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Mid back rounded vowel
The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ], it is normally written ⟨o⟩. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨o̞⟩ or ⟨ɔ̝⟩, the former being more common. There was an alternative IPA symbol for this sound, ⟨ꭥ⟩. A non-IPA letter ⟨ⱺ⟩ is also found.
Mid back rounded vowel
ɔ̝
IPA Number307 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal)o​̞
Unicode (hex)U+006F U+031E
Braille
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Just because a language has only one non-close non-open back vowel, it still may not be a true-mid vowel. There is a language in Sulawesi, Indonesia, with a close-mid [o], Tukang Besi. Another language in Indonesia, in the Maluku Islands, has an open-mid [ɔ], Taba. In both languages, there is no contrast with another mid (true-mid or close-mid) vowel.
Kensiu, in Malaysia and Thailand, is highly unusual in that it contrasts true-mid vowels with close-mid and open-mid vowels without any difference in other parameters, such as backness or roundedness.
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandard[1]
bok
[bɔ̝k]'goat'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. The height varies between mid [ɔ̝] and close-mid [o].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
ArabicHejazi[2]لـون‎‎/lōn[lo̞ːn]'color'See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Breton[3][example needed]Possible realization of unstressed /ɔ/; can be open-mid [ɔ] or close-mid [o] instead.[3]
ChineseTaiwanese Mandarin[4] / [wo̞ɔː˨˩˦˥]'I'See Standard Chinese phonology
Shanghainese[5]/kò[kö̞¹]'tall'Near-back. Realization of /ɔ/ in open syllables and /ʊ/ in closed syllables.[5]
Czech[6][7]
oko
[ˈo̞ko̞]'eye'In Bohemian Czech, the backness varies between back and near-back, whereas the height varies between mid [o̞] and close-mid [o].[6] See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[8][9]
måle
[ˈmɔ̽ːlə]'measure'Near-back;[8][9] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩. See Danish phonology
DutchAmsterdam[10]
och
[ɔ̝̈χ]'alas'Near-back;[10] corresponds to open-mid [ɔˤ] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[11]
mot
[mɔ̝t]'well'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.
EnglishCultivated South African[12]
thought
[θɔ̝ːt]'thought'Close-mid [] for other speakers. See South African English phonology
Maori[13]Closer [] in other New Zealand accents.[13]
Scouse[14]Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.
Some Cardiff speakers[15]Other speakers use a more open, advanced and unrounded vowel [ʌ̈ː].[15]
General American[16]
Cambodia
[kʰɛəmˈbö̞diə]'Cambodia'Near-back; often diphthongal: [ö̞ʊ].[16] Some regional North American varieties use a vowel that is closer to cardinal [o]. See English phonology
Yorkshire[17][kʰamˈbo̞ːdjə]Corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Faroese[18]
toldi
[ˈtʰɔ̝ltɪ̞]'endured'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Faroese phonology
Finnish[19][20]
kello
[ˈke̞llo̞]'clock'See Finnish phonology
FrenchParisian[21]
pont
[pɔ̝̃]'bridge'Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ̃⟩. See French phonology
GermanSouthern accents[22]
voll
[fɔ̝l]'full'Common realization of /ɔ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Open-mid [ɔ] in Northern Standard German.[23] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[24]
hoch
[ho̞ːχ]'high'Close-mid [] in other accents.[25] See Standard German phonology
GreekModern Standard[26][27]πως / pos[po̞s̠]'how'See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[28]שלום‎/shalom/šɔlom[ʃäˈlo̞m]'peace'Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script. See Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Ibibio[29]do[dó̞]'there'
Icelandic[30]
loft
[ˈlɔ̝ft]'air'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [oɔ].[31] See Icelandic phonology
InuitWest Greenlandic[32][example needed]Allophone of /u/ before and especially between uvulars.[32] See Inuit phonology
ItalianStandard[33]
forense
[fo̞ˈrɛnse]'forensic'Common realization of the unstressed /o/.[33] See Italian phonology
Northern accents[34]bosco[ˈbo̞sko̞]'forest'Local realization of /ɔ/.[34] See Italian phonology
Japanese[35]/ko[ko̞]'child'See Japanese phonology
Korean[36]보리 / bori[po̞ˈɾi]'barley'See Korean phonology
LimburgishHasselt dialect[37]mok[mɔ̝k]'mug'Typically transcribed IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.[37]
MalayStandardڤوكوق / pokok[po̞.ko̞ʔ]'tree'See Malay phonology
NorwegianUrban East[38][39]
lov
[lo̞ːʋ]'law'Also described as close-mid [].[40] See Norwegian phonology
Romanian[41]
acolo
[äˈko̞lo̞]'there'See Romanian phonology
Russian[42]сухой/sukhoy/sukhoj[s̪ʊˈxo̞j] (help·info)'dry'Some speakers realize it as open-mid [ɔ].[42] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[43][44]ко̑д / kd/kõd[kô̞ːd̪]'code'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Shipibo[45]koni[ˈkö̞ni̞]'eel'Near-back.[45]
SlovakStandard[46][47]
ohúriť
[ˈɔ̝ɦu̞ːri̞c̟]'to stun'See Slovak phonology
Slovene[48]
oglas
[o̞ˈɡlá̠s̪]'advertisement'Unstressed vowel,[48] as well as an allophone of /o/ before /ʋ/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[49] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[50]
todo
[ˈt̪o̞ð̞o̞]'all'See Spanish phonology
Tera[51]zo[zo̞ː]'rope'
Turkish[52][53]
kol
[kʰo̞ɫ]'arm'See Turkish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[54]do[d̪o̞]'corn tassel'
Notes
  1. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The rounded mid-high back vowel /ɔ/".
  2. ^ Abdoh (2010:84)
  3. ^ a b Ternes (1992), p. 433.
  4. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  5. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  6. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  7. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), pp. 228–230.
  8. ^ a b Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  10. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  11. ^ Peters (2010), p. 241.
  12. ^ Lass (2002), p. 116.
  13. ^ a b Warren & Bauer (2004), p. 617.
  14. ^ Watson (2007), p. 357.
  15. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  16. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 487.
  17. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 180.
  18. ^ Peterson (2000), cited in Árnason (2011:76)
  19. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  20. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  21. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 226.
  22. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  23. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 64.
  24. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  25. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  26. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  27. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  28. ^ Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  29. ^ Urua (2004), p. 106.
  30. ^ Brodersen (2011).
  31. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 57–60.
  32. ^ a b Fortescue (1990), p. 317.
  33. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), pp. 137–138.
  34. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 137.
  35. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  36. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  37. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 119.
  38. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 17.
  39. ^ Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 4.
  40. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17.
  41. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  42. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), p. 56.
  43. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 4.
  44. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  45. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 282.
  46. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 94–95.
  47. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  48. ^ a b Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF).
  49. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 138.
  50. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  51. ^ Tench (2007), p. 230.
  52. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  53. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  54. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 109.
References
External links
Last edited on 12 June 2021, at 17:22
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