Michelle Bachelet
In this Spanish name, the first or paternal surname is Bachelet and the second or maternal family name is Jeria.
Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (Spanish: [beˈɾonika miˈtʃel βatʃeˈle ˈxeɾja]; born 29 September 1951)[1] is a Chilean politician who has served as United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights since 2018.[2] She also previously served as President of Chile from 2006 to 2010 and 2014 to 2018 for the Socialist Party of Chile, she is the first woman to hold the Chilean presidency. After leaving the presidency in 2010 and while not immediately reelectable, she was appointed the first executive director of the newly created United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.[3] In December 2013, Bachelet was reelected with over 62% of the vote, bettering the 54% she obtained in 2006. She was the first President of Chile to be reelected since 1932.[4]
Her Excellency
Michelle Bachelet
7th United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Assumed office
1 September 2018
DeputyKate Gilmore
Secretary GeneralAntónio Guterres
Preceded byZeid Raad Al Hussein
33rd and 35th President of Chile
In office
11 March 2014 – 11 March 2018
Preceded bySebastián Piñera
Succeeded bySebastián Piñera
In office
11 March 2006 – 11 March 2010
Preceded byRicardo Lagos
Succeeded bySebastián Piñera
President pro tempore of the Pacific Alliance
In office
1 July 2016 – 30 June 2017
Preceded byOllanta Humala
Succeeded byJuan Manuel Santos
Executive Director of UN Women
In office
14 September 2010 – 15 March 2013
DeputyLakshmi Puri
Secretary GeneralBan Ki-moon
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byLakshmi Puri (acting)
President pro tempore of UNASUR
In office
23 May 2008 – 10 August 2009
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byRafael Correa
Minister for National Defense
In office
7 January 2002 – 1 October 2004
PresidentRicardo Lagos
Preceded byMario Fernández Baeza
Succeeded byJaime Ravinet
Minister for Health
In office
11 March 2000 – 7 January 2002
PresidentRicardo Lagos
Preceded byÁlex Figueroa
Succeeded byOsvaldo Artaza
Personal details
BornVerónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria
29 September 1951 (age 69)
Santiago, Chile
Political partySocialist
Other political
Concertación (1988–2013)
New Majority (2013–2018)
Spouse(s)Jorge Dávalos Cartes
RelativesAlberto Bachelet (father)
EducationUniversity of Chile (MD)
ProfessionPaediatrician / Public Health Physician
Bachelet, a physician who has studied military strategy at university level, was Health Minister and Defense Minister under her predecessor, Ricardo Lagos. She is a separated mother of three and describes herself as an agnostic.[5] She speaks English fluently, as well as some German and Portuguese​.​[6]​[7]​[​dubious discuss]
Family background
Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria is the second child of archaeologist Ángela Jeria Gómez (1926–2020) and Air Force Brigadier GeneralAlberto Bachelet Martínez (1923–1974).[citation needed]
Bachelet's paternal great-great-grandfather, Louis-Joseph Bachelet Lapierre, was a French wine merchant from Chassagne-Montrachet who immigrated to Chile with his Parisian wife, Françoise Jeanne Beault, in 1860; he was hired as a wine-making expert by the Subercaseaux vineyards in Santiago. Bachelet Lapierre's son, Germán, was born in Santiago in 1862, and in 1891 married Luisa Brandt Cadot, a Chilean of French and Swiss descent, giving birth in 1894 to Alberto Bachelet Brandt.
Bachelet's maternal great-grandfather, Máximo Jeria Chacón, of Spanish (Basque region) and Greek heritage, was the first person to receive a degree in agronomic engineering in Chile and founded several agronomy schools in the country.[8] He married Lely Johnson, the daughter of an English physician working in Chile. Their son, Máximo Jeria Johnson, married Ángela Gómez Zamora. Their union produced five children, the fourth of whom is Bachelet's mother.[9]
Early life and career
Childhood years
Bachelet was born in La Cisterna,[10] a middle-class suburb of Santiago. She was named after French actress Michèle Morgan.[11] Bachelet spent many of her childhood years traveling around her native Chile, moving with her family from one military base to another. She lived and attended primary schools in, among other places, Quintero, Antofagasta, and San Bernardo. In 1962, she moved with her family to the United States, where her father was assigned to the military mission at the Chilean Embassy in Washington D.C. Her family lived for almost two years in Bethesda, Maryland, where she attended Western Junior High School and learned to speak English fluently.[12]
Returning to Chile in 1964, she graduated in 1969 from Liceo Nº 1 Javiera Carrera, a prestigious girls' public high school, finishing near the top of her class.[13][14] There she was class president, a member of the choir and volleyball teams, and part of a theater group and a band, "Las Clap Clap", which she co-founded and which toured around several school festivals. In 1970, after obtaining a relatively high score on the university admission test, she entered medical school at the University of Chile, where she was selected in the 113th position (out of 160 admitted applicants).[13][14][15] She originally intended to study sociology or economics, but was prevailed upon by her father to study medicine instead.[16] She has said she opted for medicine because it was "a concrete way of helping people cope with pain" and "a way to contribute to improve health in Chile."[6]
Detention and exile
Facing growing food shortages, the government of Salvador Allende placed Bachelet's father in charge of the Food Distribution Office. When General Augusto Pinochet suddenly came to power via the 11 September 1973 coup d'état, Bachelet's father was detained at the Air War Academy on charges of treason. Following months of daily torture at Santiago's Public Prison, he suffered a cardiac arrest that resulted in his death on 12 March 1974. In early January 1975, Bachelet and her mother were detained at their apartment by two DINA agents,[17] who blindfolded them and drove them to Villa Grimaldi, a notorious secret detention center in Santiago, where they were separated and subjected to interrogation and torture.[18]
In 2013, Bachelet revealed she had been interrogated by DINA chief Manuel Contreras there.[19] Some days later, Bachelet was transferred to Cuatro Álamos ("Four Poplars") detention center, where she was held until the end of January. Thanks to the assistance of Roberto Kozak,[20] Bachelet was able to go into exile in Australia,[21] where her older brother, Alberto, had moved in 1969.[13]
Of her torture, Bachelet said, in 2004, that "it was nothing in comparison to what others suffered". She was "yelled at using abusive language, shaken," and both she and her mother were "threatened with the killing of the other." She was "never tortured with electricity," but she did see it done to other prisoners.[22]
Commemoration of Orlando Letelier, a former Chilean minister, who was assassinated by Pinochet's secret police in Washington, D.C. in 1976
In May 1975 Bachelet left Australia and later moved to East Germany, to an apartment assigned to her by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) government in Am Stern, Potsdam; her mother joined her a month later, living separately in Leipzig. In October 1976, she began working at a communal clinic in the Babelsberg neighborhood, as a preparatory step to continuing her medical studies at an East German university. During this period, she met architect Jorge Leopoldo Dávalos Cartes, another Chilean exile, whom she married in 1977. In January 1978 she went to Leipzig to learn German at the Karl Marx University's Herder Institute (now the University of Leipzig). Her first child with Dávalos, Jorge Alberto Sebastián, was born there in June 1978. She returned to Potsdam in September 1978 to continue her medical studies at the Humboldt University of Berlin for two years. Five months after enrolling as a student, however, she obtained authorization to return to her country.[23]
Return to Chile
After four years in exile, Bachelet returned to Chile in 1979. Her medical school credits from the GDR were not transferred, forcing her to resume her studies where she had left off before fleeing the country.[citation needed] She graduated as physician-surgeon[24] on 7 January 1983.[25] She wished to work in the public sector wherever attention was most needed, applying for a position as general practitioner; her petition was rejected by the military government on "political grounds". [6]
Instead, owing to her academic performance and published papers, she earned a scholarship from the Chilean Medical Chamber to specialize in pediatrics and public health at the University of Chile's Roberto del Río Children's Hospital (1983–86). She completed the program with excellent grades but for "financial reasons" did not obtain her certification.[26]
During this time she also worked at PIDEE (Protection of Children Injured by States of Emergency Foundation), a non-governmental organization helping children of the tortured and missing in Santiago and Chillán. She was head of the foundation's Medical Department between 1986 and 1990. Some time after her second child with Dávalos, Francisca Valentina, was born in February 1984, she and her husband legally separated. Between 1985 and 1987, Bachelet had a romantic relationship with Alex Vojkovic Trier,[27] an engineer and spokesman for the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front, an armed group that, among other activities, attempted to assassinate Pinochet in 1986. The affair was a minor issue during her presidential campaign, during which she argued that she never supported any of Vojkovic's activities.[8]
After Chile made a transition to democracy in 1990, Bachelet worked for the Ministry of Health's West Santiago Health Service and was a consultant for the Pan-American Health Organization, the World Health Organization and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit. While working for the National AIDS Commission (Conasida) she became romantically involved with Aníbal Hernán Henríquez Marich, a fellow physician – and right-wing Pinochet supporter – who fathered her third child, Sofía Catalina, in December 1992; their relationship ended a few years later. Between March 1994 and July 1997, Bachelet worked as Senior Assistant to the Deputy Health Minister.[28] Driven by an interest in civil-military relations, in 1996 Bachelet began studies in military strategy at the National Academy of Political and Strategic Studies (ANEPE) in Chile, obtaining first place in her class.[6] Her student achievement earned her a presidential scholarship, permitting her to continue her studies in the United States at the Inter-American Defense College in Washington, D.C., completing a Continental Defense Course in 1998. That same year she returned to Chile to work for the Defense Ministry as Senior Assistant to the Defense Minister. She subsequently graduated from a Master's program in military science at the Chilean Army's War Academy.[citation needed]
Early political career
Involvement in politics
In her first year as a university student (1970), Bachelet became a member of the Socialist Youth (then presided by future deputy and later disappeared physician Carlos Lorca, who has been cited as her political mentor[29]), and was an active supporter of the Popular Unity. In the immediate aftermath of the coup, she and her mother worked as couriers for the underground Socialist Party directorate that was trying to organize a resistance movement; eventually almost all of them were captured and disappeared.[30]
