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Mid back unrounded vowel
The mid back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back unrounded vowel between close-mid [ɤ] and open-mid [ʌ] because no language is known to distinguish all three, ⟨ɤ⟩ is normally used. If more precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ⟨ɤ̞⟩ or ⟨ʌ̝⟩.
Mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ̞
ʌ̝
IPA Number315 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɤ​̞
Unicode (hex)U+0264 U+031E
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Bulgarian[1]
път
[pɤ̞t̪]'path'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See Bulgarian phonology
ChineseShanghainese[2][kɤ̞¹]'ditch'Tends to be diphthongized to [ɤ̞ɯ̞] by younger speakers.[2]
DanishStandard[3]
læger
[ˈleːɤ̞]'doctors'One of possible realizations of the sequences /ər, rə, rər/.[3] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩. See Danish phonology
EnglishCardiff[4]
plus
[pl̥ʌ̝s]'plus'May be [ə], [ɜ], [ɜ̟] or [ë̞] instead.[4] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.
Norfolk[5]Corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩. See English phonology
Philadelphia[6][pɫ̥ʌ̝s]May be either open-mid [ʌ] or a lowered and unrounded /uː/ ([ɯ̽]) instead.[6] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩. See English phonology
Gayo[7]kule[kuˈlɤ̞ː]'tiger'One of the possible allophones of /ə/.[7]
GermanChemnitz dialect[8]
Schirm
[ʃʌ̝ˤːm]'umbrella'Pharyngealized; may be an opening diphthong [ɪːɒ̯] instead.[8]
Ibibio[9][dʌ̝k˦]'enter'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[9]
VietnameseHanoi[10]
t
[t̻ɤ̞˧˨]'sheet'Realization of /ɤ/ (also transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩) according to Kirby (2011). See Vietnamese phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  2. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  3. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 58.
  4. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 93.
  5. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  6. ^ a b Gordon (2004), p. 290.
  7. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  8. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  9. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  10. ^ Kirby (2011), p. 384.
References
External links
List of languages with [ɤ̞] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 22:37
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