Mawlid, Mawlid an-Nabi ash-Sharif
or Eid Milad un Nabi
: مَولِد النَّبِي
: mawlidu n-nabiyyi
'Birth of the Prophet', sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد
, mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud
, among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد
) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal
, the third month in the Islamic calendar
12th Rabi' al-awwal
is the accepted date among most of the Sunni
scholars, while most Shia
scholars regard 17th Rabi' al-awwal as the accepted date, though not all Shias consider it to be this date. Also called Maouloud
in West Africa
The history of this celebration goes back to the early days of Islam when some of the Tabi‘un
began to hold sessions in which poetry and songs composed to honour Muhammad were recited and sung to the crowds.
It has been said that the first Muslim ruler to officially celebrate the birth of Muhammad in an impressive ceremony was Muzaffar al-Din Gökböri
declared it an official holiday in 1588,
known as Mevlid Kandil
The term Mawlid
is also used in some parts of the world, such as Egypt
, as a generic term for the birthday celebrations of other historical religious figures such as Sufi saints
Mawlid is derived from the Arabic root word ولد
, meaning to give birth, bear a child, descendant
In contemporary usage, Mawlid refers to the observance of the birthday of Muhammad.
Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid refers to the 'text especially composed for and recited at Muhammad's nativity celebration' or "a text recited or sung on that day".
Mawlid an-Nabi procession at Boulac Avenue in 1904 at Cairo
In early days of Islam, observation of Muhammad's
birth as a holy day was usually arranged privately and later was an increased number of visitors to the Mawlid house that was open for the whole day specifically for this celebration.
The early celebrations, included elements of Sufic influence, with animal sacrifices and torchlight processions along with public sermons and a feast.
The celebrations occurred during the day, in contrast to modern day observances, with the ruler playing a key role in the ceremonies.
Emphasis was given to the Ahl al-Bayt
with presentation of sermons and recitations of the Qur'an.
The exact origins of the Mawlid is difficult to trace.
According to Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God
, the significance of the event was established when Muhammad fasted on Monday, citing the reason for this was his birth on that day, and when Umar
took into consideration Muhammad's birth as a possible starting time for the Islamic calendar.
According to Festivals in World Religions
, the Mawlid was first introduced by the Abbasids
It has been suggested that the Mawlid was first formalized by Al-Khayzuran
of the Abbasids
. Ibn Jubayr
, in 1183, writes that Muhammad's birthday was celebrated every Monday of Rabi' al-awwal
at his birthplace, which had been converted into a place of devotion under the Abbasids.
According to the hypothesis of Nico Kaptein of Leiden University
, the Mawlid was initiated by the Fatimids
It has been stated, "The idea that the celebration of the mawlid
originated with the Fatimid dynasty has today been almost universally accepted among both religious polemicists and secular scholars."
Annemarie Schimmel also says that the tendency to celebrate the memory of the Prophet's birthday on a larger and more festive scale emerged first in Egypt during the Fatimids. The Egyptian historian Maqrizi (d. 1442) describes one such celebration held in 1122 as an occasion in which mainly scholars and religious establishment participated. They listened to sermons, distributed sweets, particularly honey, the Prophet's favourite and the poor received alms.
This Shia origin is frequently noted by those Sunnis who oppose Mawlid.
According to Encyclopædia Britannica,
however, what the Fatimids did was simply a procession of court officials, which did not involve the public but was restricted to the court of the Fatimid caliph.
Therefore, it has been concluded that the first Mawlid celebration which was a public festival was started by Sunnis
in 1207 by Muẓaffar al-Dīn Gökburi
It has been suggested that the celebration was introduced into the city Ceuta
by Abu al-Abbas al-Azafi
as a way of strengthening the Muslim community and to counteract Christian festivals.
Start of a public holiday
In 1207, Muẓaffar al-Dīn Gökburi
started the first annual public festival of the Mawlid in Erbil
(modern day Iraq
Gökböri was the brother-in-law of Saladin
and soon the festival began to spread across the Muslim world.
Since Saladin and Gokburi were both Sufis
the festival became increasingly popular among Sufi devotees which remains so till this day.