Following her return from exile she became politically active during the second half of the 1980s, fighting – though not on the front line – for the re-establishment of democracy in Chile. In 1995 she became part of the party's Central Committee, and from 1998 until 2000 she was an active member of the Political Commission. In 1996 Bachelet ran against future presidential adversary Joaquín Lavín for the mayorship of Las Condes, a wealthy Santiago suburb and a right-wing stronghold. Lavín won the 22-candidate election with nearly 78% of the vote, while she finished fourth with 2.35%. At the 1999 presidential primary of the Concertación, Chile's governing coalition from 1990 to 2010, she worked for Ricardo Lagos's nomination, heading the Santiago electoral zone.[citation needed]
Minister of Health
Bachelet, as Minister of Defense, meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld in 2002
On 11 March 2000, Bachelet – virtually unknown at the time – was appointed Minister of Health by President Ricardo Lagos. She began an in-depth study of the public health-care system that led to the AUGE plan a few years later. She was also given the task of eliminating waiting lists in the saturated public hospital system within the first 100 days of Lagos's government. She reduced waiting lists by 90%, but was unable to eliminate them completely[8] and offered her resignation, which was promptly rejected by the President. She authorized free distribution of the morning-after pill for victims of sexual abuse, generating controversy.[citation needed]
Minister of National Defense
On 7 January 2002, she was appointed Minister of National Defense, becoming the first woman to hold this post in a Latin American country and one of the few in the world.[31] While Minister of Defense she promoted reconciliatory gestures between the military and victims of the dictatorship, culminating in the historic 2003 declaration by General Juan Emilio Cheyre, head of the army, that "never again" would the military subvert democracy in Chile. She also oversaw a reform of the military pension system and continued with the process of modernization of the Chilean armed forces with the purchasing of new military equipment, while engaging in international peace operations. A moment which has been cited as key to Bachelet's chances to the presidency came in mid-2002 during a flood in northern Santiago where she, as Defense Minister, led a rescue operation on top of an amphibious tank, wearing a cloak and military cap.[8][32][33]
2005–2006 presidential election
Main article: Chilean presidential election, 2005–2006
Bachelet during a television debate in 2005
In late 2004, following a surge of her popularity in opinion polls, Bachelet was considered the only politician of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertación de los Partidos por la Democracia; CPD) able to defeat Joaquín Lavín, and she was asked to become the Socialists' candidate for the presidency.[34] At first hesitant to accept the nomination as it was never one of her goals, she finally agreed because she felt she could not disappoint her supporters.[35] On 1 October of that year she was freed from her government post in order to begin her campaign and to help the CPD at the municipal elections held later that month. On 28 January 2005 she was named the Socialist Party's candidate for president. An open primary scheduled for July 2005 to define the sole presidential candidate of the CPD was canceled after Bachelet's only rival, Christian Democrat Soledad Alvear, a cabinet member in the first three CPD administrations, pulled out early due to a lack of support within her own party and in opinion polls.[citation needed]
In the December 2005 election, Bachelet faced the center-right candidate Sebastián Piñera (RN), the right-wing candidate Joaquín Lavín (UDI) and the leftist candidate Tomás Hirsch (JPM). As the opinion polls had forecast, she failed to obtain the absolute majority needed to win the election outright, winning 46% of the vote. In the runoff election on 15 January 2006, Bachelet faced Piñera, and won the presidency with 53.5% of the vote, thus becoming her country's first female elected president and the first woman who was not the wife of a previous head of state or political leader to reach the presidency of a Latin American nation in a direct election.[36][37]
On 30 January 2006, after being declared President-elect by the Elections Qualifying Court (Tricel), Bachelet announced her cabinet of ministers, which was unprecedentedly composed of an equal number of men and women, as was promised during her campaign. In keeping with the Coalition's internal balance of power she named seven ministers from the Christian Democrat Party (PDC), five from the Party for Democracy (PPD), four from the Socialist Party (PS), one from the Social Democrat Radical Party (PRSD) and three without party affiliation.[citation needed]
First presidency (2006–2010)
The Bachelet Cabinet
PresidentMichelle BacheletPS11 March 2006–11 March 2010
InteriorAndrés ZaldívarDC11 March 2006–14 July 2006
Belisario Velasco(resigned)DC14 July 2006–4 January 2008
Edmundo Pérez YomaDC8 January 2008–11 March 2010
Foreign AffairsAlejandro FoxleyDC11 March 2006–13 March 2009
Mariano FernándezDC13 March 2009–11 March 2010
DefenseVivianne BlanlotPPD11 March 2006–27 March 2007
José GoñiPPD27 March 2007–12 March 2009
Francisco VidalPPD12 March 2009–11 March 2010
FinanceAndrés VelascoInd.11 March 2006–11 March 2010
Gen. Sec. of the
Paulina VelosoPS11 March 2006–27 March 2007
José Antonio Viera-GalloPS27 March 2007–10 March 2010
Gen. Sec. of
Ricardo Lagos WeberPPD11 March 2006–6 December 2007
Francisco VidalPPD6 December 2007–12 March 2009
Carolina Tohá(resigned)PPD12 March 2009–14 December 2009
Pilar ArmanetPPD18 December 2009–11 March 2010
EconomyIngrid AntonijevicPPD11 March 2006–14 July 2006
Alejandro FerreiroDC14 July 2006–8 January 2008
Hugo LavadosDC8 January 2008–11 March 2010
Clarisa HardyPS11 March 2006–8 January 2008
Paula QuintanaPS8 January 2008–11 March 2010
EducationMartín ZilicDC11 March 2006–14 July 2006
Yasna Provoste(impeached)DC14 July 2006–3 April 2008
René Cortázar(interim)DC3 April 200818 April 2008
Mónica JiménezDC18 April 2008–11 March 2010
JusticeIsidro SolísPRSD11 March 2006–27 March 2007
Carlos MaldonadoPRSD27 March 2007–11 March 2010
LaborOsvaldo Andrade(resigned)PS11 March 2006–10 December 2008
Claudia SerranoPS15 December 2008–11 March 2010
Public WorksEduardo BitránPPD11 March 2006–11 January 2008
Sergio BitarPPD11 January 2008–11 March 2010
HealthMaría Soledad Barría(resigned)PS11 March 2006–28 October 2008
Álvaro ErazoPS6 November 2008–11 March 2010
Housing &
Patricia PobleteDC11 March 2006–11 March 2010
AgricultureÁlvaro RojasDC11 March 2006–8 January 2008
Marigen HornkohlDC8 January 2008–11 March 2010
MiningKaren PoniachikInd.11 March 2006–8 January 2008
Santiago GonzálezPRSD8 January 2008–11 March 2010
Transport &
Sergio EspejoDC11 March 2006–27 March 2007
René CortázarDC27 March 2007–11 March 2010
National AssetsRomy SchmidtPPD11 March 2006–6 January 2010
Jacqueline WeinsteinPPD6 January 2010–11 March 2010
EnergyKaren PoniachikInd.11 March 2006–29 March 2007
Marcelo TokmanPPD29 March 2007–11 March 2010
EnvironmentAna Lya UriartePS27 March 2007–11 March 2010
WomenLaura AlbornozDC11 March 2006–20 October 2009
Carmen AndradePS20 October 2009–11 March 2010
Culture & the
Paulina UrrutiaInd.11 March 2006–11 March 2010
Bachelet waving with other leaders at the inauguration ceremony in Valparaíso
First days
Bachelet was sworn in as President of the Republic of Chile on 11 March 2006 in a ceremony held in a plenary session of the National Congress in Valparaíso attended by many foreign heads of states and delegates.[33] Much of Bachelet's first three months as president were spent working on 36 measures she had promised during her campaign to implement during her first 100 days in office. They ranged from simple presidential decrees, such as providing free health care for older patients, to complex bills to reform the social security system and the electoral system. For her first state visit, Bachelet chose Argentina, arriving in Buenos Aires on 21 March. There she met with president Néstor Kirchner, with whom she signed strategic agreements on energy and infrastructure, including the possibility of launching a bidding process to operate the Transandine Railway.[38]
Domestic affairs
Social policies
In March 2006 Bachelet created an advisory committee to reform the pension system, which was headed by former budget director Mario Marcel.[39] The commission issued its final report in July 2006,[40] and in March 2008 Bachelet signed the bill into law. The new legislation established a Basic Solidarity Pension (PBS) and a Solidarity Pension Contribution (APS), guaranteeing a minimum pension for the 60% poorest segment of the population, regardless of their contribution history.[41] The reform also grants a bonus to female pensioners for every child born alive.[42]
In October 2006 Bachelet enacted legislation to protect subcontracted employees, which would benefit an estimated 1.2 million workers.[43] In June 2009 she introduced pay equality legislation, guaranteeing equal pay for equal work in the private sector, regardless of gender.[44]
In September 2009 Bachelet signed the "Chile Grows with You" plan into law, providing comprehensive social services to vulnerable children from ages zero to six. That law also established a social welfare management framework called the "Intersectoral Social Protection System", made up of subsystems such as "Chile Solidario" and "Chile Grows with You".[45]
Between 2008 and 2010 the Bachelet administration delivered a so-called "literary briefcase" (a box of books including encyclopedias, dictionaries, poetry works and books for both children and adults) to the 400,000 poorest families with children attending primary school from first to fourth grade.[46]
In March 2009, Bachelet launched the "I Choose my PC" program, awarding free computers to poor seventh-graders with excellent academic performance attending government-subsidized schools.[47] During 2009 and 2010 Bachelet delivered maternity packages to all babies born in public hospitals, which are about 80% of total births.[48][49] In January 2010, Bachelet promulgated a law allowing the distribution of Emergency contraception pills in public and private health centers, including to persons under 14, without parental consent. The law also requires high schools to add a sexual education program to their curriculum.[50]
Student protests
Bachelet's first political crisis came in late April 2006, when massive high school student demonstrations – unseen in three decades – broke out throughout the country, demanding better public education. In June 2006, she sought to dampen the student protests by setting up an 81-member advisory committee, including education experts from all political backgrounds, representatives of ethnic groups, parents, teachers, students, school owners, university rectors, people from diverse religious denominations, etc. Its purpose was to propose changes to the country's educational system and serve as a forum to share ideas and views. The committee issued its final report in December 2006.[51] In August 2009, she signed the education reform bill into law, which created two new regulatory bodies: a Superintendency on Education and a Quality Agency.[52]
During her presidency Bachelet opened 18 new subway stations in Santiago, nine in 2006, one in 2009 and eight in 2010.[53][54] In December 2009 Bachelet announced the construction of a new subway line in Santiago, to be operational by 2014[55] (the date was later changed to mid-2016[56]).
