is the advocacy of the system of monarchy
or monarchical rule.
is an individual who supports this form of government independent of any specific monarch, whereas one who supports a particular monarch is a royalist
. One opposing form of government to a monarchy is a Republic
; conversely, the opposition to monarchical rule is referred to as republicanism
Depending on the country, a royalist may advocate for the rule of the person who sits on the throne, a regent
, a pretender
, or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed.
Monarchical rule is among the oldest political institutions.
Monarchies have existed in some form since ancient Sumeria
Monarchy has often claimed legitimacy from a higher power (in early modern Europe the divine right of kings
, and in China the Mandate of Heaven
In England, royalty ceded power elsewhere in a gradual process. In 1215, a group of nobles forced King John
to sign the Magna Carta
, which guaranteed its barons certain liberties and established that the king's powers were not absolute. In 1687–88, the Glorious Revolution
and the overthrow of King James II
established the principles of constitutional monarchy
, which would later be worked out by Locke
and other thinkers. However, absolute monarchy
, justified by Hobbes
(1651), remained a prominent principle elsewhere. In the 18th century, Voltaire
and others encouraged "enlightened absolutism
", which was embraced by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II
and by Catherine II of Russia
World War I and the subsequent Interbellum
World War I
and its aftermath saw the end of three major European monarchies: the Russian Romanov
dynasty, the German Hohenzollern
dynasty, including all other German monarchies and the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg
The rise of the Hungarian Soviet Republic
in 1919 provoked an increase in support for monarchism; however, efforts by Hungarian monarchists failed to bring back a royal head of state, and the monarchists settled for a regent
, Admiral Miklós Horthy
, to represent the monarchy until it could be restored. Horthy was regent from 1920 to 1944.
In similar wise the 1938 autocratic state of Franco in Spain claimed to have reconstituted the Spanish monarchy in absentia (and in this case ultimately yielded to a restoration, in the person of King Juan Carlos).
After World War II
The aftermath of World War II
also saw the return of monarchist and republican rivalry in Italy
, where a referendum was held on whether the state should remain a monarchy or become a republic. The republican side won the vote by a narrow margin, and the modern Republic of Italy was created.
Monarchism as a political force internationally has substantially diminished since the end of the Second World War, though it had an important role in the 1979 Iranian Revolution
and also played a role in the modern political affairs of Nepal
. Nepal was one of the last states to have had an absolute monarch, which continued until King Gyanendra
was peacefully deposed in May 2008 and the country became a federal republic. One of the world's oldest monarchies was abolished in Ethiopia
in 1974 with the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie
The majority of current monarchies are constitutional monarchies
. In most of these, the monarch wields only symbolic power, although in some, the monarch does play a role in political affairs. In Thailand
, for instance, King Bhumibol Adulyadej
, who reigned from 1946 to 2016, played a critical role in the nation's political agenda and in various military coups. Similarly, in Morocco
, King Mohammed VI
wields significant, but not absolute power.
is a democratic principality
whose citizens have voluntarily given more power to their monarch in recent years.
Justifications for monarchism
Nonpartisan head of state and unifying force
British political scientist Vernon Bogdanor
justifies monarchy on the grounds that it provides for a nonpartisan head of state
, separate from the head of government
, and thus ensures that the highest representative of the country, at home and internationally, does not represent a particular political party
, but all people.
Bogdanor also notes that monarchies can play a helpful unifying role in a multinational state
, noting that "In Belgium, it is sometimes said that the king is the only Belgian, everyone else being either Fleming
" and that the British sovereign
can belong to all of the United Kingdom's constituent countries
(England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland), without belonging to any particular one of them.
Safeguard for liberty
The International Monarchist League
, founded in 1943, has always sought to promote monarchy on the grounds that it strengthens popular liberty, both in a democracy and in a dictatorship, because by definition the monarch is not beholden to politicians.
writer Matthew Feeney argues that European constitutional monarchies "have managed for the most part to avoid extreme politics"—specifically fascism, communism, and military dictatorship—"in part because monarchies provide a check on the wills of populist politicians" by representing entrenched customs and traditions.
Feeny notes that
European monarchies - such as the Danish, Belgian, Swedish, Dutch, Norwegian, and British - have ruled over countries that are among the most stable, prosperous, and free in the world.
