is the set of faculties including cognitive aspects
such as consciousness
, as well as noncognitive aspects such as emotion
. Under the scientific physicalist interpretation
, the mind is produced at least in part by the brain
. The primary competitors to the physicalist interpretations of the mind are idealism
, substance dualism
, and types of property dualism
, and by some lights eliminative materialism
and anomalous monism
There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy
, and cognitive science
about what constitutes a mind and what are its distinguishing properties.
A phrenological mapping
of the brain. Phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain
The concept of mind is understood in many different ways by many different cultural and religious traditions. Some see mind as a property exclusive to humans whereas others ascribe properties of mind to non-living entities (e.g. panpsychism
), to animals and to deities
. Some of the earliest recorded speculations linked mind (sometimes described as identical with soul
) to theories concerning both life after death
, and cosmological
order, for example in the doctrines of Zoroaster
, the Buddha
, and other ancient Greek
and, later, Islamic
and medieval European philosophers.
Important philosophers of mind include Plato
, and Putnam
Psychologists such as Freud
, and computer scientists
such as Turing
developed influential theories about the nature of the mind. The possibility of nonbiological minds is explored in the field of artificial intelligence
, which works closely in relation with cybernetics
and information theory
to understand the ways in which information processing by nonbiological machines is comparable or different to mental phenomena in the human mind.
The original meaning of Old English gemynd
was the faculty of memory
, not of thought in general.
Hence call to mind
, come to mind
, keep in mind
, to have mind of
, etc. The word retains this sense in Scotland. Old English
had other words to express "mind", such as hyge
The meaning of "memory" is shared with Old Norse
, which has munr
. The word is originally from a PIE
verbal root *men-
, meaning "to think, remember", whence also Latin mens
"mind", Sanskrit manas
"mind" and Greek μένος
"mind, courage, anger".
The generalization of mind
to include all mental faculties, thought, volition
, feeling and memory, gradually develops over the 14th and 15th centuries.
The attributes that make up the mind are debated. Some psychologists argue that only the "higher" intellectual functions constitute mind, particularly reason and memory
In this view the emotions — love
, and joy
— are more primitive
or subjective in nature and should be seen as different from the mind as such. Others argue that various rational and emotional states cannot be so separated, that they are of the same nature and origin, and should therefore be considered all part of it as mind.
In popular usage, mind
is frequently synonymous with thought
: the private conversation with ourselves that we carry on "inside our heads".
Thus we "make up our minds", "change our minds" or are "of two minds" about something. One of the key attributes of the mind in this sense is that it is a private sphere to which no one but the owner has access. No one else can "know our mind". They can only interpret what we consciously or unconsciously communicate.
Broadly speaking, mental faculties are the various functions of the mind, or things the mind can "do".
is a mental act that allows humans to make sense of things in the world, and to represent and interpret them in ways that are significant, or which accord with their needs, attachments, goals, commitments, plans, ends, desires, etc. Thinking involves the symbolic
mediation of ideas
or data, as when we form concepts
, engage in problem solving
, reasoning, and making decisions
. Words that refer to similar concepts and processes include deliberation
Thinking is sometimes described as a "higher" cognitive
function and the analysis of thinking processes is a part of cognitive psychology
. It is also deeply connected with our capacity to make and use tools
; to understand cause and effect
; to recognize patterns of significance; to comprehend and disclose
unique contexts of experience or activity; and to respond to the world in a meaningful way.
is the ability to preserve, retain and subsequently recall knowledge, information, or experience. Although memory has traditionally been a persistent theme in philosophy
, the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries also saw the study of memory emerge as a subject of inquiry within the paradigms of cognitive psychology
. In recent decades, it has become one of the pillars of a new branch of science called cognitive neuroscience
, a marriage between cognitive psychology
is the activity of generating or evoking novel situations, images
, ideas or other qualia
in the mind. It is a characteristically subjective activity
, rather than a direct or passive experience. The term is technically used in psychology
for the process of reviving in the mind percepts
of objects formerly given in sense perception. Since this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary language
, some psychologists have preferred to describe this process as "imaging
" or "imagery
" or to speak of it as "reproductive" as opposed to "productive" or "constructive" imagination. Things imagined are said to be seen in the "mind's eye
". Among the many practical functions of imagination are the ability to project possible futures (or histories), to "see" things from another's perspective, and to change the way something is perceived, including to make decisions to respond to, or enact, what is imagined.