In February 2007 Santiago's transport system was radically altered with the introduction of Transantiago, designed under the previous administration.[36] The system was nearly unanimously condemned by the media, the users and the opposition, significantly damaging her popularity, and leading to the sacking of her Transport minister. On her decision not to abort the plan's start, she said in April 2007 she was given erroneous information which caused her to act against her "instincts."[57]
In September 2008, Chile's Constitutional Court declared a US$400 million loan by the Inter-American Development Bank to fund the transport system unconstitutional. Bachelet – who had been forced to ask for the loan after Congress had refused to approve funds for the beleaguered program in November 2007 – made use of an emergency clause in the Constitution that grants funds equivalent to 2% of the fiscal budget.[58] In November 2008, she invoked the emergency clause again after Congress denied once again funds for the system for 2009.
2010 earthquake
On 27 February 2010, in the last week of summer vacations[59] and less than two weeks before Bachelet's term expired, Chile was ravaged by an 8.8-magnitude earthquake that killed more than 500 people, toppled apartment buildings and bridges and triggered tsunamis that wiped away entire fishing villages. Bachelet and the government were criticized for a slow response to the disaster, which hit on a Saturday at 3:34 am.[36] and left most of the country without electricity, phone or Internet access.[60][61][62] Bachelet declared a "state of catastrophe" and on Sunday afternoon sent military troops to the most affected areas in an effort to quell scenes of looting and arson.[36] She imposed night curfews in the most affected cities.[63] She was criticized for not deploying the troops fast enough.[64][65]
Human rights
In January 2009 Bachelet opened the Museum of Memory in Santiago, documenting the horrors of Pinochet's 16-and-a-half-year dictatorship.[66] In November she promulgated a law (submitted to Congress during the previous administration) creating the National Institute for Human Rights, with the goal of protecting and promoting human rights in the country.[67] The law also allowed for the reopening of the Rettig and Valech commissions for 18 months.[68] She used her power as president to send a bill to legalize gay marriages, and sponsored a reproductive rights bill,[69]
On 10 August 2018 the outgoing UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein warmly welcomed the UN General Assembly’s appointment of Michelle Bachelet to succeed him. He said that "She has all the attributes – courage, perseverance, passion, and a deep commitment to human rights"[70]
Other legislation passed
President Bachelet with Mayor of Pichilemu Roberto Córdova in January 2010, during the re-inauguration of the Agustín Ross Cultural Centre
In August 2008, Bachelet signed a freedom of information bill into law, which became effective in April 2009.
In January 2010, Bachelet enacted a law creating the Ministry for the Environment. The new legislation also created the Environmental Evaluation Service and the Superintendency for the Environment.[69][71][72]
Half of the ministries in her first government were occupied by women; in her successor's team, Sebastián Piñera, 18% were.[73]
Bachelet was widely credited for resisting calls from politicians from her own coalition to spend the huge copper revenues to close the country's income gap.[36][74] Instead in 2007 she created the Economic and Social Stabilization Fund, a sovereign wealth fund which accumulates fiscal surpluses which are above 1% of GDP.[75] This allowed her to finance new social policies and provide economic stimulus packages when the 2008 financial crisis hit the country.[36]
During Bachelet's four years in office the economy grew at an average of 3.3% (2.3% in per capita terms), with a high of 5.7% in 2006 and a negative growth of −1.0% in 2009 due to the global financial crisis. The minimum wage increased an average of 2% per year in real terms (the lowest of any president since 1990), while unemployment hovered between seven and eight percent during her first three years and rose to nearly 11% during 2009. Inflation averaged 4.5% during her term, reaching close to 9% during 2008 due to an increase in food prices.[76] Absolute poverty fell from 13.7% in November 2006 to 11.5% in November 2009.[77]
Political issues
Bachelet began her term with an unprecedented absolute majority in both chambers of Congress – before appointed senators were eliminated in the 2005 constitutional reforms the CPD never had a majority in the Senate – but she was soon faced with internal opposition from a number of dissatisfied lawmakers from both chambers of Congress, the so-called díscolos ("disobedient", "ungovernable"), which jeopardized the coalition's narrow and historic[78] congressional majority on a number of key executive-sponsored bills during much of her first two years in office, and forced her to negotiate with a right-wing opposition she saw as "obstructionist".[79][80] During 2007 the CPD lost its absolute majority in both chambers of Congress, as several senators and deputies from that coalition became independent.
In December 2006, Pinochet died. Bachelet decided not to grant him a state funeral, an honour bestowed upon constitutionally elected Chilean presidents, but a military funeral as former commander-in-chief of the Army appointed by President Salvador Allende. She also refused to declare an official national day of mourning, but did authorize flags at military barracks to fly at half staff. Pinochet's coffin was also allowed to be draped in a Chilean flag. Bachelet did not attend his funeral, saying it would be "a violation of [her] conscience", and sent Defense Minister Vivianne Blanlot.[81]
In April 2008, Bachelet's Education Minister, Yasna Provoste, was impeached by Congress for her handling of a scandal involving mismanagement of school subsidies. Her conviction was the first for a sitting minister in 36 years.[82][83][84]
Foreign relations
Bachelet with former Argentine president Néstor Kirchner
During her first year in office Bachelet faced continuing problems from neighbors Argentina and Peru. In July 2006 she sent a letter of protest to Argentine president Néstor Kirchner after his government issued a decree increasing export tariffs on natural gas to Chile, which was considered by Bachelet to be a violation of a tacit bilateral agreement. A month later a long-standing border dispute resurfaced after Argentina published some tourist maps showing contested territory in the south – the Southern Patagonian Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Patagónico Sur) – as Argentine, violating an agreement not to define a border over the area.[citation needed]
In early 2007, Peru accused Chile of unilaterally redefining their shared sea boundary in a section of a law passed by Congress that detailed the borders of the new administrative region of Arica and Parinacota. The impasse was resolved by the Chilean Constitutional Tribunal, which declared that section unconstitutional. In March 2007, the Chilean state-owned and independent public broadcaster Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN) canceled the broadcast of a documentary about the War of the Pacific after a cautionary call was made to the stations’ board of directors by Chilean Foreign Relations Minister Alejandro Foxley, apparently acting on demands made by the Peruvian ambassador to Chile;[citation needed] the show was finally broadcast in late May of that year. In August 2007 the Chilean government filed a formal diplomatic protest with Peru and summoned home its ambassador after Peru published an official map claiming a part of the Pacific Ocean that Chile considers its sovereign territory. Peru said this was just another step in its plans to bring the dispute to the International Court of Justice in The Hague. In January 2008 Peru asked the court to consider the dispute, prompting Bachelet to summon home the Chilean ambassador in Lima for consultations.[85]
UN voting deadlock
Chile's 16 October 2006 vote in the United Nations Security Council election – with Venezuela and Guatemala deadlocked in a bid for the two-year, non-permanent Latin American and Caribbean seat on the Security Council – developed into a major ideological issue in the country and was seen as a test for Bachelet. The governing coalition was divided between the Socialists, who supported a vote for Venezuela, and the Christian Democrats, who strongly opposed it. The day before the vote the president announced (through her spokesman) that Chile would abstain, citing a lack of regional consensus on a single candidate, ending months of speculation. In March 2007 Chile's ambassador to Venezuela, Claudio Huepe, revealed in an interview with teleSUR that Bachelet personally told him that she initially wanted to vote for Venezuela, but then "there were a series of circumstances that forced me to abstain."[86] The government quickly recalled Huepe and accepted his resignation.