Mawlid is celebrated in almost all Islamic countries, and in other countries that have a significant Muslim population, such as Ethiopia, India
, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, France, Germany, Italy, Iraq, Iran, Maldives, Morocco, Jordan, Libya, Russia
The only exceptions are Qatar
and Saudi Arabia
where it is not an official public holiday and is forbidden.
However, In the last decades of the late 20th century there has been a trend to "forbid or discredit" Mawlid in the Sunni Muslim world.
In Turkey, Mawlid (Turkish: Mevlid Kandili
or "the candle feast for the Prophet's birthday"
) is widely celebrated. Traditional poems regarding Muhammad's life are recited both in public mosques and at home in the evening.
Often organized in some countries by the Sufi orders,
Mawlid is celebrated in a carnival
manner, large street processions are held and homes or mosques are decorated. Charity and food is distributed, and stories about the life of Muhammad are narrated with recitation of poetry by children.
Scholars and poets celebrate by reciting Qaṣīda al-Burda
Sharif, the famous poem by 13th-century Arabic Sufi Busiri
. A general Mawlid appears as "a chaotic, incoherent spectacle, where numerous events happen simultaneously, all held together only by the common festive time and space".
These celebrations are often considered an expression of the Sufi concept of the pre-existence of Muhammad.
However, the main significance of these festivities is expression of love for Muhammad.
The first Sunni mawlid celebration that we have a detailed description of was sponsored by Muzaffar al-Din Kokburi and included the slaughtering of thousands of animals for a banquet which is believed to have cost 300,000 dirhams.
The presence of guests and the distribution of monetary gifts at mawlid
festivals had an important social function as they symbolized “concretizing ties of patronage and dramatizing the benevolence of the ruler” and also held religious significance, as “issues of spending and feeding were pivotal both to the religious and social function of the celebration.”
and criticisms of the mawlid
have taken issue with the “possibility of coerced giving” as hosts often took monetary contributions from their guests for festival costs.
Jurists often conceptualized the observance of the Prophet's birthday as a “form of reciprocation for God’s bestowal of the Prophet Muhammad” as a way of justifying celebrations.
According to this thought, the bestowal of such a gift required thanks, which came in the form of the celebration of the mawlid
. Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (1392 CE) and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalini (1449 CE) both expressed such ideas, specifically referencing the hadith about the Jews and the fast of ‘Ashura’, but broadening the conception of “thanks to God” to multiple forms of worship including prostration, fasting, almsgiving, and Qur’anic recitation.
The only limitation Ibn Hajar places on forms of celebration is that they must be neutral under Shari’a.
's Mawlid, the day starts with a 31-gun salute in federal capital and a 21-gun salute
at the provincial capitals and religious hymns are sung during the day.
In many parts of Indonesia
, the celebration of the Mawlid al-nabi
"seems to surpass in importance, liveliness, and splendour" the two official Islamic holidays of Eid ul-Fitr
and Eid al-Adha
In Qayrawan, Tunisia, Muslims sing and chant hymns of praise to Muhammad, welcoming him in honor of his birth.
Also, generally in Tunisia, people usually prepare Assidat Zgougou
to celebrate the Mawlid.
Among non-Muslim countries, India is noted for its Mawlid festivities.
The relics of Muhammad
are displayed after the morning prayers in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir
at the Hazratbal Shrine
, where night-long prayers are also held. Hyderabad Telangana
is noted for its grand milad festivities Religious meetings, night-long prayers, rallies, parades and decorations are made throughout the city.
Miladunnabi in Hyderabad
Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid also refers to the 'text especially composed for and recited at Muhammad's nativity celebration' or "a text recited or sung on that day".
Such poems have been written in many languages, including Arabic, Kurdish and Turkish.
These texts contain stories of the life of Muhammad, or at least some of the following chapters from his life, briefly summarized below:
- The Ancestors of Muhammad
- The Conception of Muhammad
- The Birth of Muhammad
- Introduction of Halima
- Life of Young Muhammad in Bedouins
- Muhammad's orphanhood
- Abu Talib's nephew's first caravan trip
- Arrangement of Marriage between Muhammad and Khadija
- Al-Mi'radj, or the Ascension to heaven
- Al-Hira, first revelation
- The first converts to Islam
- The Hijra
- Muhammad's death
These text are only part of the ceremonies. There are many different ways that people celebrate Mawlid, depending on where they are from. There appears to be a cultural influence upon what kind of festivities are a part of the Mawlid celebration. In Indonesia, it is common the congregation recite Simthud Durar
, especially among Arab Indonesians
Among Muslim scholars, the legality of Mawlid "has been the subject of intense debate" and has been described as "perhaps one of the most polemical discussions in Islamic law".
Traditionally, most Sunni
and nearly all of the Shia
scholars have approved of the celebration of Mawlid,
scholars oppose the celebration.
In the past, the Mawlid was thought of as a bidah.
Saudi Arabia currently forbids the celebration of the Mawlid.
Examples of historic Sunni scholars who permitted the Mawlid include the Shafi'i
(d 911 A.H.
). He was a scholar who wrote a fatwa on the Mawlid, which became one of the most important texts on this issue.
Although he became famous outside of Egypt, he was caught in conflicts in Egypt his entire life.
For example, he believed that he was the most important scholar of his time, and that he should be regarded as a mujtahid (a scholar who independently interprets and develops the Law) and later as a mujaddid (a scholar who appears at end of a century to restore Islam).
These claims made him the most controversial person of his time.
However, his fatwa may have received widespread approval and may not have provoked any conflicts.
He stated that:
My answer is that the legal status of the observance of the Mawlid – as long as it just consists of a meeting together by the people, a recitation of apposite parts of the Qur'an, the recounting of transmitted accounts of the beginning of (the biography of) the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and the wonders that took place during his birth, all of which is then followed by a banquet that is served to them and from which they eat-is a good innovation (bid'a hasana), for which one is rewarded because of the esteem shown for the position of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – that is implicit in it, and because of the expression of joy and happiness on his – may God bless him and grant him peace – noble birth.
Al-Suyuti thought that the Mawlid could be based on the fact that the Prophet performed the sacrifice for his own birth after his calling to be the Prophet.
He said that Abu Lahab, who he called an unbeliever, had been condemned by what was revealed in the Qu’ran but was rewarded in the fire “for the joy he showed on the night of the birth of the Prophet” by releasing from slavery Thuwayba when she had informed him of the birth of the Prophet.
Therefore, he talked about what would happen to a Muslim who rejoiced in his birth and loved him.
In response to al-Fakihani, al-Suyuti said a few things. He said that “because a matter is not known it does not necessarily follow that the matter does not exist nor ever has existed.”
He also said that a “learned and judicious ruler introduced it,” in responding to al-Fakihani's statement that “on the contrary, it is a bida that was introduced by idlers… nor the pious scholars…”
Al-Suyuti also said in response to “Nor is it meritorious, because the essence of the meritorious is what the Law demands,” that “the demands of meritorious are sometimes based on a text and sometimes on reasoning by analogy.”
Al-Suyuti said that bidas are not restricted to forbidden or reprehensible, but also to the permitted, meritorious, or compulsory categories in response to al-Fakihani's statement that “according to the consensus of the Muslims innovation in religion is not permitted.”
In response to al-Fakihani's statement that “This, not withstanding the fact that the month in which he… is born namely Rabi'I, is exactly the same as the one in which he died. Therefore joy and happiness in this month are not any more appropriate than sadness in this month,”
al-Suyuti said that “birth is the greatest benefaction which has ever befallen us, but his death the greatest calamity that has been visited upon us.”
He said that the Law allows expression of gratitude for benefactions, and that the Prophet had prescribed the sacrifice after the birth of a child because this would express gratitude and happiness for the newborn.
Indeed, al-Suyuti said that the principles of the Law say it is right to express happiness at the Prophet's birth.
As for what is performed on the day of the Mawlid, one should limit oneself to what expresses thanks to God, such as the things that have already been mentioned: [Qur'anic] recitation, serving food, alms-giving, and recitation of praise [poems] about the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and asceticism which motivate people to perform good deeds and act in view of the next world.
Shafi'i scholar Abu Shama
(died 1268) (who was a teacher of Imam al-Nawawi
(d 676 A.H.)) also supports the celebration of the Mawlid.
scholar Ibn al-Hajj
(d 737 A.H.) also spoke positively of the observance of the Mawlid in his book al-Madhkal
Al-Hajj addresses his thoughts on the paradoxical problem of misguided Mawlid observance when he says:
This is a night of exceeding virtue and what follows from an increase in virtue is an increase in the thanks that it merits through the performance of acts of obedience and the like. [However], some people, instead of increasing thanks, have increased innovations on it.
In the Muslim world, the majority of Sunni Islamic scholars are in favor of the Mawlid.
Examples include the former Grand Mufi of Al-Azhar University Ali Gomaa
, Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki
of Saudi Arabia, Yusuf al-Qaradawi
the primary scholar of the Muslim Brotherhood
movement, Habib Ali al-Jifri
, Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri
,Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy
of Syria, Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Khazraji, president of the Heritage and History Committee of the United Arab Emirates
and Zaid Shakir
, all of whom subscribe to Sunni Islam
, have given their approval for the observance of Mawlid.
position on the Mawlid has been described as "paradoxical" and "complex" by some academics. He ruled that it was a reprehensible (makrūh
) devotional innovation and criticised those who celebrated the Mawlid out of a desire to imitate the Christian celebration of Jesus's birthday.
At the same time, he recognised that some observe Muhammad's birthday out of a desire to show their love and reverence of him and thus deserve a great reward for their good intentions.
writer Hamid al-Fiqi (d. 1959) criticised Ibn Taymiyya for holding this view and stating that "How can they receive a reward for this when they are opposing the guidance of God's Messenger (pbuh)?".
The Mawlid was not accepted by the Salafi scholar
Taj al-Din al-Fakihani (d. 1331), an Egyptian Maliki
, considered Mawlid to be a blameworthy innovation that was either makruh
. Al-Fakihani said that there was no basis of this in the Book of God, nor in the Sunnah of the Prophet, and that there was no observance of it on authority of scholars of the umma.
He said that it was a “bida that was introduced by idlers, and a delight to which gluttons abandon themselves.”
He mentioned how the five legal categories included whether it is compulsory, meritorious, permitted, reprehensible, or forbidden.
He said it was not compulsory, meritorious, or permitted, and therefore it was reprehensible or forbidden.
He said that it was reprehensible when a person observed at their own expense without doing more at the gathering than to eat and abstain from doing anything sinful.
The second condition of the category of forbidden, according to al-Fakihani, was when committing of transgressions entered into the practice,
such as “singing–with full bellies–accompanied by instruments of idleness like drums and reed flutes, with the meeting of men with young boys and male persons with attractive women–either mixing with them or guarding them–, just like dancing by swinging and swaying, wallowing in lust and forgetting of the Day of Doom.”
He also said, “And likewise the women, when they come together and there lend their high voices during the reciting with sighing and singing and thereby during the declaiming and reciting disobey the law and neglect His word: ‘Verily, your Lord is on a watchtower’ (Sura 89:14).”
He further said, “Nobody with civilized and courteous manners approves of this. It is only pleasing to people whose hearts are dead and do not contain few sins and offenses.”
Finally, he said that the month where the Prophet was born was also the month in which he died, and so implied that joy and happiness in that month are not more appropriate than sadness in that month.
Fellow Egyptian Maliki Ibn al-Haj al-Abdari
also considered Mawlid as a blameworthy innovation that was either makruh
, who added that the celebration was never practiced by the Salaf
However Ibn al-Haj affirms the auspicious qualities of the month of the Mawlid in the most effusive terms
and considers Muhammad's date of birth as a particularly blessed time of the year.
The Maliki scholar Al-Shatibi
considered Mawlid an illegitimate innovation.
jurist Abu 'Abd Allah al-Haffar (d. 1408) opposed Mawlid, noting that had the Sahaba
celebrated it then its exact date would not be a matter of uncertainty.
The former Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
, along with Hammud ibn 'Abd Allah al-Tuwayjiri (d. 1992), another Saudi scholar, in their opposition also argued that there were many worthy occasions in Muhammad's life which he never commemorated, such as the revelation of the first verses of the Qur'an, the Night Journey and the hijra.
In 1934, the minister of education in Egypt criticized the "useless stories" which filled Mawlid poetry, as he believed these were incompatible with a modern and scientific viewpoint that represented Muhammad on a more sober level.
Similar criticism arose in 1982 when a chairman of the Mecca-based Orthodox Muslim Organization Rabita
declared celebrations of Mawlid an "evil innovation."
While the Ahmadiyya
deem the perpetual commemoration of Muhammad's life as highly desirable and consider the remembrance of him as a source of blessings, they condemn the common, traditional practices associated with the Mawlid as blameworthy innovations,
Gatherings limited to the recounting of Muhammad's life and character and the recitation of poetry eulogising him, whether held on a specific date of Rabi' al-awwal or in any other month, are deemed permissible.
Formal gatherings called Jalsa Seerat-un-Nabi
commemorating Muhammad's life and legacy, rather than specifically his birth, are frequently held by Ahmadis and are often oriented towards both Muslim and non-Muslim audiences. These gatherings could be held in the month of the Mawlid but are promoted often throughout the year.
praised carrying out ceremonies and expression of gratitude during the festival, but rejected the forbidden and objectionable matters that took place at it.
He objected to certain things, such as singers performing to the accompaniment of percussion instruments, pointing to their blameworthiness.
He asked about what connections there might have been between percussion instruments and the month of Prophet's birthday.
However, he said that it was right to honor and distinguish the birthday because it showed respect for the month.
He also said that excellence lied in devotional acts.
Therefore, al-Hajj said that “the respect of this noble month should consist of additional righteous works, the giving of alms and other pious deeds. If anybody is not able to do so, let him then in any case avoid what is forbidden and reprehensible out of respect for this noble month.”
He said that even though the Quran might be recited, the people actually were “longing for the most skilled adepts of folly and stimulating means to entertain the people,” and said that this was “perverse.”
Therefore, he did not condemn the Mawlid, but only “the forbidden and objectionable things which the Mawlid brings in its wake.”
He did not disapprove of preparing a banquet and inviting people to participate.
In addition, Ibn al-Hajj also said that people observed the Mawlid not just from reasons of respect but also because they wanted to get back the silver they had given on other joyous occasions and festivals, and said that there were “evil aspects” attached to this.
Skaykh al-Islam, abu I-Fadl ibn Hajar, who was “the (greatest) hafiz of this time,”
said that the legal status of the Mawlid was that it was a bida, which was not transmitted on the authority of one of the pious ancestors.
However, he said that it comprised both good things, as well as the reverse, and that if one strove for good things in practicing it and evaded bad things, the Mawlid was a good innovation, and if not, then not.
He said that the coming of the Prophet was a good benefaction, and said that only the day ought to be observed.
He said that “it is necessary that one restricts oneself to that which expresses gratitude to God… namely by reciting the Quran, the giving of a banquet, almsgiving, declamations of some songs of praise for the Prophet and some ascetic songs of praise, which stimulate the hearts to do good and to make efforts to strive for the Hereafter.”
He also said that the “sama and the entertainment and the like” may have been in line with the joyous nature of the day, but said that “what is forbidden or reprehensible, is, of course, prohibited. The same holds true for what is contrary to that which is regarded as the most appropriate."
In some countries, such as Egypt and Sudan
, Mawlid is used as a generic term for the celebration of birthdays of local Sufi saints and not only restricted to the observance of the birth of Muhammad.
Around 3,000 Mawlid celebrations are held each year. These festivals attract an international audience, with the largest one in Egypt attracting up to three million people honouring Ahmad al-Badawi
, a local 13th-century Sufi saint.
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- ^ Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 410. ISBN 9781576073551.
- ^ Elie Podeh (2011). The Politics of National Celebrations in the Arab Middle East (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–7. ISBN 9781107001084.
- ^ Reuven Firestone (2010). An Introduction to Islam for Jews (revised ed.). Jewish Publication Society. p. 132. ISBN 9780827610491.
- ^ Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 184. ISBN 9781135983949.
- ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1985). And Muhammad Is His Messenger The Veneration of Prophet in Islamic Piety. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1639-6.
- ^ Kenan Aksu Turkey: A Regional Power in the Making Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 18.07.2014 ISBN 9781443864534 p. 231
- ^ "Festivals in India". Festivals in India. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- ^ Pakistan Celebrate Eid Milad-un-Nabi with Religious Zeal, Fervor Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Pakistan Times. 2 April 2007.
- ^ a b Schielke, Samuli (2012). "Habitus of the authentic, order of the rational: contesting saints' festivals in contemporary Egypt". Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. 12 (2).
- ^ Katz, Marion Holmes. The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad (Culture and Civilization in the Middle East) (Kindle Location 2069). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition.