(this includes humans) is an aspect of the mind generally thought to comprise qualities such as subjectivity
, and the ability to perceive
the relationship between oneself
and one's environment
. It is a subject of much research in philosophy of mind
, and cognitive science
. Some philosophers divide consciousness
consciousness, which is subjective experience itself, and access consciousness, which refers to the global availability of information to processing systems in the brain.
Phenomenal consciousness has many different experienced qualities, often referred to as qualia
. Phenomenal consciousness is usually consciousness of
something or about
something, a property known as intentionality
in philosophy of mind.
is a theory of mental content based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution
, which was originated by Richard Dawkins
and Douglas Hofstadter
in the 1980s. It is an evolutionary model
of cultural information transfer
. A meme
, analogous to a gene
, is an idea, belief, pattern of behaviour (etc.) "hosted" in one or more individual minds, and can reproduce itself from mind to mind. Thus what would otherwise be regarded as one individual influencing another to adopt a belief, is seen memetically as a meme reproducing itself.
Relation to the brain
In animals, the brain
, or encephalon
for "in the head"), is the control center of the central nervous system
, responsible for thought
. In most animals, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull
and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision
. While all vertebrates
have a brain, most invertebrates
have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia
. Primitive animals such as sponges
do not have a brain at all. Brains can be extremely complex. For example, the human brain
contains around 86 billion neurons
, each linked to as many as 10,000 others.
Understanding the relationship between the brain and the mind –the mind–body problem
– is one of the central issues in the history of philosophy
, a challenging problem both philosophically and scientifically.
There are three major philosophical schools of thought concerning the answer: dualism, materialism, and idealism. Dualism
holds that the mind exists independently of the brain; materialism
holds that mental phenomena are identical to neuronal phenomena;
holds that only mental phenomena exist.
Through most of history many philosophers found it inconceivable that cognition could be implemented by a physical substance such as brain tissue (that is neurons and synapses).Descartes
, who thought extensively about mind-brain relationships, found it possible to explain reflexes and other simple behaviors in mechanistic terms
, although he did not believe that complex thought, and language in particular, could be explained by reference to the physical brain alone.
The most straightforward scientific evidence of a strong relationship between the physical brain matter
and the mind is the impact physical alterations to the brain have on the mind, such as with traumatic brain injury
and psychoactive drug
Philosopher Patricia Churchland
notes that this drug-mind interaction indicates an intimate connection between the brain and the mind.
In addition to the philosophical questions, the relationship between mind and brain involves a number of scientific questions, including understanding the relationship between mental activity and brain activity, the exact mechanisms by which drugs influence cognition
, and the neural correlates of consciousness
Evolutionary history of the human mind
Theories of the evolution of intelligence include:
- Robin Dunbar's social brain hypothesis
- Geoffrey Miller's sexual selection hypothesis concerning Sexual selection in human evolution
- The ecological dominance-social competition (EDSC) explained by Mark V. Flinn, David C. Geary and Carol V. Ward based mainly on work by Richard D. Alexander.
- The idea of intelligence as a signal of good health and resistance to disease.
- The Group selection theory contends that organism characteristics that provide benefits to a group (clan, tribe, or larger population) can evolve despite individual disadvantages such as those cited above.
- The idea that intelligence is connected with nutrition, and thereby with status. A higher IQ could be a signal that an individual comes from and lives in a physical and social environment where nutrition levels are high, and vice versa.
Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind is the branch of philosophy
that studies the nature of the mind, mental events
, mental functions
, mental properties
and their relationship to the physical body. The mind–body problem
, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body. José Manuel Rodriguez Delgado
writes, "In present popular usage, soul and mind are not clearly differentiated and some people, more or less consciously, still feel that the soul, and perhaps the mind, may enter or leave the body as independent entities."
The 20th century philosopher Martin Heidegger suggested that subjective experience and activity (i.e. the "mind") cannot be made sense of in terms of Cartesian
"substances" that bear "properties" at all (whether the mind itself is thought of as a distinct, separate kind of substance or not). This is because the nature of subjective, qualitative
experience is incoherent in terms of – or semantically incommensurable
with the concept of – substances that bear properties. This is a fundamentally ontological
The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett
, for example, argues there is no such thing as a narrative center called the "mind", but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel.
Psychologist B.F. Skinner
argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior;
he considered the mind a "black box" and thought that mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior.
Philosopher David Chalmers
has argued that the third person approach to uncovering mind and consciousness is not effective, such as looking into other's brains or observing human conduct, but that a first person approach is necessary. Such a first person perspective indicates that the mind must be conceptualized as something distinct from the brain.
The mind has also been described as manifesting from moment to moment, one thought moment at a time as a fast flowing stream, where sense impressions and mental phenomena are constantly changing.
- Physicalists argue that only the entities postulated by physical theory exist, and that the mind will eventually be explained in terms of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve.
- Idealists maintain that the mind is all that exists and that the external world is either mental itself, or an illusion created by the mind.
- Neutral monists adhere to the position that perceived things in the world can be regarded as either physical or mental depending on whether one is interested in their relationship to other things in the world or their relationship to the perceiver. For example, a red spot on a wall is physical in its dependence on the wall and the pigment of which it is made, but it is mental in so far as its perceived redness depends on the workings of the visual system. Unlike dual-aspect theory, neutral monism does not posit a more fundamental substance of which mind and body are aspects.
Many modern philosophers of mind adopt either a reductive
or non-reductive physicalist
position, maintaining in their different ways that the mind is not something separate from the body.
These approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences, e.g. in the fields of sociobiology
, computer science
, evolutionary psychology
and the various neurosciences
Other philosophers, however, adopt a non-physicalist position which challenges the notion that the mind is a purely physical construct.
- Reductive physicalists assert that all mental states and properties will eventually be explained by scientific accounts of physiological processes and states.
- Non-reductive physicalists argue that although the brain is all there is to the mind, the predicates and vocabulary used in mental descriptions and explanations are indispensable, and cannot be reduced to the language and lower-level explanations of physical science.
Continued progress in neuroscience
has helped to clarify many of these issues, and its findings have been taken by many to support physicalists
Nevertheless, our knowledge is incomplete, and modern philosophers of mind continue to discuss how subjective qualia
and the intentional
mental states can be naturally
Then, of course, there is the problem of Quantum Mechanics, which is best understood as a form of perspectivism.
Simplified diagram of Spaun
, a 2.5-million-neuron computational model of the brain. (A)
The corresponding physical regions and connections of the human brain. (B)
The mental architecture of Spaun.
At a larger scale, efforts in computational neuroscience
have developed large-scale models that simulate simple, functioning brains.
As of 2012, such models include the thalamus
, basal ganglia
, prefrontal cortex
, motor cortex
, and occipital cortex
, and consequentially simulated brains can learn, respond to visual stimuli, coordinate motor responses, form short-term memories, and learn to respond to patterns. Currently, researchers aim to program the hippocampus
and limbic system
, hypothetically imbuing the simulated mind with long-term memory
and crude emotions
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it
. (May 2013)
is the scientific study of human behavior, mental functioning, and experience. As both an academic
discipline, Psychology involves the scientific study
of mental processes
such as perception
, as well as environmental influences, such as social and cultural influences, and interpersonal relationships
, in order to devise theories of human behavior. Psychological patterns can be understood as low cost ways of information processing.
Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge
to various spheres of human activity
, including problems of individuals' daily lives
and the treatment of mental health
By analogy with the health of the body, one can speak metaphorically of a state of health of the mind, or mental health
defines mental health as "a state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life". According to the World Health Organization
(WHO), there is no one "official" definition of mental health. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how "mental health" is defined. In general, most experts agree that "mental health" and "mental disorder
" are not opposites. In other words, the absence of a recognized mental disorder is not necessarily an indicator of mental health.
One way to think about mental health is by looking at how effectively and successfully a person functions. Feeling capable and competent; being able to handle normal levels of stress, maintaining satisfying relationships, and leading an independent life; and being able to "bounce back" or recover from difficult situations, are all signs of mental health.
is an interpersonal
intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients
in problems of living. This usually includes increasing individual sense of well-being
and reducing subjective discomforting experience. Psychotherapists employ a range of techniques based on experiential relationship building, dialogue
change and that are designed to improve the mental health
of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as in a family
). Most forms of psychotherapy use only spoken conversation
, though some also use various other forms of communication such as the written word, art
story, or therapeutic touch. Psychotherapy occurs within a structured encounter between a trained therapist
and client(s). Purposeful, theoretically based psychotherapy began in the 19th century with psychoanalysis
; since then, scores of other approaches have been developed and continue to be created.
Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include control
, planning and scheduling
, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions, handwriting
, natural language
and facial recognition
. As such, the study of AI has also become an engineering discipline, focused on providing solutions to real life problems, knowledge mining
applications, strategy games
like computer chess
and other video games
. One of the biggest limitations of AI is in the domain of actual machine comprehension. Consequentially natural language understanding
(where behavior of neural networks is investigated) are areas of active research and development.
The debate about the nature of the mind is relevant to the development of artificial intelligence
. If the mind is indeed a thing separate from or higher than the functioning of the brain, then hypothetically it would be much more difficult to recreate within a machine, if it were possible at all. If, on the other hand, the mind is no more than the aggregated functions of the brain, then it will be possible to create a machine with a recognisable mind (though possibly only with computers much different from today's), by simple virtue of the fact that such a machine already exists in the form of the human brain.
Many religions associate spiritual qualities to the human mind. These are often tightly connected to their mythology
and ideas of afterlife
The Indian philosopher
-sage Sri Aurobindo
attempted to unite the Eastern and Western psychological traditions with his integral psychology
, as have many philosophers and New religious movements
teaches that "moach shalit al halev", the mind rules the heart. Humans can approach the Divine intellectually, through learning and behaving according to the Divine Will as enclothed in the Torah, and use that deep logical understanding to elicit and guide emotional arousal during prayer. Christianity
has tended to see the mind as distinct from the soul
) and sometimes further distinguished from the spirit
. Western esoteric traditions
sometimes refer to a mental body
that exists on a plane other than the physical. Hinduism
's various philosophical schools have debated whether the human soul
) is distinct from, or identical to, Brahman
, the divine reality
sees the human being as contiguous with natural forces, and the mind as not separate from the body
sees the mind, like the body, as inherently perfectible.
Buddhist teachings explain the moment-to-moment manifestation of the mind-stream.
The components that make up the mind are known as the five aggregates (i.e., material form, feelings, perception, volition, and sensory consciousness), which arise and pass away continuously. The arising and passing of these aggregates in the present moment is described as being influenced by five causal laws: biological laws, psychological laws, physical laws, volitional laws, and universal laws.
The Buddhist practice of mindfulness
involves attending to this constantly changing mind-stream.
According to Buddhist
, the mind has two fundamental qualities: "clarity and cognizes". If something is not those two qualities, it cannot validly be called mind. "Clarity" refers to the fact that mind has no color, shape, size, location, weight, or any other physical characteristic, and "cognizes" that it functions to know or perceive objects.
