Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River
, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River
, and adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital. With one of the nation's best park systems,
the city is abundantly rich in water, with thirteen lakes
, wetlands, the Mississippi River, creeks and waterfalls, many connected by parkways in the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway
. The city and surrounding region is the largest population and primary business center between Chicago
. Minneapolis was historically a marketplace for timber, became the flour milling
capital of the world,
and, to the present day, preserved its financial clout.
Anchoring strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the Guthrie Theater
and the First Avenue nightclub
. Reflecting the region's status as a center of folk, funk, and alternative rock music, the city was the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan
. Hip-hop and rap scenes produced artists Lizzo
, Brother Ali
, and Dessa
Dakota natives, city founded
The Dakota Sioux
were the region's sole residents prior to European contact
. The city's Dakota
name is Bdeóta Othúŋwe
('Many Lakes City').
French explorers arrived in the region in 1680. Gradually, more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans. By the Treaty of Paris
following the Revolutionary War
, British land east of the Mississippi River became part of the United States.
In the early 19th century, the US acquired land to the west of the river from France in the Louisiana Purchase
. Fort Snelling
was built in 1819 by the US Army
at the southern edge of present-day Minneapolis,
to direct Indian trade away from the British-Canadian traders, and to prevent the Dakota and Ojibwe in the north from fighting each other.
The fort attracted traders, settlers and merchants, spurring growth. Agents of the St. Peters Indian Agency built at the fort enforced US policy of assimilating Native Americans into European-American society, asking them give up hunting for subsistence and to learn to plow for cultivation.
Missionaries asked them to change their religion to Christianity.
The US government pressed the Dakota to sell their land which they ceded in a succession of treaties negotiated by corrupt officials.
During the Civil War
, those officials plundered annuities causing hunger and starvation.
Left to beg and steal food,
a faction of the Dakota declared war
and massacred settlers. The Dakota were interned
and exiled from Minnesota.
Outwitting the fort's commandant, Franklin Steele
laid his claim on the east bank of Saint Anthony Falls
and John H. Stevens
built his home on the west bank.
Residents had divergent ideas on names for their community. In 1852, the city's first schoolmaster, Charles Hoag
, proposed Minnehapolis,
with a silent h,
combining the Dakota word for "waterfall", Mníȟaȟa,
and the Greek word for "city", polis
, which became Minneapolis,
meaning 'city of the falls'. The Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank.
Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867 and later joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872.
Waterpower; lumber and flour milling
Minneapolis developed around the power source of Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River
. Forests in northern Minnesota encouraged a lumber
industry, which operated seventeen sawmills
on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and planing wood.
Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six competitors manufactured artificial limbs by the 1890s.
The farmers of the Great Plains
that was shipped by rail to the city's thirty-four flour mills
. Millers have used hydropower
since the 1st century B.C.,
but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has ever seen."
For this half century, Minneapolis led the world in flour milling.
A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills
, Cadwallader C. Washburn
revolutionized his business from gristmills to "gradual reduction" by steel and porcelain roller mills
capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour very quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray
and some say they were acquired through industrial espionage
by William de la Barre
. Charles A. Pillsbury
and the C.A. Pillsbury Company
across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods.
The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable ($0.50 profit per barrel in 1871 increased to $4.50 in 1874),
and Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world.
Not until later did consumers discover the value in the bran
that "...Minneapolis flour millers routinely dumped" into the Mississippi.
A single mill at Washburn-Crosby
could make flour for twelve million loaves of bread each day,
and by 1900, 14 percent of America's grain was milled in Minneapolis.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody
, Washburn-Crosby exported four million barrels of flour a year to the United Kingdom.
When exports reached their peak in 1900, about one third of all flour milled in Minneapolis was shipped overseas.
The city made changes to rectify discrimination as early as 1886 when Martha Ripley
founded Maternity Hospital
for both married and unmarried mothers.
Known initially as a kindly physician, mayor Doc Ames made his brother police chief, ran the city into corruption, and tried to leave town in 1902. Lincoln Steffens
published Ames' story in "The Shame of Minneapolis" in 1903.
The gangster Kid Cann engaged in bribery and intimidation from the 1920s until the 1940s.