Bachelet with Evo Morales and Lula da Silva at a Union of South American Nations summit in 2008
In May 2008, Bachelet became the first President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and in September she called for an urgent summit after Bolivian President Evo Morales warned of a possible coup attempt against him. The presidents of Bolivia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Colombia, and the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, met with Bachelet at the La Moneda Palace in Santiago, where they agreed to send two commissions to Bolivia: one to mediate between the executive and the opposition, and another to investigate the killings in Pando Department.[87]
Cuba visit
In February 2009, Bachelet visited Cuba and met with Fidel Castro. There she urged the United States to put an end to the embargo. No Chilean head of state had visited the country in 37 years.[88] The meeting with Castro backfired when Castro wrote a day later that the "fascist and vengeful Chilean oligarchy is the same which more than 100 years ago robbed Bolivia of its access to the Pacific and of copper-rich lands in a humiliating war."[89][90][91]
Progressive Leaders summit
In March 2009, Bachelet hosted in Viña del Mar the "Progressive Leaders Summit", meeting with U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and presidents Tabaré Vázquez of Uruguay, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina. The meeting garnered some media interest because it took place six days before the highly anticipated G-20 Summit in London.[92][93]
Continuing the coalition's free-trade strategy, in August 2006 Bachelet promulgated a free trade agreement with the People's Republic of China (signed under the previous administration of Ricardo Lagos), the first Chinese free-trade agreement with a Latin American nation; similar deals with Japan and India were promulgated in August 2007. In October 2006, Bachelet promulgated a multilateral trade deal with New Zealand, Singapore and Brunei, the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership (P4), also signed under Lagos's presidency. She held free-trade talks with other countries, including Australia, Vietnam, Turkey and Malaysia. Regionally, she signed bilateral free trade agreements with Panama, Peru and Colombia.[citation needed]
Other policies
In October 2007, Bachelet granted amnesty to undocumented migrants from other Latin American countries. The measure was expected to benefit around 15,000 Peruvians and 2,000 Bolivians.[94] In December 2007 she signed in Bolivia a trilateral agreement with the presidents of Brazil and Bolivia to complete and improve a 4,700 km road to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, via Arica and Iquique in Chile and Santos in Brazil. In May 2008, following months of intense lobbying, Chile was elected as member of the United Nations Human Rights Council, obtaining the largest vote among Latin American countries.[95]
In December 2009 Chile became the first country in South America, and the second in Latin America after Mexico, to receive an invitation to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[96] Bachelet signed the accession agreement in January 2010,[97] but it formally became a member in May 2010, after she had left office.[98]
Job-approval ratings. Blue is approval; red is disapproval.
Bachelet enjoyed an approval rating above 50% for her first three months in office, during the so-called "honeymoon period". Her popularity fell during the student protests that year, hovering in the mid-40s. In July she had a disastrous public relations incident when a group of residents she was visiting in the southern city of Chiguayante who were affected by a landslide berated her publicly on television, accusing her of using their tragedy to boost her falling popularity. One woman demanded that she leave the scene so rescue efforts could continue.[99][100] In July, after only four months in office, Bachelet was forced to reshuffle her cabinet, in what was the fastest ministerial adjustment since 1990.[101]
Bachelet's popularity dipped further in her second year, reaching a low of 35% approval, 46% disapproval in September 2007. This fall was mainly attributed to the Transantiago fiasco.[102] That same month she had a second negative incident when a group of earthquake and tsunami victims she was visiting in the southern region of Aisén received her bearing black flags and accused her of showing up late.[103][104] The city mayor, who told Bachelet to "go to hell", later apologized.[105][106] Over the following 12 months, however, Bachelet's approval ratings did not improve. At the onset of the global financial crisis in September 2008 Bachelet's popularity was at 42%, but gradually her job approval ratings began to rise. When she left office in March 2010 her popular support was at a record 84%, according to conservative polling institute Adimark GfK.[107]
The Chilean Constitution does not allow a president to serve two consecutive terms[36] and Bachelet endorsed Christian Democratic Party candidate Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle for the December 2009 election.[108]
Political interregnum
In April 2010, Bachelet inaugurated her own think-tank, "Fundación Dialoga". Its headquarters are located in Providencia, a suburb of Santiago.[109]
Bachelet is a member of the Club of Madrid, the world's largest forum of former heads of state and government.[110] Since 2010 she has also been a member of the Inter-American Dialogue, the leading think tank on Western Hemisphere relations and affairs, and served as the organization's co-chair.[111]
On 14 September 2010, Bachelet was appointed head of the newly created United Nations body UN Women by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. She took office on 19 September 2010. On 15 March 2013 she announced her resignation.[112]
2013 presidential election
On 27 March 2013, Bachelet announced that she would seek a second term as President of Chile in the 2013 elections.[113] The well-respected CEP released a poll in May 2012 suggesting that 51% of voters wished to see her become the next president, far ahead of any other would-be candidate.[114]
On 30 June 2013, Bachelet became the Nueva Mayoría's candidate for president after she won a four-way primary election with the support of five center and left parties (PS, PPD, PC, IC, MAS) and 73% of the vote.[115]
In the 17 November 2013 presidential election, Bachelet fell short of the absolute majority needed for an outright win. In the runoff election, held on 15 December of that year, she beat former senator and Minister of Labor Evelyn Matthei with over 62% of the vote; turnout was significantly lower than in the first round.[116]
Second presidency (2014–2018)
Senate President Isabel Allende, Bachelet and former president Sebastián Piñera on inauguration day at the National Congress, 11 March 2014
The Bachelet Cabinet
PresidentMichelle BacheletPS11 March 2014–11 March 2018
InteriorRodrigo PeñaililloPPD11 March 2014–11 May 2015
Jorge BurgosPDC11 May 2015–8 June 2016
Mario Fernández BaezaPDC8 June 2016–11 March 2018
Foreign AffairsHeraldo MuñozPPD11 March 2014–11 March 2018
DefenseJorge BurgosPDC11 March 2014–11 May 2015
José Antonio GómezPRSD11 May 2015–11 March 2018
FinanceAlberto ArenasPS11 March 2014–11 May 2015
Rodrigo ValdésPPD11 May 2015–11 March 2018
Gen. Sec. of the
Ximena RincónPDC11 March 2014–11 May 2015
Jorge Insunza(resigned)PPD11 May 2015–7 June 2015
Patricia Silva(interim)PS7 June 201527 June 2015
Nicolás EyzaguirrePPD27 June 2015–11 March 2018
Gen. Sec. of
Álvaro ElizaldePS11 March 2014–11 May 2015
Marcelo DíazPS11 May 2015–18 November 2016
Paula NarváezPS18 November 2016–11 March 2018
EconomyLuis Felipe CéspedesPDC11 March 2014–11 March 2018
Fernanda VillegasPS11 March 2014–11 May 2015
Marcos BarrazaPC11 May 2015–11 March 2018
EducationNicolás EyzaguirrePPD11 March 2014–27 June 2015
Adriana DelpianoPPD27 June 2015–11 March 2018
JusticeJosé Antonio GómezPRSD11 March 2014–11 May 2015
Javiera BlancoInd.11 May 2015–19 October 2016
Jaime CamposPRSD19 October 2016–11 March 2018
LaborJaviera BlancoInd.11 March 2014–11 May 2015
Ximena RincónPDC11 May 2015–18 November 2016
Alejandra KraussPDC18 November 2016–11 March 2018
Public WorksAlberto UndurragaPDC11 March 2014–11 March 2018
HealthHelia Molina(resigned)PPD11 March 2014–30 December 2014
Jaime Burrows(interim)PDC30 December 201423 January 2015
Carmen CastilloInd.23 January 2015–11 March 2018
Housing &
Paulina SaballPPD11 March 2014–11 March 2018
AgricultureCarlos FurchePS11 March 2014–11 March 2018
MiningAurora WilliamsPRSD11 March 2014–11 March 2018
Transport &
Andrés Gómez-LoboPPD11 March 2014–14 March 2017
Paola TapiaPDC14 March 2017–11 March 2018
National AssetsVíctor OsorioIC11 March 2014–19 October 2016
Nivia PalmaIC19 October 2016–11 March 2018
EnergyMáximo PachecoPS11 March 2014–19 October 2016
Andrés RebolledoPPD19 October 2016–11 March 2018
EnvironmentPablo BadenierPDC11 March 2014–20 March 2017
Marcelo MenaInd.20 March 2017–11 March 2018
WomenClaudia PascualPC11 March 2014–11 March 2018
Culture & the
Claudia BarattiniInd.11 March 2014–11 May 2015
Ernesto OttoneInd.11 May 2015–11 March 2018
SportsNatalia RiffoMAS11 March 2014–18 November 2016
Pablo SquellaInd.18 November 2016–11 March 2018
Presidential styles of
Michelle Bachelet
Reference styleSu Excelencia, la Presidenta de la República.