"Knowing" refers to the fact that mind is aware of the contents of experience, and that, in order to exist, mind must be cognizing an object. You cannot have a mind – whose function is to cognize an object – existing without cognizing an object.
Mind, in Buddhism, is also described as being "space-like" and "illusion-like". Mind is space-like in the sense that it is not physically obstructive. It has no qualities which would prevent it from existing. In Mahayana
Buddhism, mind is illusion-like in the sense that it is empty of inherent existence. This does not mean it does not exist, it means that it exists in a manner that is counter to our ordinary way of misperceiving how phenomena exist, according to Buddhism. When the mind is itself cognized properly, without misperceiving its mode of existence, it appears to exist like an illusion. There is a big difference however between being "space and illusion" and being "space-like" and "illusion-like". Mind is not composed of space, it just shares some descriptive similarities to space. Mind is not an illusion, it just shares some descriptive qualities with illusions.
Buddhism posits that there is no inherent, unchanging identity (Inherent I, Inherent Me) or phenomena (Ultimate self, inherent self, Atman, Soul, Self-essence, Jiva, Ishvara, humanness essence, etc.) which is the experiencer of our experiences and the agent of our actions. In other words, human beings consist of merely a body and a mind, and nothing extra. Within the body there is no part or set of parts which is – by itself or themselves – the person. Similarly, within the mind there is no part or set of parts which are themselves "the person". A human being merely consists of five aggregates, or skandhas
and nothing else.
In the same way, "mind" is what can be validly conceptually labelled onto our mere experience of clarity and knowing. There is something separate and apart from clarity and knowing which is "Awareness", in Buddhism. "Mind" is that part of experience the sixth sense door, which can be validly referred to as mind by the concept-term "mind". There is also not "objects out there, mind in here, and experience somewhere in-between". There is a third thing called "awareness" which exists being aware of the contents of mind and what mind cognizes. There are five senses (arising of mere experience: shapes, colors, the components of smell, components of taste, components of sound, components of touch) and mind as the sixth institution; this means, expressly, that there can be a third thing called "awareness" and a third thing called "experiencer who is aware of the experience". This awareness is deeply related to "no-self" because it does not judge the experience with craving or aversion.
Clearly, the experience arises and is known by mind, but there is a third thing calls Sati
what is the "real experiencer of the experience" that sits apart from the experience and which can be aware of the experience in 4 levels. (Maha Sathipatthana Sutta.)
- Sensations (Changes of the body mind.)
- Contents of the mind. (Changes of the body mind.)
To be aware of these four levels one needs to cultivate equanimity toward Craving and Aversion. This is Called Vipassana which is different from the way of reacting with Craving and Aversion. This is the state of being aware and equanimous to the complete experience of here and now. This is the way of Buddhism, with regards to mind and the ultimate nature of minds (and persons).
Mortality of the mind
Due to the mind–body problem
, a lot of interest and debate surrounds the question of what happens to one's conscious mind as one's body dies. During brain death
all brain function
permanently ceases. According to some neuroscientific views which see these processes as the physical basis of mental phenomena, the mind fails to survive brain death and ceases to exist. This permanent loss of consciousness after death is sometimes called "eternal oblivion
". The belief that some spiritual or incorporeal
) exists and that it is preserved after death is described by the term "afterlife
The term is based on the Greek para
('beside, beyond'), psyche
('soul, mind'), and logos
('account, explanation') and was coined by psychologist Max Dessoir
in or before 1889.J.B. Rhine
tried to popularize "parapsychology" using fraudulent techniques as a replacement for the earlier term "psychical research", during a shift in methodologies which brought experimental methods to the study of psychic phenomena. Parapsychology
is not accepted among the scientific community as science, as psychic
abilities have not been demonstrated to exist.
The status of parapsychology as a science
has also been disputed,
with many scientists regarding the discipline as pseudoscience
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