Bigotry played multiple roles during the early 20th century. In 1910, a Minneapolis developer wrote restrictive covenants based on race and ethnicity into his deeds. Copied by other developers, the practice prevented Asian and African Americans from owning or leasing certain properties. Though such language was prohibited by state law in 1953 and by the federal Fair Housing Act of 1968
, restrictive covenants against minorities remained in many Minneapolis deeds as recently as 2021, when the city gave residents a means to remove them.
The Ku Klux Klan
succeeded by entering family life, but effectively was a force in the city only from 1921 until 1923.
After Minnesota passed a eugenics law in 1925, the proprietors of Eitel Hospital sterilized
about one thousand people at the Faribault State Hospital
Between 1958 and 1963, as part of the most monumental urban renewal
plan ever tackled in America,
the city razed roughly 40 percent of downtown, destroying the Gateway District
and its significant architecture, including the Metropolitan Building
. Efforts to save the building failed but sparked interest in historic preservation.
On May 25, 2020, video captured the murder of George Floyd
, an African-American man, by a white Minneapolis police officer, Derek Chauvin
who knelt on Floyd's neck and back for more than nine minutes while he struggled to breathe and died. The incident sparked national unrest, riots, and mass protests. Local protests
and riots resulted in extraordinary levels of property damage in Minneapolis,
including of a police station that was overrun by demonstrators and set on fire.
The Twin Cities experienced prolonged unrest in 2020 and 2021
over racial injustice.
Lying on an artesian aquifer
and flat terrain, Minneapolis has a total area of 59 square miles (152.8 km2
) and of this 6 percent is water.
Water supply is managed by four watershed
districts that correspond to the Mississippi and the city's three creeks
. Thirteen lakes
, three large ponds, and five unnamed wetlands are within Minneapolis.
A 1959 report by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service
listed Minneapolis's elevation as 830 feet (250 m).
The city's lowest elevation of 687 feet (209 m) above sea level is near where Minnehaha Creek meets the Mississippi River.
Sources disagree on the exact location and elevation of the city's highest point, which is cited as being anywhere from 965–985 feet (294–300 m) above sea level.[a]
Minneapolis is divided into eleven communities, each containing several neighborhoods, of which there are eighty-three. In some cases, two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization. Some areas are known by nicknames of business associations.
In 2018, the Minneapolis City Council voted to end single-family zoning
citywide. At the time, 70 percent of residential land was zoned for detached single-family homes, however many of those areas had "nonconforming" buildings with more housing units. City leaders sought to increase the supply of housing so that more neighborhoods would be affordable, and decrease the effects that single family zoning had caused on racial disparities and segregation.
The Brookings Institution called it "a relatively rare example of success for the YIMBY
In the metropolitan area, 77% of white families own their homes, compared with 25% of Black families, the largest differential for any major American city.
The 2019 Brookings Metro Monitor ranked Minneapolis-St. Paul 92nd out of 100 as the least racially inclusive metro area.
Keith Mayes of the University of Minnesota describes how Black families were pushed north to the Powderhorn
communities from south Minneapolis and that pockets still live in the King Field
Racial convenants, preventing blacks from buying land in residential neighborhoods,
occurred simultaneously in surrounding neighborhoods, and the effects remain today in education, employment, and entertainment.
Minneapolis experiences a hot-summer humid continental climate
in the Köppen climate classification
typical of southern parts of the Upper Midwest
, and is situated in USDA plant hardiness
zone 4b, with small enclaves of Minneapolis classified as being zone 5a.
Minneapolis has cold, snowy winters and hot, humid summers. As is typical in a continental climate, the difference between average temperatures in the coldest winter month and the warmest summer month is great: 60.1 °F (33.4 °C).
Minneapolis experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, and fog. The highest recorded temperature was 108 °F (42 °C) in July 1936
while the lowest was −41 °F (−41 °C) in January 1888. The snowiest winter on record was 1983–84, when 98.6 inches (250 cm) of snow fell,
and the least snowy winter was 1890–91, when only 11.1 inches (28 cm) fell.
Map of racial distribution in Minneapolis-St. Paul, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic (of any race), or Other (yellow)
tribes, mostly the Mdewakanton
, were permanent settlers near their sacred site St. Anthony Falls.