"Her Excellency, the President of the Republic"
Spoken stylePresidenta de Chile.
"President of Chile"
Alternative styleSeñora Presidenta.
"Madam President"
Bachelet was sworn in as President of the Republic of Chile for a second time on 11 March 2014 at the National Congress in Valparaíso. Isabel Allende, daughter of former President Salvador Allende, as the newly elected President of the Senate, administered the affirmation of office to Bachelet, the first time in the country's history both parties involved were women.[117]
Domestic policies
Education reform
Among one of Bachelet's main campaign promises for the 2013 election was the introduction of free university education in Chile and the end of profit-making educational institutions, as a response to the 2011–13 Chilean student protests. The intention was that revenue from the increase in corporate tax rate by 2017 would be used to fund free education. The proposals were criticized and quickly became unpopular due to the opposition from students who felt that the proposals did not go far enough in removing profit making. Opposition parties, lower middle class voters and certain members of Bachelet's New Majority coalition attacked the proposals as the law that would prevent individuals from earning profits on public resources would not address making improvements in quality of education.[118]
In 2015, the Chile Constitutional Court rejected large portions of Bachelet's plan to offer free college education to half of the nation's poorest students on grounds that requiring them to attend certain schools participating in the program could be considered discrimination. However, what remained of the plan allowed Bachelet to send 200,000 students from low-income families to college free of cost.[119]
In January 2018, the Chilean Senate passed a law guaranteeing free education which was supported by conservative opposition parties as well, allowing the poorest 60% of students to study for free and doubled state funding for public universities. The new legislation created a higher education Superintendent empowered to supervise and penalise institutions which do not provide quality of education or have for-profit operations.[120]
Tax reform
In September 2014, the Chilean Congress passed Bachelet's tax reform proposal which aimed to increase revenue by 3% of gross domestic product. Measures included in the reform were:[121][122]
Critics blamed tax reforms for complexity driving away investment and blamed for the slowdown of the Chilean economy during Bachelet's second period in office. However, Bachelet's supporters argue that falling copper prices were more to blame for the economic slowdown. They argue that economic forecasts of faster growth in conjunction with rising copper prices and exports from 2018 onwards (after Bachelet's term) suggest that the tax reforms did not negatively affect the economy.[123] Others, such as MIT-trained economist and academic Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, have found that Chile's overall terms of trade under Bachelet's second term worsened only marginally compared to those of her predecessor Sebastián Piñera, due in part to a lower cost of key imports like petroleum. Consequently, he concludes that Bachelet's reforms and governance likely were instrumental in causing a period of dampened growth throughout her presidency.[124]
Environmental policy
A new 720,000sq km protection area for waters surrounding the Easter Island following a poll of the islands native to Rapa Nui inhabitants was created, protecting at least 142 endemic marine species, including 27 threatened with extinction.[125] Five new national parks in the Patagonia region were created under a presidential decree, covering 10 million acres in January 2018, including 1 million acres of land contributed by conservationist Kris Tompkins.[126] On 9 March 2018, Bachelet created nine marine reserves to protect biodiversity with her final presidential decree, increasing the area of the sea under state protection from 4.2 percent to 42.4 percent. The measure is expected to benefit marine life in approximately 1.4 million square kilometers.[citation needed]
Civil unions and same-sex marriage
When Michelle Bachelet again took office of President in March 2014, she made passing Piñera's civil union bill a priority.[127] The name of the bill was changed to Civil Union Pact (Pacto de Unión Civil) on 17 December, and Congress reiterated their intention to hold the final vote by January 2015.[128] On 6 January 2015, a provision recognising foreign marriages as civil unions was approved in the Constitutional Committee while the child adoption clause was turned down. The bill went to a final vote before both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies as it was amended.[129] On 13 January, the full Chamber of Deputies reinserted the adoption provision. On 20 January 2015, the Chamber approved the bill on a vote of 86 to 23 with 2 abstentions. On 27 January, the Senate rejected all the Chamber's amendments, so the bill was headed to the joint committee of both houses.[130] The committee reached the agreement in regard to the text of the bill and changed its name to Civil Union Agreement (Acuerdo de Unión Civil) the same day. The bill was passed in both houses on 28 January 2015.[131][132] Several lawmakers asked the Chilean Constitutional Court to verify the bill's constitutionality, which was upheld by the court in a ruling released on 6 April 2015.[133] The bill was signed into law by President Bachelet on 13 April 2015.[134][135] It was published in the Official Gazette on 21 April 2015 and took effect on 22 October 2015.[136][137][138]
Chile's civil union provisions enable couples to claim pension benefits and inherit property if their civil partner dies as well as more easily co-own property and make medical decisions for one another. The Government estimated at the time of the law going into effect that some two million Chilean couples cohabiting could have their unions legally recognised. In the day following the law going into effect, approximately 1,600 couples signed up to register their unions.[139]
On 1 December 2016, the Chamber of Deputies unanimously approved (except for 6 abstentions) a bill to give couples who enter in a civil union five days off, like what married couples have.[140][141][142] The bill was approved by the Senate in October 2017, in a unanimous 15–0 vote.[143]
Women's rights and abortion
Claudia Pascual being appointed Minister of Women and Gender Equality, by President Bachelet, on 3 June 2016
A new Ministry for Women and Gender Inequality was formed, replacing the National Women's Service in June 2016 which aimed to formulate policies against abuse of women and gender inequality.[citation needed] Claudia Pascual was appointed as the first ever Minister for Women and Gender Inequality.[citation needed]
The Chilean Congress approved Bachelet's abortion legalisation bill in some circumstances in July 2017, but was subjected to challenge in the Constitutional Court.[144] Later, Chile's total abortion ban implemented under the Pinochet regime in 1989 was lifted in August 2017 after the Constitutional Court voted 6–4 to allow the procedure under some circumstances: in cases of pregnancy as a result of rape (up to 12 weeks), if the fetus endangers the mother's life, or if the fetus is not viable. Prior to this, Chile was one of only four nations in the Americas that had a total ban on abortions, the others being El Salvador, Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic.[145][146]
Constitutional and political reform
The Chilean Congress passed Bachelet's proposed abolishment of the binomial voting system introduced by the Augusto Pinochet regime and restoring proportional representation for election to both chambers of the Chilean Congress and requirements that 40% of candidates nominated are female in January 2015.[147] The new system took effect from the 2017 elections, increasing the members of the Chamber of Deputies from 120 to 155 seats and the Senate from 38 seats to 43 seats in 2017 and 50 seats in 2021. As a result, the 2017 election saw the end of the dominance of Bachelet's New Majority and conservative coalitions and increased number of new political parties represented in Congress.
President Bachelet with the Engel Commission, 23 February 2015
Following revelations that President Bachelet's son and daughter in-law were caught in an influence-peddling scandal, she appointed a Presidential Advisory Council on Conflicts of Interest, Influence Peddling, and Corruption (known as the Engel Commission) headed by economist Eduardo Engel. Subsequently, reforms recommended by the commission were implemented which included, ability to remove politicians from office if found guilty for transparency and election spending limits violations with disqualification for two subsequent elections and constitutional autonomy to Chile's electoral service (SERVEL), giving it complete independence from the government to more effectively oversee electoral processes and the functioning of politics in general.[123][148]
In 2016, overseas voting rights for Chilean women and men living outside the country were introduced, allowing Chilean citizens who live abroad to exercise their right to vote beginning from the 2017 elections.[149]
Foreign policy
President Bachelet with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi in 2015
On 8 March 2018, three days before Bachelet left office, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) multilateral trade agreement was signed in Santiago with Chile and 10 other signatory countries in the Asia Pacific region, following renegotiation of the original Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) which was signed in February 2016. The TPP was renegotiated into the CPTPP following the United States' withdrawal from the original TPP in January 2017.[150]
In September 2015, Bachelet's approval rating was 24%, compared to 72% disapproval.[151] Chileans' support for her dropped sharply after revelations of corruption scandals such as the Caval scandal, which involved her son and daughter-in-law accepting millions of dollars in the form of a loan from Vice-Chairman of the Banco de Chile Andrónico Luksic Craig. The couple's company (Caval) used the money to purchase land and resell it at a $5 million profit after repaying the loan. Bachelet maintains that she was unaware of her family's actions and found out about the agreement between Luksic and her daughter-in-law through the press.[152][153] By August 2016, Bachelet's approval rating dropped to 15%, the lowest for any President since the return of free elections in 1990,[154] and in March 2017, Bachelet's approval rating remained low, at about 23%.[155]
Bachelet left office in March 2018 with an approval rating at 39% according to Adimark, in contrast to the 84% rating when she left office in 2010.[156]
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (2018)
Play media
Video during the COVID-19 pandemic.