Human desire for hierarchy
In a 1943 essay in The Spectator
, "Equality", British author C.S. Lewis
criticized egalitarianism, and its corresponding call for the abolition of monarchy, as contrary to human nature, writing,
Where men are forbidden to honour a king they honour millionaires, athletes, or film-stars instead: even famous prostitutes or gangsters. For spiritual nature, like bodily nature, will be served; deny it food and it will gobble poison.
Support for the restoration of monarchy
The following is a list of countries and opinion polls for the restoration of abolished monarchies in those countries.
- ^ a b c d Figures for Austria is the average percentage of supporters from several opinion polls taken prior to November 2018; as reported by EFE.
- ^ In the same question, 22 per cent of respondents answered that they were not opposed to a monarchy in principle, but could not think of a person "worthy of the Russian throne".
- ^ Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989 edition, p. 924.
- ^ Bohn, H. G. (1849). The Standard Library Cyclopedia of Political, Constitutional, Statistical and Forensic Knowledge. p. 640. A republic, according to the modern usage of the word, signifies a political community which is not under monarchical government ... in which one person does not possess the entire sovereign power.
- ^ "Definition of Republic". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-02-18. a government having a chief of state who is not a monarch ... a government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives responsible to them and governing according to law
- ^ "The definition of republic". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2017-02-18. a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them. ... a state in which the head of government is not a monarch or other hereditary head of state.
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- ^ "The Sumerian king list: translation". etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
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- ^ Otto von Habsburg "Monarchy or Republic?". ("Excerpted from The Conservative Tradition in European Thought, Copyright 1970 by Educational Resources Corporation.")
- ^ a b Bogdanor, Vernon (6 December 2000). "The Guardian has got it wrong". The Guardian.
- ^ a b Feeney, Matthew (July 25, 2013). "The Benefits of Monarchy". Reason magazine.
- ^ C.S. Lewis (26 August 1943). "Equality". The Spectator.
- ^ "A century after Austrian-Hungarian Empire's fall, some nostalgic for monarchy". www.efe.com. EFE, S.A. 11 November 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- ^ "CMB Pesquisa de conhecimento e opinião pública" (in Portuguese). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- ^ Thomas, Mark. "Two-fifths of Croatians want a return to the monarchy". www.thedubrovniktimes.com. The Dubrovnik Times. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- ^ "Průzkum ke 100 rokům od vzniku Československa: kdyby se monarchie nerozpadla, měli bychom se lépe nebo stejně". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- ^ "BVA Group - Société d'études et conseil"(PDF). BVA. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
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- ^ "In Nepal, Long-Lived Monarchy Fades From View". NY Times. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- ^ Almeida, Henrique. "Portugal royal says monarchy still tops republic". Reuters. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- ^ Victor, Lupu (25 April 2016). "Only 21 pc of Romanians want monarchy". www.romaniajournal.com. Romania Journal. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- ^ Galanina, Angelina (23 March 2017). "Россияне против монархии". Izvestia (in Russian). National Media Group. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- ^ Danas. "39 percent of Serbians in favor of monarchy, poll shows". b92. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- ^ "American Monarchy a Good Thing" (PDF). YouGov. 10 April 2021.
- ^ Coulombe, Charles A. (2016). Star-Spangled Crown: A Simple Guide to the American Monarchy. Tumblar House. ISBN 978-1-9443-3905-0.
- ^ William S. Lind (2006). "The Prussian Monarchy Stuff". LewRockwell.com. Center for Libertarian Studies.
- ^ Groom, Arthur (1936). Edward the Eighth - Our King. Allied Newspapers Limited.
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- ^ Bourke, Latika (2018-10-17). "Australia's position on a republic untenable: Queen 'believes'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
- ^ Gordon, Brook-Shepherd (1991). The Last Empress: The Life and Times of Zita of Austria-Hungary, 1892-1989. HarperCollins. p. 289. ISBN 0-0021-5861-2.
- ^ Rosenfeld, Sidney (2001). Understanding Joseph Roth. University of South Carolina Press. p. 55. ISBN 1-5700-3398-6.
- ^ von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik (2001). "Monarchy and War". Journal of Libertarian Studies. 15 (1): 1–41. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- ^ "Ernst Fuchs posthum als Monarchist geoutet". Kurier.at (in German). Funke Mediengruppe. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
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- ^ Letters, no. 52, to Christopher Tolkien, 29 November 1943
- ^ Showed support for the British monarchy in his documentary film Metro-Land (1973).