New settlers arrived during the 1850s and 1860s from New England
, New York
and Canada, and, during the mid-1860s, immigrants from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark began to call Minneapolis home. Migrant workers from Mexico
and Latin America interspersed.
Other immigrants came from Germany, Poland, Italy, and Greece. Central European immigrants settled in the Northeast neighborhood, still known for its Czech
and Polish cultural heritage. Jews from Central and Eastern Europe, and Russia began arriving in the 1880s and settled primarily on the north side before moving to western suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s.
Two groups came for a short while during US government relocations: Japanese during the 1940s, and Native Americans
during the 1950s. In 2013, Asians were the state's fastest growing population. Chinese, Japanese and Filipinos came in the 1970s, Hmong, Lao, Cambodian and Vietnamese in the 1970s and 1980s, and people from Tibet, Burma and Thailand came in the 1990s and 2000s.
The population of people from India doubled by 2010.
After the Rust Belt economy declined during the early 1980s, Minnesota's black population nearly tripled in less than two decades, a large fraction hailing from cities such as Chicago and Gary, Indiana
Black migrants were drawn to Minneapolis (and the Greater Twin Cities) by its abundance of jobs, good schools, and relatively safe neighborhoods. Beginning in the 1990s, a sizable Latino
population arrived, along with immigrants from the Horn of Africa
, especially Somalia
however immigration of fourteen hundred Somalis in 2016, slowed to forty eight in 2018 under President Trump.
In 2015, Brookings
characterized Minneapolis as a re-emerging immigrant gateway with about 10 percent foreign-born residents.
As of 2019, African Americans make up about one fifth of the city's population.
The US Census Bureau estimates the population of Minneapolis to be 429,606 as of 2019, a 12.3 percent increase since the 2010 census.
The population grew until 1950, when the census peaked at 521,718, and then declined until about 1990 as people moved to the suburbs.
reported in 2015 that the Twin Cities had an estimated LGBT adult population of 3.6%, roughly the same as the national average, and about 38th among the 50 largest metropolitan areas.
In line with other cities, Human Rights Campaign
gave Minneapolis its highest possible score in 2019.
A 2015 report found that racial and ethnic minorities in the city lagged behind white counterparts in education, with 15 percent of blacks and 13 percent of Hispanics holding bachelor's degrees compared to 42 percent of the white population. While the standard of living is rising with incomes among the highest in the Midwest
, in 2015 the median household income among minorities was below that of whites by over $17,000 and the poverty rate gap between blacks and whites was the highest in the US.
A 2020 study found little change in economic racial inequality, with Minnesota ranking only above the neighboring state of Wisconsin and equal to the states of Iowa, Louisiana, and New Mexico.
Commentators and observers have written about historic racism and socioeconomic disparities in the city.
Kirsten Delegard of Mapping Prejudice explained that disparities today evolved from white people asserting control of the city's land.
William D. Green of Augsburg University
said that in Minneapolis the races live in parallel universes.
The Dakota people, the original inhabitants of the area where Minneapolis now stands, believed in the Great Spirit
and were surprised that not all European settlers were religious.
More than 50 denominations and religions have been established with a Christian majority. Those who arrived from New England were for the most part Protestants
, and Universalists
The oldest continuously used church, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church
, was built in 1856 by Universalists and soon afterward was acquired by a French Catholic congregation.
The first Jewish
congregation was formed in 1878 as Shaarai Tov, and built Temple Israel
St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral was founded in 1887, opened a missionary school, and created the first Russian Orthodox
seminary in the US. Edwin Hawley Hewitt
designed both St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral
and Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church
just south of downtown.
The first basilica in the US, and co-cathedral
of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
, the Basilica of Saint Mary
was named by Pope Pius XI
As of 2020, Minneapolis–St. Paul area
is the second largest economic center in the Midwest
, behind Chicago
During the city's formative years, millers had to pay cash for wheat during the growing season and then hold it until it was needed for flour. This required large amounts of capital, which stimulated the local banking industry and made Minneapolis a major financial center.