On 10 September 2018, Bachelet urged China to allow observers into Xinjiang and expressed concern about the situation there. She said that: ’’The UN rights group had shown that Uyghurs and other Muslims are being detained in camps across Xinjiang and I expect discussions with Chinese officials to begin soon’’.[157] China called for Bachelet to respect its sovereignty.[158]
In September 2018, Bachelet criticized Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. She has called on Saudi Arabia to hold accountable those responsible for airstrikes on civilians in Yemen.[157]
On 5 October 2019, Bachelet said she was “troubled” by Hong Kong’s increasingly violent pro-democracy protests, and stressed that any measures to quell the unrest must be grounded in law. She also stated that "Freedom of peaceful assembly … should be enjoyed without restriction to the greatest extent possible. But on the other hand, we cannot accept people who use masks to provoke violence."[159]
Regarding the November 2019 Iranian protests, Nasrin Sotoudeh a jailed Iranian lawyer, asked Bachelet to administrate an independent investigation into the alleged atrocities committed by the Iranian security forces in the uprising.[160]
On 9 October 2020, Bachelet expressed concern about the suffering of civilians during the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan.[161]
In January 2021, in preparation for the 2021 spring session of the UN Human Rights Council, Bachelet has issued a hard hitting report on Sri Lanka. The report severely criticizes the failure of the current Sri Lankan government to address documented accusations of grave and numerous human rights crimes perpetrated during and after the Civil war in Sri Lanka, even though the war ended in 2009.[162][163]
Media and educational Honours
Awards and media recognition
Honorary degrees
International Honours
National honours
Foreign honours
Arms as Dame of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Arms as Dame of the Order of Charles III
Bachelet, Michelle. 2002. Los estudios comparados y la relación civil-militar. "Reflexiones tras una década de consolidación democrática en Chile", Revista Fuerzas Armadas y Sociedad, 17(4): 29–35.
  1. ^ "Certficado de Nacimiento" (PDF). Dirección Nacional del Registro Civil Nacional de la República de Chile.
  2. ^ "Michelle Bachelet será la nueva Alta Comisionada de la ONU para los Derechos Humanos". Noticias ONU (in Spanish). 8 August 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  3. ^ "15 women leading the way for girls' education". www.globalpartnership.org​. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Michelle Bachelet: primera mujer presidenta y primer presidente reelecto desde 1932". Facebook. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  5. ^ "Bachelet critica a la derecha por descalificarla por ser agnóstica" [Bachelet criticises the political right for discounting her because of her agnosticism] (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 30 December 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d "Biografía Michelle Bachelet". Gobierno de Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2007.
  7. ^ "Biographical Sketch: Michelle Bachelet". UN Women. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d "Biografías de Líderes Políticos CIDOB: Michelle Bachelet Jeria". Fundació CIDOB (in Spanish). 9 March 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
  9. ^ "Familia Jeria (Geria)". Genealog.cl. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  10. ^ Fernando Jimenez. "La vida de Bachelet, la historia de Chile en sus espaldas". 24horas.cl. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  11. ^ "Michelle Bachelet, présidente du Chili". CBC/Radio-Canada. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  12. ^ Rohter, Larry (16 January 2006). "Woman in the News; A Leader Making Peace With Chile's Past". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2006.
  13. ^ a b c "La vida de la primera Presidenta de Chile". La Nación (in Spanish). 16 January 2006. Archived from the original on 12 February 2006. Retrieved 16 January 2006.
  14. ^ a b "Los años de Alvear y Bachelet en el Liceo 1". La Tercera (in Spanish). 10 October 2004. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
  15. ^ "De 376 a 780 puntos: Los resultados de los políticos en la Prueba de Aptitud Académica" (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 5 January 2014. Michelle Bachelet. Año en que rindió: 1969. Verbal: 712. Matemáticas: 707. Biología: 724. Esp. Ciencias Sociales: 705. Física y Química: 603 575. Ciencias Naturales: 632. Ponderación: 720,6 para medicina en Universidad de Chile. Fue 113 de 160.
  16. ^ "Biografía de Michelle Bachelet". La Nación (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2006.
  17. ^ "Bachelet confirma que Krassnoff participó en su detención". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  18. ^ Davison, Phil (12 December 2005). "Single mother poised to be Chilean President". The Independent. London, UK. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2005.
  19. ^ Cea, Rodrigo (8 October 2013). "Bachelet revela que fue interrogada por el jefe de la policía secreta de Pinochet". El País. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  20. ^ "Latin America's Schindler: a forgotten hero of the 20th century". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  21. ^ "Michelle Bachelet spotlights remarkable Australian women in her address to students at the Australian National University". Headquarters. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  22. ^ "BACHELET DA SU TESTIMONIO DE TORTURA EN DICTADURA" (in Spanish). 14 November 2004. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013.
  23. ^ "Las huellas de Bachelet en Alemania Oriental". La Tercera (in Spanish). 9 April 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2006. Retrieved 9 April 2006.
  24. ^ Superintendencia de Salud. "Certificado de Inscripción en el Registro Nacional de Prestadores Individuales de Salud". Superintendencia de Salud. Superintendencia de Salud. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  25. ^ Registro Nacional de Prestadores Individuales de Salud, Superintendencia de Salud. Archived 24 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Los currículos y biografías de los candidatos presidenciales contrastados con la realidad". El Mercurio D4 (in Spanish). 23 September 2013.
  27. ^ "La historia del ex frentista que fue pareja de Bachelet". La Tercera (in Spanish). 10 July 2005. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2005.
  28. ^ "Michelle Bachelet | Biography, Presidency, & Facts". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  29. ^ "El libro que emocionó a Bachelet". Qué Pasa? (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2008.
  30. ^ "Las historias clandestinas de Bachelet". La Tercera (in Spanish). 9 December 2007. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  31. ^ "Michelle Bachelet : Biographie de Michelle Bachelet". aufeminin.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  32. ^ Huneeus, Carlos, Berríos, Fabiola, y Gamboa, Ricardo (editores). "Las elecciones chilenas de 2005: partidos, coaliciones y votantes en transición", Santiago de Chile: Catalonia, 2007. ISBN 978-956-8303-60-0 In Google Books
  33. ^ a b "Asumió Bachelet e hizo historia". Lanacion.com.ar. 12 March 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  34. ^ Franklin, Jonathan (22 November 2005). "'All I want in life is to walk along the beach, holding my lover's hand". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 22 November 2005.
  35. ^ Santa María, Orietta (19 January 2006). "Estuve una semana encerrada en un cajón, vendada, atada". Las Últimas Noticias (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 19 January 2006.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g Barrionuevo, Alexei (11 March 2010). "Michelle Bachelet profile". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  37. ^ Pike, John. "Veronica Michelle Bachelet Jeria". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  38. ^ "Presidentes Bachelet y Kirchner firmaron acuerdo estratégico". Emol.com. 21 March 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  39. ^ "Comisión Reforma Previsional será encabezada por Mario Marcel". Economia.terra.cl. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  40. ^ "Comisión Marcel propone equiparar edad de jubilación de hombres y mujeres". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  41. ^ Incentives under the New Pension Solidarity Pillar in Chile Archived 14 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Eduardo Fajnzylber. March 2010.
