization of southern-based ethnic groups; racial and ethnic discrimination; slavery and slavery-related practices; and child labor.
persists in Mauritania, despite it being outlawed.
It is the result of a historical caste
system, resulting in descent-based slavery.
Those enslaved are darker-skinned Haratin
, with their owners being lighter-skinned Moors.
In 1905, the French colonial administration declared an end of slavery in Mauritania, with very little success.
Although nominally abolished in 1981, it was not illegal to own slaves until 2007.
The US State Department 2010 Human Rights Report
states, "Government efforts were not sufficient to enforce the antislavery law. No cases have been successfully prosecuted under the antislavery law despite the fact that de facto slavery exists in Mauritania."
In 2012, it was estimated that 10% to 20% of the population of Mauritania (between 340,000 and 680,000 people) live in slavery.
In 2012, a government minister stated that slavery "no longer exists" in Mauritania.
However, according to the Walk Free Foundation
's Global Slavery Index, there were an estimated 90,000 enslaved people in Mauritania in 2018 or around 2% of the population.
Obstacles to ending slavery in Mauritania include:
- The difficulty of enforcing any laws in the country's vast desert
- Poverty that limits opportunities for slaves to support themselves if freed
- Belief that slavery is part of the natural order of this society.
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Last edited on 18 April 2021, at 05:21
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