The economy of Minneapolis today is based in commerce, finance, rail and trucking services, health care, and industry. Smaller components are in publishing, milling, food processing, graphic arts, insurance, education, and high technology.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
serves Minnesota, Montana
and South Dakota
, and parts of Wisconsin
, the smallest population of the twelve regional banks in the Federal Reserve System
Along with supporting consumers and the community, the bank executes monetary policy, regulates the banks in its territory, provides cash, and oversees electronic deposits.
The Minneapolis Grain Exchange
, founded in 1881, is still located near the riverfront and is the only exchange for hard red spring wheat futures
is open daily and offers free admission to its collection of 90,000 objects spanning 20,000 years.
Known as Mia since its 100th anniversary, the Minneapolis Institute of Art
, designed by McKim, Mead & White
in 1915 in south central Minneapolis, is the largest art museum in the city, with 100,000 pieces in its permanent collection. New wings, designed by Kenzo Tange
and Michael Graves
, opened in 1974 and 2006, respectively, for contemporary and modern works, as well as more gallery space.
Theater and performing arts
Minneapolis has hosted theatrical performances since after the Civil War.
Early theaters included the Pence Opera House,
the Academy of Music, the Grand Opera House, the Lyceum, and later the Metropolitan Opera House, which opened in 1894.
As of 2020 Minneapolis is home to dozens of theater companies.
The Guthrie Theater
, the area's largest theater company, occupies a three-stage complex overlooking the Mississippi, designed by French architect Jean Nouvel
The company was founded in 1963 by Sir Tyrone Guthrie
as a prototype alternative to Broadway
, and it produces a wide variety of shows throughout the year.
Minneapolis purchased and renovated the Orpheum
, and Pantages Theatres vaudeville
and film houses on Hennepin Avenue
, which are now used for concerts and plays.
A fourth renovated theater, the former Shubert, joined with the Hennepin Center for the Arts
to become the Cowles Center for Dance and the Performing Arts
, home to more than one dozen performing arts groups.
Singer and multi-instrumentalist Prince
was born in Minneapolis and lived in the area most of his life.
After Jimmy Jam
and the 11-piece Mind & Matter broke through discrimination that had created a race barrier downtown, Prince reached a global multiracial audience with his combination of indecency and religion.
An authentic musical prodigy enriched by a music program at The Way Community Center, Prince learned to operate a Polymoog
at Sound 80
for his first album that became a sonic element of the Minneapolis sound
With fellow local musicians, many of whom recorded at Twin/Tone Records
Prince helped make First Avenue
and the 7th Street Entry
prominent venues for both artists and audiences.
released two songs about the city, "Christmas Card from a Hooker in Minneapolis
" (Blue Valentine,
1978) and "9th & Hennepin" (Rain Dogs,
1985), and Lucinda Williams
recorded "Minneapolis" (World Without Tears,
2003). Electronic dance music
artists include Woody McBride, Freddy Fresh
In 2008, the century-old MacPhail Center for Music
opened a new facility designed by James Dayton.
Minneapolis has four opera companies: Minnesota Opera
, Mill City Summer Opera
, the Gilbert & Sullivan Very Light Opera Company, and Really Spicy Opera
helps 2.5 million refugees and displaced persons each year in Asili-Democratic Republic of Congo, Jordan, Myanmar, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Thailand and Uganda. Catholic Charities
of Minneapolis and Saint Paul is one of the largest non-profit organizations in the state and a provider of several social services.
West Broadway Avenue was a cultural epicenter during the early 20th century but by the 1950s, flight to the suburbs
began, and streetcars
One of the largest urban food deserts
in the US was in North
Minneapolis, where, as of mid-2017, 70,000 people had only two grocery stores
Wirth Co-op since opened in 2017 but closed within a year. North Market opened in 2017.
The non-profit Appetite for Change sought to improve the local diet against an influx of fast-food stores,
and by 2017 it administered ten gardens, sold produce at the West Broadway Farmers Market in summertime, supplied its restaurants, and gave away boxes of fresh produce.
As of 2019, Minneapolis-based chefs have won James Beard Foundation Awards
: Ann Kim
, chef at Young Joni, Pizza Lola and Hello Pizza, won in 2019.