  42. ^ "Bono por hijo nacido vivo – Superintendencia de Pensiones – Gobierno de Chile". Safp.cl. Archived from the original on 8 September 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  43. ^ "Presidenta Bachelet promulgó la ley de Subcontratación". Cooperativa.cl. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  44. ^ "Bachelet promulga ley sobre igualdad de sueldos entre hombres y mujeres". Lanacion.cl. 2 June 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  45. ^ "LEY-20379 12-SEP-2009 MINISTERIO DE PLANIFICACIÓN – Ley Chile – Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional". Leychile.cl. 12 September 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  46. ^ "Bachelet comenzó la entrega del Maletín Literario". Dianoticias.cauquenesnet.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  47. ^ "Enlaces – CET – Ministerio de Educación". Enlaces.cl. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  48. ^ "Presidenta Michelle Bachelet inicia entrega de ajuares a recién nacidos". Biobiochile.cl. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  49. ^ "Bachelet inició entrega de ajuares para recién nacidos". 3tv.cl. 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  50. ^ "LEY-20418 28-ENE-2010 MINISTERIO DE SALUD, SUBSECRETARÍA DE SALUD PÚBLICA – Ley Chile – Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional". Leychile.cl. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  51. ^ "Bachelet recibe informe de educaciĂłn agradeciendo labor del Consejo". Lanacion.cl. 11 December 2006. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  52. ^ "Bachelet promulgó la nueva Ley General de Educación". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  53. ^ "Bachelet inaugura Línea 4 A de Metro de Santiago". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  54. ^ "PRESIDENTA MICHELLE BACHELET INAUGURÓ EXTENSIÓN DE LA LÍNEA 2 NORTE DEL METRO QUE BENEFICIA A MÁS DE 670.000 PERSONAS". Mtt.gob.cl. 30 January 2007. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  55. ^ "Bachelet anuncia construcción de nueva línea del Metro". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  56. ^ "Cooperativa.cl" (PDF). Cooperativa.cl. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  57. ^ "Belisario Velasco afirma que Bachelet también conoció informe del Metro que advertía colapso del Transantiago". La Tercera (in Spanish). 30 July 2007. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
  58. ^ "UPDATE: Chile Govt To Use Emergency Funding For Transit System". Forexdaily.org.ru. 5 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  59. ^ "MASIVO TERREMOTO DE MAGNITUD 8,8 SACUDE CHILE: 122 MUERTOS". El19digital.com. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  60. ^ "Ya son 723 los muertos por el fuerte terremoto de 8.8 grados que destruyó gran parte de Chile". Peru.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  61. ^ "Massive earthquake strikes Chile". BBC News. 28 February 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  62. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (1 March 2010). "Chile Officials Call for Aid as Devastation Sinks In". The New York Times. Chile. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  63. ^ Hough, Andrew (3 March 2010). "Chile earthquake: President Michelle Bachelet 'failed to grasp scale of devastation'". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  64. ^ "Chile's Leader Faces Criticism Over Quake Response". NPR. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  65. ^ "Chile: Michelle Bachelet impresionada con objetos saqueados tras terremoto". Informe21.com. 7 March 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  66. ^ "The Politics of Memory Museums". The Daily Beast. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  67. ^ "Presidenta Bachelet promulga ley que crea el Instituto Nacional de Derechos Humanos". Biobiochile.cl. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  68. ^ "Mandatario recibió en La Moneda el segundo informe de la Comisión Valech". La Tercera. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  69. ^ a b SANTIAGO, Reuters (28 August 2017). "Chile's President Bachelet sends gay marriage bill to Congress". Reuters. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  70. ^ Zeid warmly welcomes appointment of new UN Human Rights Chief Zeid warmly welcomes appointment of new UN Human Rights Chief
  71. ^ "Bachelet promulgó ley que crea ministerio de Medio Ambiente". latercera.com. 31 July 2010. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  72. ^ "Chile: New Law Creates Ministry for the Environment, Other Environmental Agencies – Global Legal Monitor – Law Library of Congress (Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  73. ^ "Lo que cambia para las mujeres".
  74. ^ Rohter, Larry (7 January 2007). "Chile Copper Windfall Forces Hard Choices on Spending". The New York Times. Chile. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  75. ^ "Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute – Social and Economic Stabilisation Fund – Chile". Swfinstitute.org. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  76. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. April 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  77. ^ "Panorama social de América Latina" (PDF). ECLAC. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2011.
  78. ^ Carlos Huneeus. "REFORMA ELECTORAL EN CHILE" (PDF). p. 374. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012.
  79. ^ "La Moneda fustigó el "obstruccionismo" de la derecha en 2006". Radio Cooperativa (in Spanish). 26 December 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
  80. ^ "Gobierno quiere debate 'pausado y sin presiones'". La Nación (in Spanish). 22 November 2007. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
  81. ^ "Clashes Break out after Pinochet's death", Yahoo! News, 11 December 2006
  82. ^ "Chilean minister voted out of job". BBC News. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  83. ^ "La destitución de ministra por el Senado causa polémica en Chile". Eldeber.com.bo. 18 April 2008. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  84. ^ Sanhueza, José. "Las miradas de la política regional a la destitución de Yasna Provoste". Laopinon.cl. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  85. ^ "Chile-Peru spat over sea border". BBC News. 17 January 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  86. ^ "Chilevisión Noticias Última Mirada". Chilevisión. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
  87. ^ "La cumbre de Unasur "abortó" un golpe contra Evo Morales, afirma Hugo Chávez". Jornada.unam.mx. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  88. ^ "Bachelet condemns US embargo on Cuba". Argentinaindependent.com. 12 February 2009. Archived from the original on 13 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  89. ^ "Bachelet se reunió con Fidel Castro". BBC News. 13 February 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  90. ^ "Fidel Castro critica a la oligarquía chilena". Peru21.pe. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  91. ^ "Fidel Castro afirma que la oligarquía chilena le arrebató el mar a Bolivia en la guerra de 1879". Larepublica.pe. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  92. ^ "Cumbre de líderes progresistas finaliza hoy en Viña del Mar". Emol.com. 28 March 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  93. ^ Conway, Edmund (9 March 2009). "G20 ministers set for clash over economic crisis solutions". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  94. ^ "Chile anuncia amnistía a inmigrantes". BBC News. 23 October 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  95. ^ Chile obtiene cupo en Consejo de Derechos Humanos de la ONU[dead link], El Mercurio, 22 May 2008.
  96. ^ "Chile invited to become a member of the OECD". Oecd.org. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  97. ^ "Chile joins the OECD's economic club". BBC. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  98. ^ "Chile signs up as first OECD member in South America". OECD. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  99. ^ "Damnificados de Chiguayante acusan a Bachelet de abusar de la tragedia". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  100. ^ "Bachelet debió enfrentar la rabia de afectados por temporal en Chiguayante". Cooperativa.cl. 12 July 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  101. ^ Ignacio Nieto. "Especiales Emol – Michelle Bachelet, a un año de su llegada a la Moneda". Emol.com. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  102. ^ "Life & Arts – First among unequals: Chile's president". Financial Times. 29 September 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  103. ^ "Con banderas negras protestan en Puerto Aisén por llegada de Bachelet". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  104. ^ "Alcalde de Puerto Aysén: La Presidenta "se puede ir a la punta del cerro"". Cooperativa.cl. 23 April 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  105. ^ "Alcalde insistió que Bachelet "le faltó el respeto" a la gente de Aysén". Cooperativa.cl. 24 April 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  106. ^ "Alcalde de Aysén ofreció disculpas públicas a Bachelet". Cooperativa.cl. 18 June 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  107. ^ Washington, The (12 March 2010). "More quakes hit Chile as new president takes office". The Washington Times. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  108. ^ "Bachelet: "Inequívocamente apoyo a Frei como candidato"". Lanacion.cl. 6 July 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  109. ^ "Bachelet inaugura Fundación Dialoga en contrapeso a la concentración de poderes existente en Chile". Biobiochile.cl. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  110. ^ "Michelle Bachelet | Club de Madrid". Clubmadrid.org. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  111. ^ "Inter-American Dialogue | Michelle Bachelet". www.thedialogue.org. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  112. ^ Krause, Flavia. "Bachelet Quits UN to Return to Chile Before Elections". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  113. ^ "Bachelet seeks a second term". ABC News. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  114. ^ "Encuesta CEP: Bachelet lidera por lejos la carrera presidencial con 51% de las preferencias" (in Spanish). EMOL. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  115. ^ "Bachelet Wins Primary for Chile President". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  116. ^ "Ex-president Michelle Bachelet wins Chile poll run-off". BBC News. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  117. ^ "Michelle Bachelet sworn in as Chile's president". BBC News. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  118. ^ "The complicated journey of Bachelet's flagship reforms". El País. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  119. ^ "Students in Chile Are Demanding Free Tuition, and Protests Are Turning Violent". Vice News. 3 June 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  120. ^ "Major higher education reforms secured by senators". universityworldnews.com​. 31 January 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  121. ^ "Chile passes landmark tax reform into law". Reuters. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  122. ^ "Factbox: Chile tax reform set to be approved". Reuters. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  123. ^ a b "Michelle Bachelet's Underappreciated Legacy in Chile". Americas Quarterly. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  124. ^ "La tarea número uno es crecer, todo lo demás es música". El Mercurio. 12 September 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  125. ^ "One of world's largest marine parks created off coast of Easter Island". The Guardian. 9 September 2017.
  126. ^ "Chile creates five national parks over 10m acres in historic act of conservation". The Guardian. 29 January 2018.
  127. ^ "Government announces priority for same-sex civil unions and tax reform". Santiago Times. 17 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014.
  128. ^ "Otorgan suma urgencia al AVP y le cambian el nombre por Pacto de Unión Civil (PUC)". MOVILH. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  129. ^ Comisión de Constitución de la Cámara despacha el Pacto de Unión Civil limitando los derechos de hijos e hijas
  130. ^ (in Spanish) Pacto de Unión Civil: Senado rechaza texto aprobado por la Cámara para zanjar disensos en comisión mixta
  131. ^ Esposito, Anthony. "Socially-conservative Chile approves civil unions". Reuters. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  132. ^ (in Spanish) Comisión mixta concluye revisión de proyecto de Unión Civil: Mañana se vota en la Cámara y el Senado
  133. ^ "Chilean court upholds constitutionality of civil unions bill". The Washington Blade. 6 April 2015.
  134. ^ Chilean president signs civil unions bill
  135. ^ Chilean president signs same-sex civil union law
  136. ^ Michael Lavers (22 October 2015). "Chile civil unions law takes effect". Washington Blade.
