It does not have the status of an official language in Nicaragua but it is a recognized language in the autonomous regions where it is spoken.
Most of the creole speakers are located along the banks of the large rivers and lagoons that surround the area.
Communities are found in Waspán
on the Coco River
near Cape Gracias a Dios
, in Pearl Lagoon
, the offshore Corn Islands
(Puerto Isabel), and San Juan del Norte
(Greytown). Inland, the language is spoken in Siuna
, and Bonanza
on the Prinzapolka River
. On the Pacific coast, there are small numbers of speakers in Corinto
, Puerto Sandino
, and the Nicaraguan capital of Managua
. A smaller portion of the population stays in large towns along the northern Caribbean coast of Nicaragua
and some also reside in Managua
as well as other Central American countries.
The environment is that of a tropical rainforest
with an average rainfall of 448 centimeters and temperatures that range 26.4 °C ( 79 °F ) and up.
Geographic distribution of Miskito Coast Creole in 1987
African slaves were shipwrecked on the Mosquito Coast as early as 1640, which started the interaction between them and the local Miskito
17th to 19th centuries
While they were here, the African population renewed and transformed ita culture and traits by taking elements of its African culture and mixing it with European culture
along with the local Indian tribes which created a new culture.
In 1787, the British abandoned their claims in the Mosquito coast
in a treaty that was put forth.
Slaves who ran away or who were abandoned had made their own African communities at Bluefields.
Many escaped slaves from other islands had also come over to the area to settle down. Great Britain
signed the Treaty of Managua which gave a portion of an area to the natives there and allowed it to be self-governed.
That allowed for the African communities to grow and flourish.
Their culture became solid after it had gained economic, political and social control over the Mosquito Coast.
The people in the communities then began to start calling themselves Creoles.
In the mid-19th century, more English- or Creole-speaking laborers, primarily from Jamaica, were brought to the Coast as laborers. However, following the 1894 formal annexation of the Miskito Kingdom by Nicaragua, an increasing number of Spanish-speakers migrated to the area.
Since 20th century
By the late 20th century, the coast was becoming more integrated economically and socially.
The Creole people have now become a minority in the areas in which they had previously predominated.
Many Creoles now speak mostly Spanish
as well as creole
and consider themselves to be only Nicaraguan. There are many Creoles who have now intermarried with mestizos
even though many of Creoles still protest on how they lost their political and economic power to the mestizos.
Culture and Identification
The Creoles of Nicaragua are said to be an Afro-Caribbean population that are mixed with Europeans, Africans and Amerindians
Their culture is influenced by West African and British roots along with mestizos
Some food that is used in their cooking consists of coconut oil
, taro root
, manioc and other elements such as wheat flour and other processed foods.
They have their own musical style which can be compared to West Indian calypso.
The Nicaraguan Creole English language is spoken as a primary first language by only 35,000 to 50,000 Creoles, Nicaraguan Garifuna, and some Miskitos.
The language is being quickly replaced with Spanish with fewer and fewer people speaking it.
"Creole English is used to an increasing degree in the churches (Decker & Keener 1998) and in bilingual education programs...virtually all reading is done in Spanish" (Bartens 2013:116).
- ^ Miskito Coast Creole at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- ^ Nicaragua Creole English Ethnologue report
- ^ a b c d "Did you know Nicaragua Creole English is vulnerable?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- ^ a b "Orientation - Creoles of Nicaragua". www.everyculture.com. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- ^ "Mosquito - Knowledge Encyclopedia". www.everyculture.com. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- ^ a b c d e f "Nicaragua Travel: Your Nicaraguan Guide for Things to Do, Hotels, Dining, Shopping, Events & more | By Nicaragua Channel". www.nicaragua.com. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- ^ Chalres R. Hale and Edmund T. Gordon. 1987. "Costeno Demography: Historical and Contemporary Demography of Nicaragua’s Atlantic Coast: An Historical Overview." In CIDCA 1987. Cited in Ken Decker and Andy Keener. "A Report on the English-Lexifier Creole of Nicaragua, also known as Miskito Coast Creole, with special reference to Bluefields and the Corn Islands." Summer Institute of Linguistics. February 1998.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i "Creoles of Nicaragua - Dictionary definition of Creoles of Nicaragua | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- ^ a b c "Creole Languages | About World Languages". aboutworldlanguages.com. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- Creole Languages . (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2017, from http://aboutworldlanguages.com/creole-languages
- Creoles of Nicaragua. (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2017, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/creoles-nicaragua
- Explore Nicaragua Languages. (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2017, from http://www.nicaragua.com/languages/
- Creoles of Nicaragua - Orientation. (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2017, from http://www.everyculture.com/Middle-America-Caribbean/Creoles-of-Nicaragua-Orientation.html
- Mühlhäusler, P. (2015). Zeitschrift Für Dialektologie Und Linguistik, 82(1), 115–118. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/43821567
- Did you know Nicaragua Creole English is vulnerable? (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2017, from http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/4025
Last edited on 8 May 2021, at 11:55
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