Founder of the Sioux Chef
, Sean Sherman
won two James Beard prizes in 2019—the leadership award and best cookbook. Steve Hoffman won the James Beard distinguished writing award for "What Is Northern Food?."
Other winners were 2008 rising star chef Gavin Kaysen
who won again in 2018 at Spoon & Stable; Alexander Roberts at Restaurant Alma; and Isaac Becker at 112 Eatery. Also in venues that have closed, Tim McKee won at La Belle Vie, and Paul Berglund at Bachelor Farmer.
Among her five wins and eleven nominations, writer Dara Moskowitz Grumdahl
won the Jonathan Gold Local Voice Award in 2020
won in 2010, 2013 and 2017 for Outstanding Personality/Host on Bizarre Foods with Andrew Zimmern
and for his television program On Location
When thirteen chefs and restaurants were nominated for James Beard awards in 2017, The Wall Street Journal
named Minneapolis one of the ten best places to visit in the world.
Both credible originators of the burger, the 5-8 Club and Matt's Bar have served the Jucy Lucy
since the 1950s.
East African cuisine arrived with a wave of Somali immigration which started in the 1990s.
Young Joni was selected one of the GQ
top ten new restaurants and one of Eater'
s twelve best new restaurants of 2017. Esquire
put Hai Hai on its list of America's best restaurants in 2018.
In 2018, Food & Wine
named Spoon and Stable one of the 40 most important restaurants of the past 40 years.
As of 2019, chefs and bakers at eight of nine Kim Bartmann Minneapolis restaurants used heritage grains
from Sunrise Four Mill.
Year-round events include the City of Lakes Loppet, a 22-mile (35 km) cross-country ski race and winter festival
in February; the MayDay Parade
is returning in 2021; Art-A-Whirl; Pride Festival & Parade, Stone Arch Bridge Festival, and Twin Cities Juneteenth Celebration in June; Minneapolis Aquatennial
in July; Minnesota Fringe Festival
, Loring Park Art Festival, Uptown Metris Art Fair, Powderhorn Festival of Arts and the Lake Hiawatha Neighborhood Festival in August; Minneapolis Monarch Festival in September to celebrate the Monarch butterfly
's 2,300-mile (3,700 km) migration
; and the Twin Cities Marathon in October.
Professional sports teams in Minneapolis
In recent years, the Lynx have been the most successful sports team in the city and a dominant force in the WNBA
, reaching the WNBA Finals in 2011
, and 2017
and winning in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017.
The 1,750,000-square-foot (163,000 m2
) U.S. Bank Stadium
was built for the Vikings for about $1.122 billion, with $348 million coming from the state of Minnesota and $150 million coming from the city of Minneapolis. Called "Minnesota's biggest-ever public works project," the stadium opened in 2016 with 66,000 seats, expandable to 70,000 for the 2018 Super Bowl.
U.S. Bank Stadium also hosts indoor running and rollerblading nights, as well as concerts and events.
Major sporting events hosted by the city include baseball All-Star Games, World Series, Super Bowls, NCAA Division 1 men's and women's basketball Final Four, the AMA Motocross Championship, the X Games and the WNBA All-Star Game.
Parks and recreation
Established in 1889, Minnehaha Falls
and the surrounding land was the second state park in the United States.
The Minneapolis park system has been called[d]
the best-designed, best-financed, and best-maintained in America.
More than a century after the system was designed, in its 2020 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land
reported that Minneapolis had the best park system among the 100 most populous US cities.
The parks are governed and operated by the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board
, an independent park district
with broader powers than any other parks agency in the country.
Foresight, donations and effort by community leaders enabled Horace Cleveland
to create his finest landscape architecture
, preserving geographical landmarks and linking them with boulevards
The city's Chain of Lakes
, consisting of seven lakes and Minnehaha Creek, is connected by bike, running, and walking paths and used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. A parkway for cars, a bikeway
for riders, and a walkway for pedestrians runs parallel along the 52-mile (84 km) route of the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway.Theodore Wirth
is credited with developing the parks system.
Approximately 15% of city land is parks, in accordance with the 2020 national median, and 98 percent of residents live within a half mile of a park.
of the DFL
was elected mayor of Minneapolis
The office of mayor is relatively weak but has some power to appoint individuals such as the chief of police
. Parks, taxation, and public housing are semi-independent boards and levy their own taxes and fees subject to Board of Estimate and Taxation limits.
Elected in 2013, Lisa Bender
serves as president of the City Council and does not plan to seek reelection.
In December 2020, the city worked through input from nearly a thousand residents, an upturn in the crime rate, COVID-19, and the threat of a mayoral veto, to reach agreement on a 2021 budget. The $1.5 billion compromise maintained the number of police officers, set aside $8 million for community safety measures, cut funding in all major city departments, and included a 5.75 percent property tax increase.
Aftermath of George Floyd's death, May 29, 2020 (5 mins)
Minneapolis has a separation ordinance that directs local law enforcement officers not to 'take any law enforcement action' for the sole purpose of finding undocumented immigrants, nor ask an individual about his or her immigration status.
Killings of citizens by Minneapolis police occur repeatedly. The police caused ten deaths in the decade preceding the killing of George Floyd
and in 2021, Star Tribune
counted 200 police-related deaths in the state this century.
KSTP-TV 5 Investigates
found in 2020 that the city has paid millions of dollars in settlements because officers had been untruthful about use of force, dishonesty for which officers are rarely disciplined.
A case in point, a misleading MPD narrative said that after the department investigated a forgery a man in medical distress died, but a witness to George Floyd's death, Darnella Frazier, had made a video of the assault and murder that changed public understanding.
The city agreed to pay $27 million to settle a civil lawsuit from Floyd's family, the largest pretrial settlement for a civil rights claim ever made in the nation.
Police chief Medaria Arradondo
was part of a $740,000 settlement after accusing the department of "a history of tolerating racist and discriminatory remarks by its white police officers."
Body cameras were introduced in 2016 by former chief Janée Harteau but they were rarely used. A city audit in 2019 found body camera activation eventually increased to 95% since a 2017 order from Arradondo.
The police union viewpoint protects officers with a legal doctrine of qualified immunity
MPD150, a community coalition formed at the department's 150th anniversary, holds a different view that the department should be abolished.
City council president Bender announced in 2020 that the city should dismantle its police department and replace it with a "transformative new model of public safety."
The Charter Commission rejected the proposal.
In December while the city was "experiencing a crime wave that include[d] more than 500 shootings", the City Council voted to move $8 million from police to dispatcher training and mental health crisis teams, and more narrowly, to maintain the level of police staffing at 888 for 2021. After the summer of 2020, the department lost 166 officers either to retirement or to temporary leave, many with PTSD
, and a crime wave resulted in more than 500 shootings.
In 2020, Minnesota Freedom Fighters formed as a neighborhood watch
Following the conviction of Derek Chauvin, Attorney General Merrick Garland
announced that the Justice Department was opening a "sweeping investigation into policing practices in Minneapolis". The Minnesota Department of Human Rights is also investigating the Minneapolis Police Department, looking for any discriminatory practices in policies and practices over the past decade.
Primary and secondary education
Minneapolis Public Schools
enroll over 35,000 students in public primary
schools. The district administers about one hundred public schools including forty-five elementary schools
, seven middle schools
, seven high schools
, eight special education
schools, eight alternative schools
, nineteen contract alternative schools, and five charter schools
. With authority granted by the state legislature, the school board
makes policy, selects the superintendent, and oversees the district's budget, curriculum, personnel, and facilities. In 2017, the graduation rate was 66 percent.
Students speak over one hundred different languages at home and most school communications are printed in English, Hmong
, Spanish, and Somali
Some students attend public schools in other school districts chosen by their families under Minnesota's open enrollment statute.
Besides public schools, the city is home to more than twenty private schools and academies and about twenty additional charter schools.
Colleges and universities
Minneapolis's collegiate scene is dominated by the main campus of the University of Minnesota
where more than 50,000 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students attend twenty colleges, schools, and institutes.
Beginning fall 2021, the University offers free tuition to students from Minnesota families earning less than $50,000 per year.
The graduate school programs with exceptional national rankings in 2020 (top five) were health care management, nursing: midwifery, pharmacy and clinical psychology.