  137. ^ (in Spanish) Acuerdo de Unión Civil
  138. ^ (in Spanish) Ley número 20.830. – Crea el Acuerdo de Unión Civil
  139. ^ "Chile civil union law comes into force". BBC News. 23 October 2015.
  140. ^ Chile, Cámara de Diputados de. "Cámara de Diputados de Chile". camara.cl. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  141. ^ "Cámara de Diputados de Chile. Trabajo en sala: Detalle de Votación". camara.cl. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  142. ^ Chile, Cámara de Diputados de. "Avanza proyecto para que trabajadores que celebren Acuerdo de Unión Civil tengan derecho a cinco días libres" (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  143. ^ (in Spanish) Tema: Proyecto de ley, en segundo trámite constitucional, que modifica el Código del Trabajo, con el objeto de aplicar al trabajador que celebra un acuerdo de unión civil el permiso laboral que se otorga a quien contrae matrimonio.
  144. ^ "Chile passes bill to legalize abortion in certain cases". The Guardian. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  145. ^ "'A triumph of reason': Chile approves landmark bill to ease abortion ban". The Guardian. 22 August 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  146. ^ "Chile court ruling ends abortion ban; new law allows in limited cases". Reuters. 22 August 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  147. ^ "Chile reforms Pinochet's voting system". El País. 21 January 2015.
  148. ^ "Review some of the outstanding achievements of the government's second year". Government of Chile. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  149. ^ "A third year of Government progressing toward a better Chile". Government of Chile. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  150. ^ "CPTPP: 11 countries sign Pacific Trade Deal in Chile". The Santiago Times. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  151. ^ Rosario Álvarez, Adimark: Bachelet obtiene 24% de aprobación registrando la peor cifra en la historia de la encuesta Politica, 02 de septiembre del 2015
  152. ^ "Aprobación de Michelle Bachelet cae ocho puntos y llega a un mínimo histórico de 31%". 1 April 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  153. ^ Nicole Rojas. "Chilean President Michelle Bachelet's son Sebastián Dávalos testifies in Caval corruption scandal". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  154. ^ "Chile president approval plunges to lowest since return to democracy". Reuters. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  155. ^ Martín, Karina (6 March 2017). "Chile's President Bachelet with 24% Approval Ratings after Forest Fires Crisis". PanAm Post. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  156. ^ "Adimark: Bachelet finaliza su mandato con un 39% de aprobación". EL MOSTRADOR. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  157. ^ a b "New UN Rights Chief Takes on China, Other Powers". Voice of America. 10 September 2018.
  158. ^ "China Tells U.N. Rights Chief to Respect Its Sovereignty After Xinjiang Comments". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  159. ^ "U.N. calls for probe into violence related to Hong Kong protests". Reuters. 5 October 2019.
  160. ^ Jailed Rights Defender Demands Full Investigation Of Iran Protest Deaths
  161. ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh: UN rights chief calls for urgent ceasefire as hostilities mount". UN News. 9 October 2020.
  162. ^ BBC News (23 February 2021). "Sri Lanka Human Rights: UK seeks new UN resolution". BBC News. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  163. ^ UN Human Rights Council (27 January 2021). "UN human Rights Commissioners' Report Spring2021". UNHRC, Geneva. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  164. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #17 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. 31 August 2006. Retrieved 31 August 2006.
  165. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #22 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
  166. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #25 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  167. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #27 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. 31 August 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  168. ^ "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  169. ^ "Bachelet y De la Vega estrenan los premios Ramón Rubial". El Pais. 11 January 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  170. ^ "The World's Most Influential People – The 2008 TIME 100 – Leaders & Revolutionaries – Michelle Bachele". Time. 1 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
  171. ^ "Congreso Judío Mundial entrega Premio Shalom a Presidenta Bachelet". Emol.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  172. ^ a b "Bachelet fue premiada por mujeres líderes y luego se reunió con Crist…". 26 January 2013. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  173. ^ "Conmebol condecoró a Bachelet". Oem.com.mx. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  174. ^ "Bachelet recibió el "Gran Collar Extraordinario" del Fútbol Sudamericano". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  175. ^ "Ex Presidenta Bachelet recibirá el premio "Mujer del Bicentenario"". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  176. ^ "Chaves y Bachelet, premiados por la Federación de Mujeres Progresistas". El Correo de Andalucía (in Spanish). 15 November 2010. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  177. ^ a b "Miami Honors Michelle Bachelet – Head of UN Women and Former President of Chile for Leadership" (PDF). Retrieved 16 September 2011.[dead link]
  178. ^ "Inter-American Dialogue | Michelle Bachelet". www.thedialogue.org. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  179. ^ "WOLA's Human Rights Awards Ceremony and Benefit Gala". WOLA. 1 October 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  180. ^ "Remarks by Michelle Bachelet on Receiving Women's eNews' Newsmaker of the Decade Award". Unwomen.org. 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  181. ^ "Bachelet recibe distinción del Ministerio de Defensa argentino por su lucha a favor de la igualdad de género". EFE via El Mostrador. 25 April 2012.
  182. ^ "Colin Powell entrega condecoración a Bachelet y elogia su trayectoria" (PDF) (in Spanish). La Tercera. 18 May 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  183. ^ "LOS 10 INTELECTUALES IBEROAMERICANOS MÁS INFLUYENTES 2012". Fp-es.org. Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  184. ^ "La Republica". Larepublica.pe. 12 April 2006. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  185. ^ "Honoris causa a Bachelet". Lahora.com.gt. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  186. ^ "Oration given on 3 April 2008, presented at the Canning House Annual Lecture". essex.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  187. ^ "UPF awards Michelle Bachelet with a degree honoris causa". Upf.edu. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  188. ^ a b "Michelle Bachelet recibirá doble doctorado "honoris causa" en Argentina". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  189. ^ "Discurso de Michelle Bachelet al recibir Doctor Honoris Causa de la Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo". Dialoga.cl. 23 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  190. ^ "UASD otorgará Doctorado Honoris Causa a Michelle Bachelet, ex presidenta de Chile". DiarioLibre.com. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  191. ^ "Université Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris3 – Docteur Honoris Causa 2010 de l'Université Sorbonne Nouvelle". Univ-paris3.fr. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  192. ^ "La ex presidenta chilena Bachelet, doctora honoris causa por la Sorbona – Noticias internacionales en MSN Latino". MSN. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  193. ^ "Michelle Bachelet 2012 Commencement Speech at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health". 12 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  194. ^ "Ehrenpromotion für Staatspräsidentin Michelle Bachelet" (in German). TU Freiberg. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  195. ^ "KULeuven". KULeuven.be. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  196. ^ "Presidente chilena recebe doutoramento Honoris Causa em Évora" (in Portuguese). Expresso. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  197. ^ "Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No. S160" (PDF). Governor General of Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  198. ^ "Ex presidenta Bachelet fue condecorada". El Universo (in Spanish). 11 June 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  199. ^ "Bachelet Jeria S.E. Verónica Michelle decorato di Gran Cordone" (in Italian). Presidenza della Repubblica. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  200. ^ "Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunnan suurristin ketjuineen ulkomaalaiset saajat". www.ritarikunnat.fi. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  201. ^ "Lithuanian Orders searching form" (in Lithuanian). Lithuanian Presidency. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  202. ^ "Semakan Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang, dan Pingat Persekutuan".
  203. ^ "Photographic image". Gpdhome.typepad.com. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  204. ^ (PDF). 2 April 2015 https://web.archive.org/web/20150402120147/http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2010/02/27/pdfs/BOE-A-2010-3212.pdf​. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  205. ^ (PDF). 10 January 2015 https://web.archive.org/web/20150110211735/http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/10/25/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-10888.pdf​. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  206. ^ . 25 January 2015 https://web.archive.org/web/20150125045224/http://www.google.com/hostednews/getty/media/ALeqM5jFn883YOl3o3fUr-xkdDuQOzk_FA​. Archived from the original on 25 January 2015. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  207. ^ "22 bilder frĂĽn kungens stora fest pĂĽ slottet | Svensk Damtidning". Svenskdam.se. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  208. ^ "Resolución N° 222/006". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  209. ^ "PHOENIX Sendeplan Samstag, 18. März 2006". Bankkaufmann.com. 17 March 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  210. ^ "December 2016 Calendar". Bakerinstitute.org. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
Further reading
Skard, Torild (2014). "Michelle Bachelet". Women of Power: Half a Century of Female Presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide. Bristol: Policy Press. ISBN 9781447315780.
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Michelle Bachelet (category)
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Michelle Bachelet
Political offices
Preceded by
Alex Figueroa
Minister of Health
Succeeded by
Osvaldo Artaza
Preceded by
Mario Fernández
Minister of National Defense
Succeeded by
Jaime Ravinet
Preceded by
Ricardo Lagos
President of Chile
Succeeded by
Sebastián Piñera
Preceded by
Sebastián Piñera
President of Chile
Diplomatic posts
New officePresident pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
Succeeded by
Rafael Correa
Executive Director of UN Women
Succeeded by
Lakshmi Puri
Preceded by
Zeid Raad Al Hussein
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 02:22
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers