Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests is an ecoregion, in the temperate coniferous forestbiome, which occupies the high mountain ranges of North Africa.[2] The term is also a botanically recognized plant association in the African and Mediterranean literature.[3]
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests

Rif Mountains, Morocco

Ecoregion territory (in purple)
BiomeTemperate coniferous forests
BordersMediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe and Mediterranean woodlands and forests
Area22,984 km2 (8,874 sq mi)
CountriesAlgeria, Morocco and Tunisia
Conservation statuscritical/endangered
Global 200European-Mediterranean montane mixed forest
Protected4,651 km² (20%)[1]
The Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests ecoregion consists of a series of enclaves in the coastal Rif Mountains and interior Middle Atlas and High Atlas of Morocco, the eastern Tell Atlas and eastern Saharan Atlas of Algeria, and the Kroumerie and Mogod ranges of Tunisia.
The Mediterranean woodlands and forests ecoregion surrounds the Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests at lower elevations.
In the High Atlas, the Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests yield to the Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe at the highest elevations.
The predominant canopy tree in the forests is Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica). Other conifer trees that grow in this area may include Aleppo pine (Pinus halapensis), maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), Spanish fir (Abies pinsapo), the endemic Algerian fir (Abies numidica), junipers such as Juniperus oxycedrus and Juniperus thurifera, and European yew (Taxus baccata).
Broadleaf trees that can be found in scattered areas throughout this ecoregion include cork oak(Quercus suber) and other oaks, and white willow (Salix alba). Quercus afares, a deciduous oak, is endemic to the ecoregion.
Endangered mammals in the ecoregion include the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) at locations such as the Djebel Babor Mountains,[4]Atlas deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus), and African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus). Other mammals include the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), European otter (Lutra lutra), Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri), and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia). The Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) and Atlas bear (Ursus arctos crowtheri) formerly lived here.
Conservation and threats
Deforestation due to overuse by the local population is a major threat as are the effects of climate change.
External links
"Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
  1. ^ Eric Dinerstein, David Olson, et al. (2017). An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm, BioScience, Volume 67, Issue 6, June 2017, Pages 534–545; Supplemental material 2 table S1b. [1]
  2. ^ "Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
  3. ^ Harry Van der Linde, Anada Tiéga and Thomas Price (2001) Beyond Boundaries: Transboundary Natural Resource Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Published by Biodiversity Support Program.
  4. ^ C. Michael Hogan, (2008) Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
Last edited on 7 February 2021, at 16:17
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