Nineteen FM and AM radio stations are licensed to Minneapolis, including one from the University of Minnesota and one from the public schools. Up to 79 FM and AM signals can be received in one or more areas of the city. There are 10 full-power television stations in the metro area, and one non-profit public access cable network. WCCO-TV
is based in Minneapolis proper. A majority of these signals can be streamed.
Movies filmed in Minneapolis include Airport
(1970), The Heartbreak Kid
(1972), Ice Castles
(1978), Foolin' Around
(1980), Take This Job and Shove It
(1981), Purple Rain
(1984), That Was Then, This Is Now
(1985), The Mighty Ducks
(1993), Little Big League
(1994), Beautiful Girls
(1996), Jingle All the Way
and Young Adult
In 1960s television, two episodes
of Route 66
were made in Minneapolis. The 1970s CBS
situation comedy fictionally based in Minneapolis, The Mary Tyler Moore Show
, won three Golden Globes
and 29 Emmy Awards
The show's opening sequences were filmed locally.
Metro Blue Line downtown at Government Plaza
In 2007, the Interstate 35W bridge
over the Mississippi, at the time overloaded with three hundred tons of repair materials, collapsed, killing thirteen and injuring 145 people. The bridge was rebuilt
in fourteen months. Only one-fourth of the country's structurally deficient bridges had been repaired ten years later.
Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP) serves international, domestic, charter and regional carriers
and is home base for Sun Country Airlines
As of 2019, it is also the second-largest hub for Delta Air Lines
, which operates more flights out of MSP than any other airline.
For terminals serving 25 to 40 million passengers, MSP was named the world's best airport for customer experience in North America in 2020 for the fourth consecutive year.Forbes
named MSP the second best airport in North America, behind Detroit
Hennepin Healthcare opened in 1887 as City Hospital, and also has been known as Minneapolis General Hospital, Hennepin County General Hospital, and HCMC.
A public teaching hospital and Level I trauma center
the Hennepin Healthcare safety net counted 643,739 clinic visits and 111,307 emergency and urgent care visits in 2019.
"Ambassadors," identified by their blue and fluorescent green-yellow jackets, patrol daily a 120-block area downtown to greet and assist visitors, remove trash, monitor property, and call police when they are needed. The ambassador program is a public-private partnership with a $6.6 million annual budget paid for by a special downtown tax district.
After each significant snowfall, called a snow emergency
, the Minneapolis Public Works Street Division plows over 1,000 mi (1,610 km) of streets and 400 mi (640 km) of alleys—counting both sides, the distance between Minneapolis and Seattle and back.
Ordinances govern parking on the plowing routes during these emergencies as well as snow shoveling.
- Bosaso, Somalia (2014)
- Cuernavaca, Mexico (2008)
- Eldoret, Kenya (2000)
- Harbin, China (1992)
- Ibaraki, Japan (1980)
- Kuopio, Finland (1972)
- Najaf, Iraq (2009)
- Novosibirsk, Russia (1988)
- Santiago, Chile (1961)
- Tours, France (1991)
- Uppsala, Sweden (2000)
- Winnipeg, Canada (1973)
- ^ E. K. Soper, writing in 1915 before Minneapolis had reached its present size, described "several points which attain an altitude of 965 feet [294 m], or thereabouts" near the border with Columbia Heights. Reporter John Carman gave 967 feet (295 m) at Deming Heights Park in the Waite Park neighborhood in a 1975 article. The United States Geological Survey lists the highest elevation as 980 feet (300 m) but does not give a location. Geography professor John Tichy described the highest point as being the site of Waite Park Elementary School at approximately 985 feet (300 m) above sea level. All of the cited sources that list locations agree that the point is somewhere within Northeast section of the city.
- ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e., the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- ^ Official records for Minneapolis/St. Paul were kept by the St. Paul Signal Service in that city from January 1871 to December 1890, the Minneapolis Weather Bureau from January 1891 to April 8, 1938, and at KMSP since April 9, 1938.
- ^ In his textbook The American City: What Works, What Doesn't, Alexander Garvin writes that Minneapolis built "the best-located, best-financed, best-designed, and best-maintained public open space in America."
- ^ Harris, Marlyn (August 29, 2013). "With Minneapolis' weak-mayor system, does it really matter who gets elected?". MinnPost. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
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