- ^ a b c d e Katz, Marion Homes. The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad (Culture and Civilization in the Middle East).Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition.
- ^ Pakistan with Muslims world-over celebrate Eid Milad-un-Nabi tomorrow Archived 4 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Herman Beck, Islamic purity at odds with Javanese identity: the Muhammadiyah and the celebration of Garebeg Maulud ritual in Yogyakarta, Pluralism and Identity: Studies in Ritual Behaviour, eds Jan Platvoet and K. van der Toorn, BRILL, 1995, pg 262
- ^ Speight, Marston (1980). "The nature of Christian and Muslim festivals". The Muslim World. 70 (3–4): 260–266. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1980.tb03417.x.
- ^ How Does Tunisia Celebrate Al Mawlid?Archived 18 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine Tunisia Live
- ^ "Milad Celebrated". The Times of India. 14 May 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- ^ TajaNews Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Celebrating the prophet: Religious nationalism and the politics of Milad-un-Nabi festivals in India". ResearchGate. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- ^ Kenan Aksu Turkey: A Regional Power in the Making Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 18.07.2014 ISBN 9781443864534 p. 231
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 169 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ "Mawlid: The conservative view".
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- ^ a b c "True Commemoration of the blessed life of the Holy Prophet (pbuh)", Al Islam Online
- ^ Battram, Robert A. (22 July 2010). Canada in Crisis (2): An Agenda for Survival of the Nation. ISBN 9781426933936.
- ^ Kaptein (1993), p. 44
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- ^ a b c Kaptein (1993), p. 47
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- ^ a b c Kaptein (1993), p. 64
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- ^ a b c d e Kaptein (1993), p. 54
- ^ Kaptein (1993), p. 55
- ^ a b c Kaptein (1993), p. 57
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 108 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 64 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 63 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Ukeles (2010), p. 328
- ^ Kaptein (1993), p. 58 harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKaptein1993 (help)
- ^ Katz, Marion. The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad (Kindle ed.). Taylor and Francis. pp. 1936–1940.
- ^ a b Spevack, Aaron (9 September 2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri. SUNY Press. p. 77. ISBN 9781438453729.
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 170 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 112 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Katz, Marion Holmes (7 May 2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 9781135983949. there is no doubt that the Prophet's (s) recompense to someone who does something for him will be better, more momentous, more copious, greater and more abundant than [that person's] action, because gifts correspond to the rank of those who give them and presents vary according to their bestowers; it is the custom of kings and dignitaries to recompense small things with the greatest of boons and the most splendid treasures, so what of the master of the kings of this world and the next?
- ^ Katz, Marion Holmes (7 May 2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 9781135983949. If Abu Lahab, the unbeliever whose condemnation was revealed in the Qur'an, was rewarded (juziya) in hell for his joy on the night of the Prophet's birth, what is the case of a Muslim monotheist of the community of Muhammad the Prophet who delights in his birth and spends all that he can afford for love of him? By my life, his reward (jaza ') from the Beneficent God can only be that He graciously causes him to enter the gardens of bliss!
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 169 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help): "In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the celebration of the Prophet's (s) birthday and the recitation of mawlid texts were ubiquitous practices endorsed by the majority of mainstream Sunni scholars... by the modern period the celebration of the Mawlid was overwhelmingly accepted and practiced at all levels of religious education and authority. Prominent elite scholars continued to contribute to the development of the tradition."
- ^ Gomaa, Sheikh Ali (1 January 2011). Responding from the Tradition: One Hundred Contemporary Fatwas by the Grand Mufti of Egypt. Fons Vitae. ISBN 9781891785443.
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 253 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ a b c Ukeles (2010), p. 322
- ^ Shaykh Qardawi Approves of Celebrating Mawlid. Yusuf Al-Qardawi.
- ^ "Shaykh Qardawi Approves of Celebrating Mawlid". www.sunnah.org. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- ^ [permanent dead link]
- ^ Tahir-ul-Qadri, Dr Muhammad (1 May 2014). Mawlid Al-nabi: Celebration and Permissibility. Minhaj-UL-Quran Publications. ISBN 9781908229144.
- ^ a b "Milad-un-Nabi gets colourful, elaborate". The Times of India. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- ^ "Mass Moulood celebrated in Green Point | IOL". IOL. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 203 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ a b Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 117. ISBN 9781135983949. The rationale of expressing love for the Prophet was so compelling that it occasionally forced even opponents of the mawlid celebration to qualify their disapproval. Ibn Taymiya remarks that people may celebrate the mawlid either in order to emulate the Christians' celebration of Jesus's birthday, or "out of love (mahabba) and reverence (ta'zim) for the Prophet." Although the first motive is manifestly invalid, Ibn Taymiya acknowledges the latter intention as legitimate; one who acts on this motivation may be rewarded for his love and his effort, although not for the sinful religious innovation in itself.
- ^ Ukeles (2010), pp. 324–325: "At the same time, Ibn Taymiyya recognizes that people observe the mawlid for different reasons and should be recompessed according to their intentions. Some, for example, observe the mawlid out of a desire to imitate the Christian celebration of Jesus's birthday on Christmas. This intention is reprehensible"
- ^ Islamic Law in Theory: Studies on Jurisprudence in Honor of Bernard Weiss. BRILL. 9 May 2014. ISBN 9789004265196. Not only does Ibn Taymiyyah recognize the pious elements within devotional innovations, but he asserts that sincere practitioners of these innovations merit a reward. As I argue elsewhere, Ibn Taymiyyah's paradoxical position stems from a practical awareness of the way that Muslims of his day engaged in devotional practices. Ibn Taymiyya states that: "There is no doubt that the one who performs these [innovated festivals], either because of his own interpretation and independent reasoning or his being a blind imitator (muqallid) of another, receives a reward for his good purpose and for the aspects of his acts that confirm with the lawful and he is forgiven for those aspects that fall under the scope of the innovated if his independent reasoning or blind obedience is pardonable."
- ^ Ukeles (2010), p. 320: "At the same time he recognized that some observe the Prophet's (s) birthday out of a desire to show their love of the Prophet and thus deserve a great reward for their good intentions."
- ^ Woodward, Mark (28 October 2010). Java, Indonesia and Islam. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 170. ISBN 9789400700567. The Mawlid is among the most commonly mentioned examples of praiseworthy innovation. This view is shared even by some of the most strident opponents of most other modalities of popular Islam. Ibn Taymiyyah, the Kurdish reformer who most Indonesian and other Islamists take as their spiritual ancestor and mentor, was subdued in his critique of the Mawlid. His position was that those who performed it with pious intent and out of love for the Prophet Muhammad (s) would be rewarded for their actions, and forgiven any sin from bid'ah that they might incur.
- ^ Bowering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Kadi, Wadad; Stewart, Devin J.; Zaman, Muhammad Qasim; Mirza, Mahan (28 November 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 335. ISBN 978-1400838554.
- ^ a b c d e f Kaptein (1993), p. 52
- ^ a b c Kaptein (1993), p. 53
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 71 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 201 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 65 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Katz (2007), p. 73 harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFKatz2007 (help)
- ^ Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. pp. 159–60. ISBN 9781135983949.
- ^ Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. pp. 203–4. ISBN 9781135983949.
- ^ a b Annemarie Schimmel (1985). And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety. The University of North Carolina Press.
- ^ "Does “Milad” Have Any Validity Whatsoever in the Holy Qur’an?" Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha'at-e-Islam
- ^ a b "Rabīʿ al-Awwal (I): The Blessed month of the Blessed Prophet (saw)", MuslimSunrise
- ^ https://www.alislam.org/v/k-Seerat-un-Nabi.html?page=1 Seerat-un-Nabi
- ^ a b c Kaptein (1993), p. 58
- ^ a b Kaptein (1993), p. 59
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- ^ Kaptein (1991) harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKaptein1991 (help)
- Hagen, Gottfried (2014), "Mawlid (Ottoman)", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO.
- Katz, Marion Holmes (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam (Culture and Civilization in the Middle East). Routledge. ISBN 0415771277.
- Malik, Aftab Ahmed (2001). The Broken Chain: Reflections Upon the Neglect of a Tradition. Amal Press. ISBN 0-9540544-0-7.
- Picken, Gavin (2014), "Mawlid", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO.
- Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad (2014). Mawlid al-Nabi: Celebration and Permissibility. Minhaj-ul-Quran Publications. ISBN 978-1908229144.
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