- ^ "Joan Collins so happy with husband". Film-News.co.uk. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- ^ "Sir Alan? Oh no, it'd be like wearing a suit every day". The Independent. 31 May 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- ^ Expressed support for the British monarchy in the TV series Royalty A-Z (2002). Narrator of The Royal Story.
- ^ Moore, J.; Sonsino, S. (2003). Leadership Unplugged. Springer. p. 71. ISBN 0-2305-9643-6.
- ^ "The monarchy remains the most powerful symbol of one unified nation." (2002).
- ^ "Long live the Queen?". Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- ^ "A lot of people of my generation have decided in part because of how important a unifier for the country the Queen has been that actually [the monarchy] is a better system - rationally." (2002)
- ^ "The monarchy stands for everything that I love and I feel proud to be British. Yes, I am a royalist." (2007)
- ^ Fry, Stephen (2017-06-30). "Happy Birthday, America. One Small Suggestion ..." The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- ^ "Patrons | British Monarchist Society and Foundation". bmsf.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
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- ^ "I used to be anti monarchy – but now I’m a royalist." (2017)
- ^ Referred to herself as a Monarchist on the debate show The Pledge (2016).
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- ^ Little, John (2013). Patrician Liberal: The Public and Private Life of Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, 1829-1908. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-6699-3. As a Canadian nationalist and constitutional monarchist, he firmly believed that the lieutenant governor was considerably more than a figurehead...
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- ^ Silcox, David P.; Milne, David (1996). Painting Place: The Life and Work of David B. Milne, Volume 1. University of Toronto Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-8020-4095-0.
- ^ a b Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (2002). Fifty Years the Queen: A Tribute to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on Her Golden Jubilee. Dundurn. p. 12. ISBN 1-5500-2360-8.
- ^ Hubbard, R. H. (1977). Rideau Hall: An Illustrated History of the Government House, Ottawa, from Victorian Times to the Present Day. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-7735-9452-3.
- ^ Coady, Mary Frances (2011). Georges and Pauline Vanier: Portrait of a Couple. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-7735-3883-2.
- ^ Blake, Jason (2010). Canadian Hockey Literature: A Thematic Study. University of Toronto Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8020-9713-2.
- ^ Buckner, Philip (2007). Canada and the End of Empire. UBC Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-0-7748-5066-7.
- ^ Forsey, Helen (2012). Eugene Forsey, Canada's Maverick Sage: Canada's Maverick Sage. Dundurn. p. 434. ISBN 978-1-4597-0243-1.
- ^ Tombs, George (2010). Robber Baron: Lord Black of Crossharbour. ECW Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-5549-0312-2.
- ^ Ross, Val (2009). Robertson Davies: A Portrait in Mosaic. McClelland & Stewart. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-5519-9211-2.
- ^ Harrison, Trevor W.; Friesen, John W. (2015). Canadian Society in the Twenty-First Century, 3e: An Historical Sociological Approach. Canadian Scholars' Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-5513-0735-0.
- ^ Hutchison, Bruce (1985). The unfinished country: to Canada with love and some misgivings. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 40. ISBN 0-8889-4481-0.
- ^ "Nancy Bell, 65 independent voice in Senate", Toronto Star, December 1, 1989
- ^ a b Jackson, D. Michael (2013). The Crown and Canadian Federalism. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-4597-0990-4. [s]ome people think the NDP may want to get rid of the monarchy but I can assure you that's absolutely not the case. My Dad was a big time monarchist and so am I.
- ^ Clarkson, Michael (2010). The Secret Life of Glenn Gould: A Genius in Love. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1-5549-0681-9. Glenn was a right winger and a monarchist, said pianist Anton Kuerti, who was friends with Gould and taught Gaylord.
- ^ Chrétien, Jean (2018). My Stories, My Times. Random House of Canada. ISBN 978-0-7352-7735-9. Seeing me, she exclaimed, "You again!" I instantly replied, "I am the monarchist from Quebec."
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- ^ Wise, Leonard (2017). Charles Pachter: Canada's Artist. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-4597-3876-8. Paradox defines him... He's a monarchist who loves royalty, yet he delights in satirizing them.
- ^ a b Johnson, David (2018). Battle Royal: Monarchists vs. Republicans and the Crown of Canada. Dundurn. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-4597-4014-3.
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